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Some words of Vedic Sanskrit

Some words of vedic sanskrit from the Monier Williams Sanskrit-English dictionary

अकुत्र – akutra “a-kutra” or (Ved.)
अख्खलीकृत्या – akhkhalīkṛtyā “akhkhalī-kṛtyā” ind. p. (1. “kṛ”), uttering the exclamation “akhkhala”
अगा – agā “a-gā” mf. (Ved.) not going
अचिरप्रसूता – aciraprasūtā “a-cira-prasūtā” f. “having recently brought forth”, a cow that has recently calved.
अच्छ – accha (so at the end of a pāda), or usually “acchā” ind., Ved. to, towards (governing acc. and rarely the locative). It is a kind of separable preposition or prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives, as in the following.
अति – ati ind. ([probably neut. of an obsolete adj. “atin”, passing, going, beyond; see “at”, and cf. Old Germ. ‘anti’, ‘unti’, ‘inti’, ‘unde’, ‘indi’, &c.; Eng. ‘and’; Germ. ‘und’; Gk. [greek] Lat. ‘ante’; Lith. ‘ant’; Arm. ‘ti’; Zd. ‘aiti’]). As a prefix to verbs and their derivatives, expresses beyond, over, and, if not standing by itself, leaves the accent on the verb or its derivative; as, “ati-kram” ( “kram”), to overstep, Ved. Inf. “ati-krame”, (fit) to be walked on, to be passed , “ati-kramaṇa” n. see s.v. When prefixed to nouns, not derived from verbs, it expresses beyond, surpassing, as, “ati-kaśa”, past the whip, “ati-mānuṣa”, superhuman, &c. see s.v. As a separable adverb or preposition (with acc.), Ved. beyond; (with gen.) over, at the top of
अतिकान्त – atikānta “ati-kānta” mfn. excessively beloved.
अतिक्रम् – atikram “ati-kram” to step or go beyond or over or across, (Ved. Inf. “ati-krame”, to be walked on ; to pass, cross; to pass time; to surpass, excel, overcome; to pass by, neglect; to overstep, transgress, violate; to pass on or away; to step out; to part from, lose: Caus. “-krāmayati”, or “-kramayati”, to allow to pass (as time); to leave unnoticed.
अतिप्रश्रु – atipraśru “ati-pra-śru” cl.5.ā. “-śṛṇve” (Ved. 3. sg.), to become known or famous more than others
अतिव्यध् – ativyadh “ati-vyadh” (Ved. Inf. “ati-vidhe” , to pierce through
अतिष्कन्द् – atiṣkand “ati-ṣkand” (“skand”) to cover (said of a bull) ,; to leap or jump over, Ved. Inf. (dat.) “ati-ṣkade” ; Ved. Inf. (abl.) “-ṣkadas” ; to omit, “an-atiskandat” mfn. not omitting anything, uniform
अती – atī (“i”) cl.2.P. “aty-eti, -etum”, to pass by, elapse, pass over, overflow; to pass on; to get over; (Ved. Inf. “aty-etavai”), to pass through ; to defer; to enter; to overcome, overtake, outdo; to pass by, neglect; to overstep, violate; to be redundant; to die: Intens. “atīyate”, to overcome.
अत्र – atra “a-tra” (or Ved. “a-trā”) ind. (fr. pronominal base “a”; often used in sense of loc. case “asmin”), in this matter, in this respect; in this place, here at this time, there, then.
अथ – atha (or Ved. “athā”) ind. (probably fr. pronom. base “a”), an auspicious and inceptive particle (not easily expressed in English), now; then; moreover; rather; certainly; but; else; what? how else? &c.
अद् – ad cl.2.P. “atts, āda, atsyati, attum”, to eat, consume, devour, Ved. Inf. “attave” Caus. “ādayati” and “-te” (once “adayate” [) to feed ([cf. Lith. ‘edmi’; Slav. ‘jamj’ for ‘jadmj’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘edo’; Goth. root ‘AT’ pres. ‘ita’; Germ. ‘essen’; Eng. ‘to’ ‘eat’, Arm. ‘utem’]).
अद्धा – addhā “ad-dhā” ind. (fr. “ad”, or “a”, this), Ved. in this way; manifestly; certainly, truly.
अद्य – adya “a-dya” (Ved. “adyā”) ind. (fr. pronom. base “a”, this, with “dya” for “dyu” q.v., Lat. ‘ho-dic’), to-day; now-a-days; now.
अध – adha or adhā ind., Ved. (= atha, used chiefly as an inceptive particle), now, then, therefore, moreover, so much the more, and, partly.
अधराचीन – adharācīna ([ ii, 17, 5]) “āṅ ācī, āk”, Ved. tending downwards, to the nadir or the lower region, tending towards the south.
अधराच्य – adharācya ([(5) mfn. “āṅ ācī, āk”, Ved. tending downwards, to the nadir or the lower region, tending towards the south.
अधराण्च् – adharāṇc “āṅ ācī, āk”, Ved. tending downwards, to the nadir or the lower region, tending towards the south.
अधस्पद – adhaspada “adhas-pada” mfn. Ved. placed under the feet, under foot, (“am”) n. the place under the feet, (“ām”) ind. under foot.
अधा – adhā Ved. see “adha”.
अधि – adhi ind., as a prefix to verbs and nouns, expresses above, over and above, besides. As a separable adverb or preposition; (with abl.) Ved. over; from above, from; from the presence of; after ; for; instead of , (with loc.) Ved. over; on; at; in comparison with; (with acc.) over, upon, concerning.
अधिधा – adhidhā “adhi-dhā” (Pass. 3. sg. “-dhāyi” Ved. to place upon; to give, share between (dat. or loc.) ; ā. (aor. “-adhita”; perf. “-dadhe”, p. “-dadhāna”) to acquire additionally
अधिधृ – adhidhṛ “adhi-dhṛ” Caus. P. “-dhārayati”, Ved. to carry over or across.
अधिनिधा – adhinidhā “adhi-ni-dhā” Ved. to place upon; to impart, grant.
अधिपा – adhipā “adhi-pā” m. Ved. a ruler, king, sovereign.
अधिब्रू – adhibrū “adhi-brū” Ved. to speak in favour of (dat.) or favourably to (dat.), intercede for.
अधिश्रि – adhiśri “adhi-śri” (Ved. Inf. “adhi-śrayitavai” to put in the fire; to spread over
अधी – adhī (“i”), “adhy-eti”, or “adhy-eti” (exceptionally “adhīyati” , to turn the mind towards, observe, understand and ; chiefly Ved. (with gen. [cf. or acc.) to mind, remember, care for, long for &c.; to know, know by heart &c.; to go over, study ; to learn from (a teacher’s mouth abl.) ; to declare, teach ā. “adhīte” or (more rarely) “adhīyate” ( iv, 125; Pot. 3. pl. “adhīyīran” to study, learn by heart, read, recite: Caus. “adhy-āpayati” (aor. “-āpipat” to cause to read or study, teach, instruct: Caus. Desid. “adhy-āpipa-yiṣati”, to be desirous of teaching Desid. “adhīṣiṣati”, to be desirous of studying
अनमीव – anamīva “an-amīva” mf (“ā”) n., Ved. free from disease, well, comfortable mf (“ā”) n. salubrious, salutary
अनुघुष् – anughuṣ “anu-ghuṣ” (Ved. ind. p. “-ghuṣyā”) to name aloud
अनुद्धृत – anuddhṛta “an-uddhṛta” mfn. non-removed, not taken away mfn. uninjured, undestroyed mfn. unoffered mfn. undivided, unpartitioned mfn. unestablished, unproved.
अनुरक्त – anurakta “anu-rakta” mfn. fond of, attached, pleased mfn. beloved.
अनुविद् – anuvid “anu-vid” cl.2.P., Ved. “-vetti”, to know thoroughly
अनुशंस् – anuśaṁs “anu-śaṁs” to recite or praise after another &c.; (Ved. Inf. (dat.) “anu-śase”) to join in praising
अनुषिच् – anuṣic “anu-ṣic” (“sic”), Ved. to pour upon or into; to drip upon.
अनुष्यन्द् – anuṣyand “anu-ṣyand” (“syand”), Ved. Inf. “-ṣyade” ([ ii, 13, 2]) and Caus. “-syandayadhyai” ([ iv, 22, 7]), to run along: “-syandate” and “-ṣyandate” with a differentiation in meaning like that in “abhi-ṣyand” q.v.
अन्तःपट – antaḥpaṭa “antaḥ-paṭa” m. n. a cloth held between two persons who are to be united (as bride and bridegroom, or pupil and teacher) until the right moment of union is arrived.
अन्तर्भावित – antarbhāvita “antar-bhāvita” mfn. included, involved.
अन्नवत् – annavat “anna-vat” (“anna-“) mfn. Ved. possessed of food
अन्ववपा – anvavapā “anv-ava-pā” Ved. Inf. “-pātoḥ”, to drink after others
अन्वि – anvi “anv-i” to go after or alongside, to follow; to seek; to be guided by; to fall to one’s share ; Ved. Inf. “anv-etave” to reach or join ([]), to imitate ([]) ; “anv-etavai”, to go along (with acc.)
अप् – ap (in Ved. used in sing. and pl., but in the classical language only in pl., “āpas”) f. water; air, the intermediate region ; the star [sign] Virginis; the Waters considered as divinities. Ifc. “ap” may become “apa” or “īpa, ūpa” after “i-” and “u-” stems respectively. [Cf. Lat. ‘agua’; Goth. ‘ahva’, “a river”; Old Germ. ‘aha’, and ‘affa’ at the end of compounds; Lith. ‘uppe’, “a river”; perhaps Lat. ‘amnis’, “a river”, for ‘apnis’ cf. also [characters]]
अपतरम् – apataram “apa-taram” ind. farther off When prefixed to nouns, it may sometimes = the neg. particle “a” e.g. “apa-bhī”, fearless; or may express deterioration, inferiority, &c. (cf. “apa-pāṭha”). (As a separable particle or adverb in Ved., with abl.) away from, on the outside of, without, with the exception of ([cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘ab’; Goth. ‘af’; Eng. ‘of’]).
अपनोद्य – apanodya “apa-nodya” mfn. to be removed.
अपप्रु – apapru “apa-pru” “apa-pravate”, Ved. to leap or jump down
अपलुपम् – apalupam “apa-lupam” ind. (according to Ved. Inf. of “apa-lup”, to cut off.
अपवृत् – apavṛt “apa-vṛt” to turn away, depart; to move out from, get out of the way, slip off: Caus. P. (Ved. Imper. 2. sg. “-vartayā”) to turn or drive away from ; (in arithm.) to divide; to reduce to a common measure.
अपविद्ध – apaviddha “apa-viddha” mfn. pierced mfn. thrown away, rejected, dismissed, removed.
अपाकृ – apākṛ “apā-kṛ” to remove, drive away, (Ved. Inf. “apākartoḥ”) ; to cast off, reject, desist from &c.; to select for a present ; to reject (an opinion).
अपिगम् – apigam “api-gam” go into, enter, approach, join, [aor. Subj. 3. pl. “apigman” &c.; to approach a woman
अपिगा – apigā “api-gā” Ved. to enter, get into, mingle with
अपिधा – apidhā “api-dhā” Ved. to place upon or into, put to, give; chiefly Ved. to shut, close, cover, conceal (in later texts more usually “pi-dhā” q.v.)
अपिनह् – apinah “api-nah” to tie on, fasten (usually “pi-nah” q.v.); to tie up, close, stop up (Ved.; later on “pi-nah” q.v.)
अपी – apī (“i”), (Ved.) “apy-eti” to go in or near; to enter into or upon; to come near, approach (also in copulation ind. p. “apītyā”); to partake, have a share in; to join to pour out (as a river).
अप्यस् – apyas “apy-as” “-asti” (1. pl. “-ṣmasi”; Imper. “-astu”; Opt. “-ṣyāt”), Ved. (with loc. or local adv.) to be in, be closely connected with &c.; to belong to (as a share).
अप्रता – apratā “a-pratā” (Ved. loc. fr. “prati”) ind. without recompense, for nothing
अप्रभूति – aprabhūti “a-prabhūti” f. (Ved. instr. “-tī”), little effort
अप्रमेय – aprameya “a-prameya” mfn. immeasurable, unlimited, unfathomable mfn. not to be proved.
अप्सुचर – apsucara “apsu-cara” mfn. (Ved.) going in the waters
अभिक्रान्ति – abhikrānti “abhi-krānti” f. Ved. overpowering, bringing into one’s possession
अभिगूर्या – abhigūryā “abhi-gūryā” (Ved.) ind. p. having approved of.
अभिचक्ष् – abhicakṣ “abhi-cakṣ” “-caṣṭe” (2. sg. “-cakṣase” ; Ved. Inf. “-cakṣase” to look at, view, perceive ; to cast a kind or gracious look upon any one ; to address ; to assail with harsh language ; to call
अभिचर् – abhicar “abhi-car” (Ved. Inf. “abhi-carita-vai” “abhi-caritos” ; cf. to act wrongly towards any one; to be faithless (as a wife); to charm, enchant, bewitch (Subj. 2. pl. “-caratābhi”) &c.; “pūrvābhicaritā” (f. perf. Pass. p.) = “pūrva-dig-gā-minī”
अभिजन् – abhijan “abhi-jan” cl.4.ā. “-jāyate” (Ved. Inf. “abhi-janitos” to be born for or to ; to claim as one’s birthright; to be born or produced; to be reproduced or born again &c.; to become: Caus. “-janayati” (with “abhi-jṇānam”) to reanimate, revivify
अभिदास् – abhidās “abhi-dās” Ved. “-dāsati” (Subj. 3. sg. “-dāsat” [ vi, 5, 4] or “-dāsāt” to consider and treat as an enemy.
अभिप्रचक्ष् – abhipracakṣ “abhi-pra-cakṣ” (Ved. Inf. “-cakṣe”) to see
अभिप्रभू – abhiprabhū “abhi-pra-bhū” (Ved. Inf. aor. “abhi-pra-bhūṣaṇi”) to assist
अभिमन् – abhiman “abhi-man” “-manyate” (Subj. “-manyāte” to think of, long for, desire &c.; (aor. Subj. 2. sg. “-maṁsthāḥ”, 3. sg. “-maṁsta”, Ved. Inf. “abhi-mantoḥ” to intend to injure, be insidious, threaten, injure &c.; to kill (aor. “-amaṁsta”) ; to allow, agree ; to think of self, be proud of; to think, suppose, imagine, take for (acc.)
अभिमन्तोस् – abhimantos “abhi-mantos” Ved. Inf. see s.v. “abhi-man”.
अभिमृड् – abhimṛḍ “abhi-mṛḍ” (Ved. Imper. 2. sg. “-mṛLā”) to protect graciously from (abl.)
अभिमृश् – abhimṛś “abhi-mṛś” P. (1. pl. “-mṛśāmasi”; Ved. Inf. “-mṛśe” to touch, come in contact with &c.: ā. “-mṛśate” id. : Caus. to cause to touch, : Intens. (p. “-marmṛśat”) “to intend to bring in contact with one’s self”, to long for (acc.) ; ()
अभिवप् – abhivap “abhi-vap” (impf. 3. pl. “-vapanta”; Ved. ind. p. “-upyā”) to scatter over, cover with (instr.)
अभिविजंह् – abhivijaṁh “abhi-vi-jaṁh” Intens. “-jaṅgahe” (Ved. 3. sg.) to struggle, move in convulsions
अभिवीक्षित – abhivīkṣita “abhi-vīkṣita” mfn. seen, perceived.
अभिवीक्ष्य – abhivīkṣya “abhi-vīkṣya” ind. p. having seen or observed.
अभिश्नथ् – abhiśnath “abhi-śnath” to pierce through, (Ved. Inf. [abl.] “-śnathaḥ” [with “abibhet”, he was afraid] of being pierced through) ; ( “abhi-śnathaḥ” with “vajrāt”, takes “abhiśnath” as an adj. “piercing through, killing”).
अभिश्री – abhiśrī “abhi-śrī” mfn. (Ved. du. “-śriyā”) attached to each other mfn. arranging, putting in order (with acc.)
अभिश्वस् – abhiśvas “abhi-śvas” (p. “-śvasat”; Ved. Inf. (abl.) “-śvasas”) to blow towards or hither ; (p. “-śvasat”) to whistle ; to groan
अभिषद् – abhiṣad “abhi-ṣad” (“sad”), “-sīdati” to besiege ; Ved. (impf.) “-aṣīdat”, or “-asīdat”, &c. , in classical Sanskṛit only forms with “ṣ” are allowed
अभिषवण – abhiṣavaṇa “abhi-ṣavaṇa” n. (“abhi-ṣavanīs”), Ved. nom. pl. f. the utensils used for pressing out (the Soma juice) (cf. “adhi-ṣavana”.)
अभिष्टिपा – abhiṣṭipā “abhi-ṣṭi-pā” m (nom.”-pā”) fn. (the nom. “-pā” being irregular for “-pāḥ” proposes the emendation [adopted by the “abhiṣṭī” (Ved. instr.) “pāsijanān” instead of “abhiṣṭipāsi janān”).
अभिसमावृत् – abhisamāvṛt “abhi-sam-ā-vṛt” Ved. (3. pl. “-āvartante” and impf. “-āvartanta”; fut. p. “-vartsyamāna”) to return home
अभिसमि – abhisami “abhi-sam-i” “-eti” (3. pl. “-yanti”, Imper. “-yantu”), Ved. to approach together, come together or meet at (acc.) &c.; (Opt. 3. pl. “-īyuḥ”) to invade
अभिसमे – abhisame “abhi-sam-e” (“-ā-i”), Ved. (Imper. “abhi”… “sam-aitu” [ vi, 102, 1] or “ā”.. “abhi sam-etu” [ vi, 19, 9]) to join in coming near (acc.), approach together.
अभिसम्पद् – abhisampad “abhi-sam-pad” Ved. “-padyate”, to become; to become similar to, be changed to (acc.) &c.; to come to, arrive at, obtain Caus. “-pādayati”, to make equal to, change into (acc.)
अभिसम्भू – abhisambhū “abhi-sam-bhū” Ved. (perf. 2. sg. “-babhūtha”) to reach, come to, arrive at ; to obtain the shape of (acc.), be changed into Caus. to salute
अभिहिङ्कृ – abhihiṅkṛ “abhi-hiṅkṛ” (1. “kṛ”), Ved. (3. pl. “-hiṅ-kurvanti”) to make a sound towards, low or roar or neigh towards
अभिहोतवै – abhihotavai “abhi-hotavai” Ved. Inf. to pour upon (an oblation)
अभीशु – abhīśu m. (fr. 1. “aś” with “abhi” , chiefly Ved. rein, bridle &c. m. ray of light
अभ्यतिरिच् – abhyatiric “abhy-ati-ric” Pass. “-ati-ric-yate”, or “-ati-ricyate” (Subj. “abhy-ati-ricyātai”; Pot. “-ati-ricyeta”) Ved. to remain for the sake of (acc.)
अभ्यात्मम् – abhyātmam “abhy-ātmam” ind., Ved. towards one’s self
अभ्याधा – abhyādhā “abhy-ā-dhā” chiefly Ved. to lay on (fuel, &c.) ; to place the fire upon
अभ्यावृत् – abhyāvṛt “abhy-ā-vṛt” “-vartate” (Imper. 2. sg. “-vavṛtsva”; P. impf. 3. sg. “-āvart” [ vii, 59, 4]) to roll (as a cart) towards, come up to or towards (acc.), approach Caus. (Ved.) “-vavartati” id. ; “-vartayati”, to repeat
अभ्यासद् – abhyāsad “abhy-ā-sad” (Ved. Inf. “-sadam”) to sit down into (acc.) ; to attain, obtain [Page 78,1]
अभ्युत्सद् – abhyutsad “abhy-ut-sad” Caus. (Ved. aor. “-sādayām akaḥ [akar”, 1. “kṛ”]) to cause to set out towards (acc.; for obtaining) (quoted by
अभ्युद्धृ – abhyuddhṛ “abhy-ud-dhṛ” (“hṛ”), Ved. to take out (especially one fire in order to add it to another) &c.; to take or draw out, draw (as water) &c.; to take up, lift up ; to re-obtain ; to elevate, render prosperous &c.: Caus. (ind. p. “-uddhārya”) to raise, lift up
अभ्युपे – abhyupe “abhy-upe” (“i”), “-upaiti” (3. pl. “-upayanti”) to go near, approach, arrive at, enter &c.; (with “apaḥ”) to bathe ; to approach (in copulation) ; to go to meet any one (acc.) ; to enter a state or condition, obtain, share (Ved. Inf. “-upaitos”) &c.; to admit as an argument or a position (perf. p. gen. pl. “-upeyuṣām”) on and on ; to select as (acc.) ; to agree with, approve of (see “abhy-upeta”): Pass. “-upeyate” to be approved of, admitted
अभ्युष् – abhyuṣ “abhy-uṣ” (impf. 3. pl. “-uṣṇan”; Ved. Inf. “-uṣas”) to burn, consume by fire
अमध्यम – amadhyama “a-madhyama” “-āsas”, (Ved.) m. pl. of whom none is the middle one (cf. “a-kaniṣṭha”.)
अमा – amā ind. (Ved. instr. fr. 2. “ama” q.v.) (chiefly Ved.) at home, in the house, in the house of (gen.), with &c.; together ; (“ā”) f. = “amā-vāsyā” q.v. on (in a verse quoted from Vyāsa) on Sūryas; also “amānta” m. the end, of the “amā” (“-vāsyā”) night
अमाकृ – amākṛ “amā-kṛ” (g. “sākṣād-adi” q.v.), Ved. to have or take with one’s self
अमित्रघात – amitraghāta “amitra-ghāta” mfn. (Ved.) killing enemies (“as”) m. (= [characters]) N. of Bindusāra (the son of Candragupta).
अमिनत् – aminat “a-minat” mfn. (Ved. du. f. “-adi”) unalterable
अम्बा – ambā f. (Ved. voc. “ambe” [ “amba” [], in later Sanskrit “amba” only, sometimes a mere interjection , a mother, good woman (as a title of respect) f. N. of a plant f. N. of Durgā (the wife of śiva) f. N. of an Apsaras f. N. of a daughter of a king of Kāsi f. N. of one of the seven Kṛttikās f. a term in astrol. (to denote the fourth condition which results from the conjunction of planets?). In the South Indian languages, “ambā” is corrupted into “ammā”, and is often affixed to the names of goddesses, and females in general [Germ. ‘Amme’, a nurse; Old Germ. ‘amma’, Them. ‘ammon’, ‘ammUn’]
अय – aya m. (with “gavām”) “the going or the turn of the cows”, N. of a periodical sacrifice m. a move towards the right at chess (cf. “anānaya”) m. Ved. a die &c. m. the number “four” m. good luck, favourable fortune
अयस्मय – ayasmaya “ayas-maya” mf (“ī”) n. Ved. made of iron or of metal m. N. of a son of Manu Svārociṣa , (“ī”) f. N. of one of the three residences of the Asuras
अयोमय – ayomaya “ayo-maya” mf (“ī”) n. made of iron “ayas-maya” q.v.)
अयसे – ayase Ved. Inf. fr. “i” q.v.
अयामन् – ayāman “a-yāman” n. (Ved. loc. “-man”) no march or expedition
अयुद्ध्वि – ayuddhvi “a-yuddhvi” Ved. ind. without fighting
अरन्तोस् – arantos “a-rantos” Ved. Inf. not to like
अरंकृत्या – araṁkṛtyā “araṁ-kṛtyā” Ved. ind. p. having prepared, being ready
अररु – araru “a-raru” m. Ved. N. of a demon or Asura &c. mfn. a weapon
अरातीय – arātīya Nom. P. “-tīyati” (p. “-tīyat” [ i, 99, 1, &c.]; Subj. “-tīyāt”), Ved. id.
अरिष्टि – ariṣṭi “a-riṣṭi” f. Ved. safeness, security
अर्क – arka m. ( “arc”), Ved. a ray, flash of lightning &c. m. the sun &c.
अर्च् – arc 2cl. 1. P. “arcats” (Subj. “arcāt” impf. “ārcat”; aor. “ārcīt” “ānarca” 3. pl. “ānarcuḥ” [ iii, 988, &c.], but Ved. “ānṛcuḥ” []; perf. ā. (Pass.) “ānarce” [], but Ved. “sam ānṛce” [ i, 160, 4]; fut. p. “arciṣyat” [ iv, 251]. ind. p., “arcya” [ &c.; cf. or “arcitvā” [ iii, 77, 15], Ved. Inf. “ṛcase” [ vi, 39, 5 and vii, 61, 6]) to shine, brilliant ; to praise, sing (also used of the roaring of the Maruts, and of a bull [ iv, 16, 3]) , to praise anything to another (dat.), recommend ; to honour or treat with respect &c.; to adorn exceptionally ā. (i. pl. “arcāmahe”) to honour : Caus. (2. sg. “arcayas”) to cause to shine P. ā. to honour or treat with respect &c.: Desid. “arciciṣati”, to wish to honour Ved. Pass. “ṛcyate” (p. “ṛcyamāna”) to be praised
अर्चि – arci m. (chiefly Ved.) ray, flame &c.
अर्थ – artha mn. (hence in astron.) N. of the second mansion, the mansion of wealth (cf, “dhana”) mn. personified as the son of Dharma arid Buddhi mn. affair, concern (Ved. often acc. artham with “i”, or gam, to go to one’s business, take up one’s work &c.)
अर्द् – ard Ved. cl.6.P. (Imper. 3. pl. “ṛdantu”; impf. 3. pl. “ārdan”) to move, be moved, be scattered (as dust), R iv, 17, 2 and vii, 104, 24. cl.1. P. “ardati” (“ardati”, “to go, move” to dissolve , (aor. “ārdīt” “anarda” to torment, hurt, kill ; to ask, beg for (acc.) cl.7. “ṛṇatti”, to kill Caus. “ardayati” (Subj. “ardayāsi”, Imper. 2. sg. ardaya, impf. “ādayat”, 2. sg. “ardayas”; aor. “ārdidat”, or [after “ma”] ardayit to make agitated, stir up, shake vehemently , to do harm, torment, distress &c. (generally used in perf. Pass. p. “ardita” q.v.), to strike, hurt, kill, destroy Desid. “ardidiṣati”; [Lat. ‘ardeo’.]
अर्ध – ardha m. Ved. side, part m. place, region, country (cf. “apy-ardham, abhy-ardha, parārdha”); [Lat. ‘ordo’; Germ. ‘ort’.]
अर्बुद – arbuda m. Ved. a serpent-like demon (conquered by Indra, a descendant of Kadrū therefore called Kādraveya ; said to be the author of &c.
अर्वाच् – arvāc “vāṅ, vācī, vāk”, Ved. (fr. “aṇc” with “arva”, near or “ither”) coming hitherward, coming to meet any one, turned towards &c., being on this side (of a river) , being below or turned downwards ; (acc. “arvāṇcāk”) with “nud”, to push down ; (“āk”) ind. see ss.vv. “arvāk” and “arvāg”,
अर्ह् – arh cl.1.P. “arhati”, rarely ā. “arhate” ([ iii, 1580 “arkat” [see be low]; Ved. Inf. “arhase” [ x 77, 1]; perf. 3. pl. “ānarhuḥ” “ānṛhuḥ” [cf. “ānṛcuḥ, arc”] to deserve, merit, be worthy of, to have a claim to, be entitled to (acc.), to be allowed to do anything (Inf.); to be obliged or required to do anything (acc.); to be worth, counterbalance, to be able; (“arhase”, 2. sg. with an Inf. is often used as a softened form of Imper.; e.g. “dātum arhasi”, “be pleased to give”; “śrotum arhasi”, “deign to listen”, for śṛiṇu): Caus. (Opt. “arhayet” ; aor, “ārjihat” to honour. Desid. “arjihiṣati” ([cf. Gk. [greek] ]).
अर्हणा – arhaṇā f. worship, honour, N. &c., (“arhaṇa”), Ved. instr. ind. according to what is due
अलक्षितोपस्थित – alakṣitopasthita mfn. one who has approached unobserved.
अलम् – alam ind. (later form of “aram” q.v.), enough, sufficient, adequate, equal to, competent, able. (“alam” may govern a dat. [“jīvitavai” (Ved. Inf. dat.) “alam” “alaṁ jīvanāya” , sufficient for living] or Inf. [ 2-4, 66; “alaṁ vijṇātum” “able to conceive” instr. [ 2-3, 27 ; “alaṁ śaṅkayā”, enough i.e. away with fear!] or gen. [“alaṁ prajāyāḥ”, capable of obtaining progeny or may be used with the fut. [“alaṁ haniṣyati”, he will be able to kill or with an ind. [ 3-4, 18; “alaṁ bhuktvā”, enough of eating i.e. do not eat more, “alaṁ vlcārya”, enough of consideration].)
अलोमक – alomaka “a-lomaka” ([ “a-lamaka” ([]) mf (Ved. “-makā”, class. “-mikā” [ iii, 8; but also n. hairless.
अव् – av cl.1.P. “avati” (Imper. 2. sg. “ava” sg. “tāt” “avat” impf. avat, 2. sg. 1. “āvaḥ” [for 2. “āvaḥ” see “vṛ”]; perf. 3. sg. “āva”, 2. pl. “āva” “āvitha”; aor. “avit”, 2. sg. “āvīs, avīs” and “aviṣas”, Imper. “aviṣṭu”, 2. sg. “aviḍḍhi” [once “aviḍḍh” [six times in du. “aviṣṭam”, 3. du., 2. pl. “aviṣṭanā” Prec. 3. sg. “avyās”, Inf. “avitave” ; Ved. ind. p. “āvyā” to drive, impel, animate (as a car or horse) ; promote, favour, (chiefly Ved.) to satisfy, refresh; to offer (as a hymn to the gods) ; to lead or bring to (dat.: “ūtaye, vāja-sātaye, kṣatrāya, svastaye”) ; (said of the gods) to be pleased with, like, accept favourably (as sacrifices, prayers or hymns) , (chiefly said of kings or princes) to guard, defend, protect, govern &c.: Caus. (only impf. “avayat”, 2. sg. “āvayas”) to consume, devour ([cf. Gk. [greek] Lat. ‘aveo’?]).
अवगम् – avagam “ava-gam” “-gacchati” (Subj. “-gacchāt”; ind. p. “-gatya” ; Ved. Inf. “avagantos” to go down, descend to (acc. or loc.) ; (with acc.) to come to, visit, approach ; to reach, obtain ; to get power or influence ; to go near, undertake ; to hit upon, think of. conceive, learn, know, understand, anticipate, assure one’s self, be convinced; to recognize, consider, believe any one (acc.) to be (acc.) Caus. P. (3. pl. “-gamayanti”; Imper. 2. sg. “-gamaya”) to bring near, procure ; to cause to know, teach
अवगाह् – avagāh “ava-gāh” “-gāhate” (ind. p. “-gāhya” ; pr.p. P. “-gāhat”, R.; Ved. Inf. “-gāhe” to plunge into, bathe in (loc.); to go deep into, be absorbed in (loc. or acc.)
अवचक्ष् – avacakṣ “ava-cakṣ” ā. “-caṣṭe” (impf. “-cakṣata”; aor. 1. sg. “-acacakṣam”, 2. sg. “-cakṣi”; Ved.Inf. “-cakṣe”) to look down upon ; to perceive (Inf. in Pass. sense: “to be seen by”) and v, 30, 2.
अवतृऋ – avatṝ “ava-tṝ” cl.1.P. “-tarati” (perf. “-tatāra”, 3. pl. “-teruḥ”; Inf. “-taritum” [e.g. ] or “-tartum” [e.g. ; ind. p. “-tīrya”) to descend into (loc. or acc.), alight from, alight (abl.) ; to descend (as a deity) in becoming incarnate ; to betake one’s self to (acc.), arrive at ; to make one’s appearance, arrive ; to be in the right place, to fit ; to undertake: Ved. cl.6. P. (Imper. 2. sg. “-tira”; impf. -atirat, 2. sg. “-atiras”, 2. du. “-atiratam”; aor. 2. sg. “-tārīs”) to overcome, overpower Ved. cl.4. (p. fem. “-tīyatī”) to sink Caus. “-tārayati” (ind. p. “-tārya”) to make or let one descend, bring or fetch down (acc. or loc.) from (abl.) &c.; to take down, take off, remove, turn away from (abl. ; “to set a-going, render current” see “ava-tārita” below; to descend(?)
अवदो – avado “-dyati” (ind. p. “-dāya” Ved. to cut off, divide (especially the sacrificial cake and other objects offered in a sacrifice) &c.; to cut into pieces ; (aor. Pot. ā. 1. sg. “-diṣīya” [derived fr. “ava-dā”, “to present”, by ; perhaps fr. “” above ) to appease, satisfy with (instr.)
अवधू – avadhū “ava-dhū” Ved. P. (Imper. 2. sg. “-dhūnuhi”, 2. pl. “-dhūnutā”) to shake off or out or down &c.: ā. (2. sg. “-dhūnuṣe”; impf. 2. sg. “-dhūnuthās”; aor. “-adhūṣata”; perf. Pot. “-dudhuvīta”; p. “-dhūnvāna”) to shake off (as enemies or evil spirits or anything disagreeable), frighten away Caus. (Pot. “-dhūnayet”) to shake
अवनी – avanī “ava-nī” (fut. 2. sg. “-neṣyasi”) to lead or bring down into (water) ; to put into (loc.) ; “-nayati”, Ved. to pour down or over
अवपद् – avapad “ava-pad” “-padyate” (Subj. P. “-padāti” ; Prec. ā. 3. sg. “-padīṣṭa” ; aor. Subj. ā. 3. sg. “-pādi” ; Ved. Inf. (abl.) “-padas” Ved. to fall down, glide down into (acc.) &c.; (Imper. ā. 3. pl. “-padyantām”; Subj. P. 2. sg. “-patsi”; Pot. P. 1. sg. “-padyeyam”) to drop from (abl.), be deprived of (abl.) ; (Subj. ā. 1. sg. “-padyai”) to fall, meet with an accident ; (fut. 3. pl. “-patsyanti”) to throw down Caus. (Imper. 2. sg. “-pādaya”; ind. p. “-pādya”) to cause to glide or go down
अवबाध् – avabādh “ava-bādh” ā. ( “-bādhāmahe”; perf. 3. sg. “-babādhe”) Ved. to keep off
अवभासन – avabhāsana “ava-bhāsana” n. (in Ved. phil.) illuminating.
अवभृ – avabhṛ “ava-bhṛ” P. (impf. “avābharat”, or “-bharat”, 2. sg. “-bharas”, Ved. Imper. 2. sg. “-bharā”) to throw or push or press down or into ; to throw or cut off ā. “-bharate”, to sink down or disappear (as foam) , to lower Pass. (Subi. “-bhriyāte” aor. “-bhāri”) to be pressed upon or in (acc.) (see “ava-bhā”).
अवमृश् – avamṛś “ava-mṛś” (Pot. “-mṛśet”; Subj. 3. pl. “-mṛśān”; aor. “avāmṛkṣat”; ind. p.1. “-mṛśya”) Ved. to touch &c.; to reflect upon Caus. to cause to touch
अवयज् – avayaj “ava-yaj” P. ā. “-yajati” (Imper. 2. sg. P. “-yaja” and ā. “-yakṣva”; Pot. “-yajeta”) Ved. to offer a sacrifice for satisfying the claims of, to get rid of or remove by means of a sacrifice
अवया – avayā “ava-yā” (perf. 3. pl. “-yayuḥ”; p. gen. pl. “-yātām”) to go or come down ; (Ved. Inf. “ava-yai”) to go away (opposed to “upa-yai”, “to come up”) ; (aor. Subj. “-yāsat”; Prec. 2. sg. “-yāsisīṣṭhāḥ” [cf. ; aor. 1. sg. “-ayāsiṣam”) to avert, appease
अवरुध् – avarudh “ava-rudh” P. (aor. “-rudhat”) to obstruct, enclose, contain , (Inf. “-roddhum”) to check, keep back, restrain , to expel śāṇkhśr. ; “-ruṇaddhi”, to seclude, put aside, remove ; to shut in, (aor. ā. “avāruddha” and Pass. “avārodh”) ; to keep anything (acc., as one’s grief) locked up (in one’s bosom acc.) ; (ind. p. “-rudhya”) to keep one’s self (“ātmānam”) wrapped up in one’s self (“ātmani”) ; (impf. “avāruṇat”) to confine within, besiege ā. “-rundhe” (for “-nddhe” ; impf. “avārundha” ; ind. p. “-rudhya” ; Ved. Inf. “-rudham” and “-rudham” chiefly Ved. to reach, obtain, gain: P. (p.f. “-rundhatī”; cf. “anurudh”) to be attached to, like Desid.A. “-rurutsate”, wish to obtain or gain &c.: Intens.P. (Subj. 2. sg. “-rorudhas”) to expel from (the domimon)
अवरुद्ध – avaruddha “ava-ruddha” mfn. hindered, checked, stopped, kept back mfn. shut in, enclosed mfn. imprisoned secluded (as in the inner apartments) mfn. expelled mfn. wrapped up, covered mfn. disguised mfn. Ved. obtained, gained
अवरुधम् – avarudham “ava-rudham” Ved.Inf. see “avarudh”.
अवरुन्धम् – avarundham “ava-rundham” Ved. Inf. see “ava-rudh”.
अवर्ष्टोस् – avarṣṭos “a-varṣṭos” Ved. Inf. not to rain
अववृष् – avavṛṣ “ava-vṛṣ” (p. “-varṣat”) Ved. to rain upon
अवश्वसम् – avaśvasam “ava-śvasam” Ved. Inf. fr. “śvas”, to blow away
अवस – avasa n. Ved. refreshment, food, provisions, viaticum n. vi 61 &c.
अवसो – avaso “ava-so” “-syati” (Imper. 2. du. “-syatam”; aor. Subj. “-sāt”) to loose’s, deliver from ; (Imper. 2. sg. “-sya”; aor. “avāsāt” &c. aor. 3. pl. “avāsur” ; ind. p. “-sāya” ; Ved. Inf. “-sai” Ved. to unharness (horses), put up at any one’s house, settle, rest &c.; to take, one’s abode or standing-place in or upon (loc) ; to finish, terminate (one’s work) &c.; to be finished, be at an end, be exhausted ; to choose or appoint (as a place for dwelling or for a sacrifice) ; (Pot. 2. sg. “-seyās”; cf. to decide , to obtain Caus. “-sāyayati” (ind. p. “-sāyya”) to cause to take up one’s abode in or upon (loc.) ; (ind. p. “-sāyya”) to complete ; (Inf. [in Pass.sense] “-sāyyayitum”) to ascertain, clearly distinguish Pass. “-sīyate” (cf. to be obtained ; to be insisted upon (ed. Bomb. in active sense “to insist upon”); to be ascertained
अवसै – avasai “ava-sai” Ved.Inf. see “ava-so” above.
अवस्फूर्ज् – avasphūrj “ava-sphūrj” (p. “-sphūjat”) thunder, make a noise like a thunder-clap &c.; to snort (ed. Bomb.) ; to fill with noise
अवस्रसस् – avasrasas “ava-srasas” Ved. Inf. (abl.) from falling down
अवहन् – avahan “ava-han” (Subj. 2. sg. “-han” ; Imper. 2. pl. “-hantanā” Imper. 2. sg. “-jahi”; impf. 2. and 3. sg. “-ahan”, or “ahan”; perf. 2. sg. “-jaghantha”) to throw down, strike, hit ; Ved. to drive away, expel, keep off, fend off &c.; chiefly Ved. to thresh (p. fem. “-ghnatī”) &c.: ā. “-jighnate”, to throw down : Caus. (Pot “-ghātayet”) to cause to thresh xiv: Intens. (Imper. 2. sg. “-jaṅghanīhi”) to drive away, fend off
अवार – avāra n. (fr. 2. “ava”, but formed after “a-pāra” q.v.) Ved. this side, the near bank of a river
अवास् – avās ( 2. “as”), (Ved. ind. p. “avāsyā”) to put down
अवितवे – avitave Ved. Inf. “av” q.v.
अविद्विषे – avidviṣe “a-vidviṣe” Ved. Inf. for preventing enmity
अव्यथिष्यै – avyathiṣyai “a-vyathiṣyai” Ved. Inf. ( 3-4, 10), for not trembling, for rendering sure-footed ; (“a-vyathiṣe”!)
अशिशु – aśiśu “a-śiśu” mf (“a-śiśvi”, but according to , also Ved. “a-śiśu”) n. childless, without young ones
अश्वषा – aśvaṣā “aśva-ṣā” mfn. (Ved.) = “-sā” q.v.
अश्विय – aśviya “ā”, Ved. n. pl. troops of horses
अस् – as cl.4.P. “asyati” (p. “asyat”; impf. “āsyat”, A.V. [cf. “parās” and “vy-as”]; fut. p. “asiṣyat”; aor. “āsthat” [; cf. “vy-as”]; perf. P. “āsa” [cf. “parās”] ā. “āse” [cf. “vy-as”]; Ved. Inf. “astave” to throw, cast, shoot at (loc. dat., or gen) &c.; to drive or frighten away ; see also 1. “asta” s.v.
असपत्न – asapatna “a-sapatna” m. (“a-sapatna”) mf (“ā”) n. (chiefly Ved.) without a rival or adversary, undisturbed &c.
असिक्नी – asiknī Ved. f. of 2. “asita” q.v.
असित – asita mf (“ā”; Ved. “asiknī”) n. (“sita”, “white”, appears to have been formed from this word, which is probably original, and not a compound of “a” and “sita”; cf. “asura” and “sura”), dark-coloured, black &c.
असित – asita mf (“ā”; Ved. “asiknī”) n. (“as”) m. a black snake
असित – asita mf (“ā”; Ved. “asiknī”) n. (“ā”) f. a girl attending in the women’s apartments (whose hair is not whitened by age)
असित – asita mf (“ā”; Ved. “asiknī”) n. (“asiknī”) f. “the dark one”, the night
असु – asu m. (1. “as”), Ved. breath, life &c. m. life of the spiritual world or departed spirits
अस्थन् – asthan the base of the weak cases of “asthi” q.v., e.g. instr. “asthnā”, &c. (Ved. also instr. pl. “asthabhis” ; and n. pl. “asthāni”
अह – aha n. (only Ved.; nom. pl. “ahā” ; gen. pl. “ahānām” = “aḥar” q.v., a day n. often ifc. “aha” m. (e.g. “dvādaśāha, try-aha, ṣaḍ-aha”, &c.) or n. (e.g. “puṇyāha, bhadrāha”, and “sudināha”)
अहन् – ahan the base of the weak and some other cases of “ahar”, q.v. e.g. instr. “ahnā” ([once “ahanā” ; dat. “ahne”; loc. “ahan” (Ved.) or “ahani”, or “ahni”, &c.; nom. du. “ahanī” (see also s.v. “ahar”) and pl. “ahāni”; only Ved. are the middle cases of the pl. “ahabhyas” ([]), “ahabhis” ([, nine times]),and “ahasu” ([ i, 124, 9]), while the later language forms them fr. the base “ahas” q.v.
आकाश – ākāśa “ā-kāśa” m. (Ved.) or (later) n. (ifc. f. “ā”) a free or open space, vacuity &c. m. the ether, sky or atmosphere &c.
आगन्तोस् – āgantos “ā-gantos” Ved. Inf. “to return”
आच्या – ācyā Ved. ind. p. id.
आतपस् – ātapas “ā-tapas” Ved. Inf. (abl.) from burning or singeing
आतुजे – ātuje “ā-tuje” Ved. Inf. to bring near
आतृदस् – ātṛdas “ā-tṛdas” Ved. Inf. (abl.), ( 3-4, 17) with “purā”, “without piercing”
आत्मन् – ātman m. (variously derived fr. “an”, to breathe; “at”, to move; “vā”, to blow; cf. “tman”) the breath m. the soul, principle of life and sensation &c. m. the individual soul, self, abstract individual ([e.g. “ātman”]) (Ved. loc.) “dhatte”, or “karoti”, “e places in himself”, makes his own
आदभ् – ādabh “ā-dabh” P. (Subj “-dabhat”; 3. pl. “-dabhnuvanti” Subj. “-dabhan” and aor. “-dabhuḥ”; Ved. Inf. “-dabhe” to harm, hurt, injure
आदा – ādā “ā-dā” ā. “-datte”, ( 1-3, 20), ep. also rarely P. (e.g. 1. sg. “-dadmi”, or “-dadāmi”), Ved. generally ā. ([Pot. 1. pl. “-dadīmahi”; impf. 3. sg. “ādatta”; perf. 1. and 3. sg. “-dade”; perf. p. “-dadāna” “-dadāna” P. (impf. sg. “ādam, ādas, ādat”, and 1. pl. “ādāma” aor. 3. du. “āttām” “to give to one’s self”, take, accept, receive from (loc. instr. or abl.) &c.; to seize, take away, carry off, rob ; to take back, reclaim ; to take off or out from (abl.), separate from (abl.) ; to take or carry away with one’s self, KenaUp. (Pot. P. 1. sg. “-dadīyam “!) ; to seize, grasp, take or catch hold of &c.; to put on (clothes) ; to take as food or drink (with gen.) Pass. 3. sg. “-dade”) 19, 31; (with acc.) ; to undertake, begin &c.; to choose (a path) ; (with “vacanam” &c.) to begin to speak &c.; to begin to speak or to recite (cf. “punar-ādāyam”); to offer (as oblations) (irreg. pr. p. “-dadāyat”); to perceive, notice, feel 4. ; to keep in mind ; to accept, approve of Caus. (ind. p. “-dāpya”) to cause one to take Desid. ā. (impf. 3. pl. “āditsanta”) to be on the point of taking or carrying away from (gen.) ; to be on the point of taking (the hand of) ; to be about to take to one’s self
आधाय – ādhāya “ā-dhāya” ind. p. having placed ; having given; having delivered ; having received.
आयम् – āyam “ā-yam” P. “-yacchati” and (Ved.) “-yamati”, to stretch, lengthen out, extend &c.; to stretch (a bow); to put on (an arrow &c.); to draw near, bring hither; to fetch, procure ; to keep, stop, hold in, draw back, restrain &c.; to produce ā. “-yacchate” (cf. to stretch one’s self or be stretched or strained; to grow long ; to grasp, possess Caus. “-yāmayati”, to bring near, draw near; to carry, fetch ; to lengthen, extend ; to produce or make visible; to show
आरुह् – āruh “ā-ruh” P. “-rohati” (aor. “-rukṣat” and Ved. “-ruhat” [ 3-1, 59]; Inf. “-ruham” ā. (2. sg. “ā-rohase” to ascend, mount, bestride, rise up &c.; to arise, come off, result &c.; to venture upon, undertake; to attain, gain &c.: Caus. “-rohayati” & “-ropayati”, to cause to mount or ascend; to raise &c.; to string (a bow) &c.; to cause to grow; to plant &c.; to place, deposit, fasten ; to produce, cause, effect ; to attribute &c.: Desid. P. “-rurukṣati”, to wish to ascend or mount
आव – āva the base of the dual cases of the pronoun of the 1st person; Nom. Acc. “āvām” (Ved. “āvam”); Inst. Dat. Abl. “āvābhyām” (Ved. Abl. also “āvat”); Gen. Loc. “āvayos”.
आवृत् – āvṛt “ā-vṛt” P. (only pf. in , “-vavarta”) ā. “-vartate” (aor. 3. sg. “āvṛtsata” ; Inf. “-vṛte” to turn or draw round or back or near ; to turn or go towards; to turn round or back, return, revolve &c.: Caus. P. “-vartayati” (Ved. Subj. “-vavartati” Pot. “-vavṛtyāt”, &c.) ā. “-vartayate” (Ved. Pot. “-vavṛtīta”, &c.) to cause to turn, roll; to draw or turn towards; to lead near or towards; to bring back; to turn round or back &c.; to repeat, recite, say repeatedly; to pray &c.: Intens. “-varīvartti” , to move quickly or repeatedly.
आशु – āśu m. Ved. the quick one, a horse
आशुया – āśuyā ind. (Ved. instr. of the fem.) quickly
आसद् – āsad “ā-sad” P. “-sīdati” (Ved. also “-sadati”; Inf. “-sadam” and “-sade” ; pf. “-sasāda”; f. “-satsyati”) ā. (Ved. aor. 1. sg. “-satsi” and 3. sg. “-sādi”) to sit, sit down, sit near ; to preside over ; to lie in wait for ; to go to, go towards, approach; to meet with, reach, find; to encounter, attack; to commence, undertake &c.: Caus. “-sādayati”, to cause to sit down; to set down, put down, place &c.; to cause, effect ; to approach, meet with, find, reach, obtain
इत् – it for the Ved. particle “id” q.v.
इतर – itara “i-tara” mf (“ā”) n. (the neuter is “ad” in classical Sanskṛit, but “am” [“ad” in Ved. ; comparative form of pronom. base 3. “i”; cf. Lat. ‘iterum’; Hib. ‘iter’), the other (of two), another
इतिथ – ititha “iti-tha” mf (“ī”) n. Ved. such a one, such
इत्था – itthā ind. Ved. thus; (often used in the ṛig-veda, and sometimes only to lay stress on a following word; therefore by native etymologists [] considered as a particle of affirmation.) “itthā” is often connected with words expressing devotion to the gods &c. in the sense of thus, truly, really; especially with “dhī” as an adjective. Hence “itthā-dhī” = such, i.e. true (“satyā”) or real worship. Similarly, “itthā-dhī” mfn. so devout, so pious i.e. very devout; performing such or true works ([])
इत्थात् – itthāt ind. (= “ittham”), Ved. thus, in this way.
इद् – id ind. Ved. (probably the neut. form of the pronom. base “i” see 3. “i”; a particle of affirmation) even, just, only; indeed, assuredly (especially, in strengthening an antithesis, e.g. “yathā vaśanti devās tahed asat”, as the gods wish it, thus indeed it will be ; “dipsanta id ripavo nāha debhuḥ”, the enemies wishing indeed to hurt were in nowise able to hurt “id” is often added to words expressing excess or exclusion (e.g. “viśva it”, every one indeed; “śaśvad it”, constantly indeed; “eka it”, one only). At the beginning of sentences it often adds emphasis to pronouns, prepositions, particles (e.g. “tvam it”, thou indeed; “yadi it”, if indeed, &c.) “id” occurs often in the ṛig-veda and Atharva-veda, seldom in the Brāhmaṇas, and its place is taken in classical Sanskṛit by “eva” and other particles.
इदम् – idam ind. ([Ved. and in a few instances in classical Sanskṛit]) here, to this place; now, even, just; there; with these words ; in this manner (v.l. for “iti” in “kim iti joṣam āsyate”, 202, 8).
इदा – idā “i-dā” ind. (fr. pronom. base 3. “i” , Ved. now, at this moment; (often connected with a gen. of “ahan” e.g. “idā cid ahnaḥ”, or “ahna idā”, this present day, “now-a-days”; and with “hyas” e.g. “idā hyaḥ”, only yesterday)
इन्दु – indu m. ( “und” ; probably fr. “ind” = “und”, “to drop” [see p. 165, col.3, and cf. “indra”]; perhaps connected with “bindu”, which last is unknown in the ṛig-veda , Ved. a drop (especially of Soma), Soma m. a bright drop, a spark m. the moon
इन्द्रगोप – indragopa “indra-gopa” or “-pā” mfn. Ved. having Indra as one’s protector ; m. the insect cochineal of various kinds; a fire-fly (in this sense also “indra-gopaka”).
इयक्षु – iyakṣu mfn. Ved. longing for, seeking to gain
इष् – iṣ cl.6.P., ep. and Ved. also ā. “ic-chati” (Subj. “icchāt” , “icchate” ( xi, 5, 17; impf. “aicchat, iyeṣa” and “īṣe, eṣiṣyate, aiṣīt, eṣitum” or “eṣṭum”), to endeavour to obtain, strive, seek for ; to endeavour to make favourable; to desire, wish, long for, request; to wish or be about to do anything, intend &c.; to strive to obtain anything (acc.) from any one (abl. or loc.); to expect or ask anything from any one &c.; to assent, be favourable, concede ; to choose ; to acknowledge, maintain, regard, think Pass. “iṣyate”, to be wished or liked; to be wanted &c.; to be asked or requested; to be prescribed or ordered ; to be approved or acknowledged; to be accepted or regarded as &c.; to be worth; to be wanted as a desideratum see 2. “iṣṭi”: Caus. “eṣayati”, (in surg.) to probe Desid. “eṣiṣiṣati”; [with “iṣ” cf. Old Germ. ‘eiscom’, “I ask”; Mod. Germ. ‘heische’; Angl. Sax. ‘asciani’ cf. also Gk. [greek]; Lith. ‘jeskoti’; Russ. ‘iskate’, “to seek.”]
इस् – is ind. an interjection of anger or pain or sorrow ; (according to “is” Ved. = “nis” cf. “iṣ-kṛ” above.)
ईक्षणीय – īkṣaṇīya mfn. to be seen or perceived.
ईड् – īḍ cl.2.ā. “īṭṭe” (2. sg. pres. “īḍiṣe”, Ved. “īLiṣe” pf. “īḍe” fut. “īḍiṣyate” aor. “aiḍiṣṭa”. inf. “īḍitum”, Ved. “īLe”, &c.) to implore, request, ask for (with two acc.); to praise &c.: Caus. P. “īḍayati”, to ask; to praise
ईदृश् – īdṛś “ī-dṛś” “k” (Ved. “ṅ” mfn. endowed with such qualities, such &c.; (“k”) f. such a condition, such occasion
ईम् – īm ind. (fr. pronominal base 3. “i”), Ved. a particle of affirmation and restriction (generally after short words at the beginning of a period, or after the relative pronouns, the conjunction “yad”, prepositions and particles such as “āt, uta, atha”, &c.) “īm” has also the sense “now” (= “idānīm”), and is by sometimes considered as an acc. case for “enam”
ईर् – īr cl.2.ā. “īrte” (3. pl. “īrate” , “iraṁ-cakre, iriṣyati, airiṣṭa, īritum”; Ved. inf. “iradhyai” , to go, move, rise, arise from ; to go away, retire ; to agitate, elevate, raise (one’s voice) Caus. P. “īrayati” (cf. “īl”), to agitate, throw, cast; to excite &c.; to cause to rise; to bring to life; to raise one’s voice, utter, pronounce, proclaim, cite &c.; to elevate ā. to raise one’s self
ईश् – īś cl.2.ā. “īṣṭe”, or Ved. “īśe” (2. sg. “īśiṣe” and “īkṣe” ; Pot. 1. sg. “īśīya” pf. 3. pl. “īśire, īśiṣyati, īśitum”) to own, possess ; to belong to ; to dispose of, be valid or powerful; to be master of (with gen., or Ved. with gen. of an inf., or with a common inf., or the loc. of an abstract noun) &c.; to command; to rule, reign &c.; to behave like a master, allow ; ([cf. Goth. ‘aigan’, “to have”; Old Germ. ‘eigan’, “own”; Mod. Germ. ‘eigen’.])
उडुम्बर – uḍumbara m. (in Ved. written with “d”, in Class. generally with “ḍ”), the tree Ficus Glomerata &c. m. a species of leprosy with coppery spots m. the threshold of a house m. a eunuch m. a kind of worm supposed to be generated in the blood and to produce leprosy m. membrum virile
उत्क्रम् – utkram “ut-kram” (“ud-kram”) P. (and rarely ā.) “-krāmati, -kramati” (Ved. impf. 3. pl. “-akraman” , “-te” (pf. 3. pl. “-cakramus” to step up, go up, ascend &c.; to step out, go out or away; to pass away, die &c.; to go over, pass over, omit; not to notice; to neglect, transgress &c.: Caus. P. “-kramayati” and “-krāmayati”, to cause to go up or ascend &c.: Desid. “-cikramiṣati”, or “-cikramiṣyati”, to wish to go up or out
उत्तृऋ – uttṝ “ut-tṝ” (“ud-” “tṛ”) P. “-tarati” and “-tirati” (Ved.) to pass out of (especially “jalāt”, water, with abl). to disembark; to come out of &c.; to escape from (a misfortune, affliction, &c.) ; to come down, descend, alight, put up at ; to pass over; to cross (a river, with acc.); to vanquish &c.; to give up, leave ; to elevate, strengthen, increase Caus. “-tārayati”, to cause to come out; to deliver, assist, rescue &c.; to make any one alight, take down, take off ; to cause to pass over; to convey or transport across, land, disembark ; to vomit up: Desid. “-titīrṣati”, to wish to cross
उत्सद् – utsad “ut-sad” (“ud-sad”) P. ā. “-sīdati, -te” (Ved. 3. pl. “ut-sadan”) to sit upwards; to raise one’s self or rise up to (acc.), ([]) ; to withdraw, leave off, disappear; to sink, settle down, fall into ruin or decay, be abolished &c.: Caus. “-sādayati”, to put away, remove &c.; to abolish, destroy, annihilate &c.; to anoint, rub, chafe
उदन् – udan (for 2. see s.v.) n. Ved. (defective in the strong cases a wave, water
उदण्च् – udaṇc “ud-aṇc” P. “-acati” ([Ved.]) and “-aṇcati”, to elevate, raise up, lift up, throw up &c.; to ladle out on ; to cause, effect ; to rise, arise ; to resound Pass. “-acyate”, to be thrown out; to come forth, proceed Caus. “-aṇcayati”, to draw up, raise, elevate ; to send forth, utter, cause to resound (see “ud-aṇcita”).
उदुम्बर – udumbara Ved. for “uḍumbara” q.v., the tree Ficus Glomerata.
उद्गम् – udgam “ud-gam” P. “-gacchati” (Ved. impf. 1. pl. “-aganma”) to come forth, appear suddenly, become visible &c.; to go up, rise (as a star), ascend, start up &c.; to go out or away, disappear &c.; to spread, extend Caus. “-gamayati”, to cause to rise ; to cause to come out or issue (as milk from the mother’s breast), suck.
उद्गा – udgā “ud-gā” Ved. P. (aor. or impf. “-agāt”) to rise (as the sun &c.), come up ; to come forth, begin on
उद्ग्रह् – udgrah “ud-grah” P. ā. “-gṛhṇāti” (or Ved. “-gṛbhṇāti”), “-ṇīte” (Impv. 2. sg. “-gṛbhāya” ; p. “-gṛhṇat” to lift up, keep above ; to set up, erect, raise, elevate (ā.) to raise one’s self ; to take out, draw out; to tear away, take away ; to take away from, preserve, save ; to intercept, cause (the rain) to cease ; to break off, discontinue (speaking) ; to concede, grant, allow Caus. “-grāhayati”, to cause to take up or out, cause to pay ; to bespeak, describe, set forth
उद्द्युत् – uddyut “ud-dyut” P. Ved. (impf. “-adyaut”) ā. “-dyotate”, to blaze up, shine, shine forth ; Caus. P. “-dyotayati”, to cause to shine or shine forth Intens. Ved. (Subj. “-davidyutat”) to shine intensely
उद्धन् – uddhan “ud-dhan” (“ud-han”) P. “-dhanti” (Ved. impf. 3. sg. “-ahan” ; Impv. “-hantu”, iii, 33, 13, 2; du. “-hatam”, i, 184, 2, &c.) ā. (3. pl. “uj-jighnante” ; Ved. inf. “-dhantavai” to move or push or press upwards or out, lift up, throw away ; to root up or out ; to turn up (the earth), dig, throw open &c.: (ā.) to kill one’s self, hang one’s self
उद्धृष् – uddhṛṣ “ud-dhṛṣ” (“ud-hṛṣ”), Ved. ā. -[“d”] “harṣate”, to be excited with joy, rejoice; to do anything with joy or pleasure ; (in class. lang.) P. “-dhṛṣyati”, to be merry or in high spirits; to flare upwards ; to open (as a calyx) Caus. “-dharṣayati” (3. pl. “-dharṣayanti” to make merry or in high spirits, rejoice, cheer ; to make brisk, encourage
उन्नीय – unnīya “un-nīya” mfn. to be led upwards, Ved. by
उपपत्तिमत् – upapattimat “upa-patti-mat” mfn. demonstrated, proved.
उपप्रक्षे – upaprakṣe “upa-prakṣe” Ved. inf. of 1. “upa-pṛc” above.
उपमा – upamā (for 2. see below, and for 3. see col.3) ind. (Ved. instr. of the above ) in the closest proximity or neighbourhood
उपसद् – upasad “upa-sad” P. “-sīdati” (Ved. Pot. 1. pl. “-sadema”; impf. “-asadat”) to sit upon (acc.) ; to sit near to, approach (esp. respectfully), revere, worship &c. &c.; to approach (a teacher in order to become his pupil) ; to approach asking, request, crave for ; to approach in a hostile manner ; to possess ; to perform the Upasad ceremony (see below) Caus. “-sādayati”, to place or put upon or by the side of ; to cause to approach, lead near (see “upa-sādita”).
उपाकृ – upākṛ “upā-kṛ” P. ā. “-karoti, -kurute”, (Ved. impf. 1. sg. “-akaram”, 3. sg. “-akar”) to drive or bring near or towards, fetch ; to commit to, deliver, make over, give, bestow, grant (“kāmam”, a wish) ; to procure for one’s self, obtain ; to bring or set about, make preparations (for a sacred ceremonial), undertake, begin &c.; to consecrate
उपागम् – upāgam “upā-gam” P. “-gacchati” (Ved. Impv. 2. sg. “-gahi”) to come near, come towards, step near, approach &c.; to come back, return ; to approach, come or enter into any state or condition, be subject to &c.; to occur, come or fall to one’s share
उपासद् – upāsad “upā-sad” P. (Ved. inf. “-sadam”) to sit down upon (acc.) ; to approach, walk along
उभ – ubha “au”, (Ved. “ā”), “e, e” mfn. du. (g. “sarvādi” both ([cf. Zd. ‘uba’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘ambo’; Goth. ‘bai’; Old High Germ. ‘beide’; Slav. ‘oba’; Lith. ‘abhu’.])
उभयदत् – ubhayadat “ubhaya-dat” mfn. (Ved. having teeth in both (jaws).
उरुष्य – uruṣya Nom. (fr. “uru” ; perhaps an irr. fut. or Desid. of 1. “vṛ” ?) P. “uruṣyati” (Ved. Impv. 2. sg. “uruṣyā” to protect, secure, defend from (abl.)
उशनस् – uśanas “ā” ( 7-1, 94; Ved. acc. “ām”; Ved. loc. and dat. “e”; voc. “as, a”, and “an” on m. N. of an ancient sage with the patronymic Kāvya (in later times identified with śukra, the teacher of the Asuras, who presides over the planet Venus); N. of the planet Venus &c.; N. of the author of a Dharma-śāstra ; (“uśanasaḥ stoma” m. N. of a verse ( v, 29, 9) to be muttered by one who thinks himself poisoned
ऊह् – ūh cl.1.P. ā. “ūhati, -te” (Ved. “ohate”), “ūhāṁ-cakāra”, &c. (by native authorities not distinguished from 1. “ūh” above ), to observe, mark, note, attend to, heed, regard ; to expect, hope for, wait for, listen for ; to comprehend, conceive, conjecture, guess, suppose, infer, reason, deliberate upon &c.: Caus. “ūhayati” (aor. “aujihat”), to consider, heed ; to cause to suppose or infer
ऋ – ṛ cl.1.3.5.P. “ṛcchati, iyarti, ṛṇoti”, and “ṛṇvati” (only Ved.); “āra, ariṣyati, ārat”, and “ārṣīt”, to go, move, rise, tend upwards &c.; to go towards, meet with, fall upon or into, reach, obtain &c.; to fall to one’s share, occur, befall (with acc.) &c.; to advance towards a foe, attack, invade ; to hurt, offend ; to move, excite, erect, raise, (“iyarti vācam”, he raises his voice ; “stomān iyarmi”, I sing hymns Caus. “arpayati”, to cause to move, throw, cast &c.; to cast through, pierce ; to put in or upon, place, insert, fix into or upon, fasten &c.; to place on, apply &c.; to direct or turn towards &c.; to deliver up, surrender, offer, reach over, present, give &c.; to give back, restore &c.: Ved. Intens. “alarti” ; (2. sg. “alarṣi” ; to move or go towards with speed or zeal: Class. Intens. ā. “arāryate” ( 7-4, 30), to wander about, haste towards ; ([cf. Gk. [greek] &c.: Zend ‘ir’: Lat. ‘or-ior’, ‘re-mus’, ‘aro’: Goth. ‘argan’: Angl. Sax. ‘ar’: Old High Germ. ‘ruo-dar’, ‘ar-an’: Lith. ‘ir-ti’, “to row”; ‘ar-ti’, “to plough.”])
ऋतनि – ṛtani “ṛta-ni” (Ved. for “-nī”) mfn. leader of truth or righteousness
एन – ena a pronom. base (used for certain cases of the 3rd personal pronoun, thus in the acc. sing. du. pl. [“enam, enām, enad”, &c.], inst. sing. [“enena, enayā”] gen. loc. du. [“enayos”, Ved. “enos”]; the other cases are formed fr. the pronom. base “a” see under “idam”), he, she, it; this, that, (this pronoun is enclitic and cannot begin a sentence; it is generally used alone, so that “enam puruṣam”, “that man”, would be very unusual if not incorrect. Grammarians assert that the substitution of “enam” &c. for “imam” or “etam” &c. takes place when something is referred to which has already been mentioned in a previous part of the sentence; see Gr. 223 and 836); ([cf. Gk. [greek]; Goth. ‘ains’; Old Pruss. ‘ains’; Lat. ‘oinos’, ‘unus’.])
एन – ena and enā, Ved. instr. of “idam” q.v.
ओतवे – otave Ved. inf.
ओतवै – otavai Ved. inf.
ओषधी – oṣadhī f. (only Ved. and not in nom. c. ; but occasional exceptions are found) = “oṣa-dhi” above.
कथा – kathā (for 1. see col.1) ind. (Ved. for “katham” how? whence? why? &c.; (“yathā kathā ca”, in any way whatsoever iv); sometimes merely a particle of interrogation (e.g. “kathā śṛṇoti”.. “indraḥ”, does Indra hear? ; “kathā-kathā”, whether-or?
कय – kaya (Ved. for 2. “ka”; only gen. sg. with “cid”), every one (e.g. “ni ṣū namātimatiṁ kayasya cit”, bow well down the haughtiness of every one ([cf. Zd. ‘kaya’; Armen. ‘ui’.])
कर्तवे – kartave ([ and and “kartavai” ([ inf. of 1. “kṛ”, to do q.v.
कर्तोस् – kartos Ved. inf. of 1. “kṛ” q.v.
कर्मनिष्ठ – karmaniṣṭha “karma-niṣṭha” (Ved. “-niṣṭhā”) mfn. diligent in religious actions, engaged in active duties ; m. a Brāhman who performs sacrifices &c.
कियत् – kiyat mfn. (fr. 1. “ki” , how great? how large? how far? how much? of what extent? of what qualities? &c. (Ved. loc. “kiyāti” with following “ā”, how long ago? since what time? ; “kiyaty adhvani”, at what distance? how far off? ; “kiyad etad”, of what importance is this to (gen.) ; “tena kiyān arthah”, what profit arises from that? ; “kiyac ciram” ind. how long? ; “kiyac cireṇa”, in how long a time? how soon? ; “kiyad dūre”, how far? lii, 4; “kiyad rodimi”, what is the use of my weeping? ; “kiyad asubhis”, what is the use of living? mfn. little, small, unimportant, of small value (often in comp., e.g. “kiyad-vakra”, a little bent on ; “kiyad api”, how large or how far soever ; “yāvat kiyac ca”, how large or how much soever, of what qualities soever
कीकस – kīkasa mfn. (“kīkasā”) f. Ved. vertebra or a rib (of which six are enumerated) &c.
कुकर्मन् – kukarman “ku-karman” n. (“kukarma”) “-kārin” mfn. wicked, depraved.
कुब्जित – kubjita mfn. crooked, curved.
कुमारिदा – kumāridā “kumāri-dā” mfn. Ved. “granting children” v.l. for “-dārā” q.v.
कू – kū or ku cl.2.P. “kauti” (Ved. “kavīti” , or cl.1. ā. “kavate” ( xxii, 54), or cl.6. “kuvate” ( xxviii, 108), or cl.9. P. ā. “kūnāti, kūnāte” (perf. 3. pl. “cukuvur” , to sound, make any noise, cry out, moan, cry (as a bird), coo, hum (as a bee) &c. cl.1. “kavate”, to move Intens. ā. “kokūyate” ( P. ā. “kokavīti” and “cokūyate” ( 7-4, 63 , to cry aloud ; ([cf. Gk. [greek]. ])
कूपखा – kūpakhā “kūpa-khā” m. Ved. a well-digger on
कूमनस् – kūmanas “kū-manas” mfn. (1. “ku”) Ved. wicked-minded
कृ – kṛ Ved. (I) cl.2.P. 2. sg. “karṣi” du. “kṛthas” pl. “kṛtha”; ā. 2. sg. “kṛṣe”; impf. 2. and 3. sg. “akar”, 3. sg. rarely “akat” ( iii, xi); “mithyā k-“, he pronounces wrongly ; “kaikeyīm anu rājānaṁ kāraya”, treat or deal with Kaikeyī as the king does Desid. “cikīrṣati” (aor. 2. sg. “acikīrṣīs” iii), ep. also “-te”, to wish to make or do, intend to do, design, intend, begin, strive after &c.; to wish to sacrifice or worship Intens. 3. pl. “karikrati” (pr. p. “karikrat” see , to do repeatedly ; Class. “carkarti” or “carikarti” or “carīkarti” ([ 7-4, 92 “carkarīti” or “carikarīti” or “carīkarīti” or “cekrīyate” ([ib. ; ([cf. Hib. ‘caraim’, “I perform, execute”; ‘ceard’, “an art, trade, business, function”; ‘sucridh’, “easy”; Old Germ. ‘karawan’, “to prepare”; Mod. Germ. ‘gar’, “prepared (as food)”; Lat. ‘creo’, ‘ceremonia’; [characters].])
कृत्वन् – kṛtvan mf (“varī”) n. (“īs”), Ved. f. pl. (= “kṛtyās”) the magic powers
कृत् – kṛt cl.6.P. “kṛntati”, ep. also ā. “-te” and cl.1. P. “kartati” (perf. “cakarta”, 2nd fut. “kartsyati” or “kartiṣyati”, 1st fut. “kartitā” ; Subj. “kṛntat”; aor. “akartīt”, Ved. 2. sg. “akṛtas”), to cut, cut in pieces, cut off, divide, tear asunder, destroy &c.: Caus. “kartayati” id. Desid. “cikartiṣati” or “cikṛtsati” ; ([cf. [characters]; Lith. ‘kertu’ inf. ‘kirsti’, “to cut”; Slav. ‘korju’, “to split”; Lat. ‘curtus’, ‘culter’; Hib. ‘ceartaighim’, “I prune, trim, cut”; ‘cuirc’, “a knife.”])
कृष् – kṛṣ cl.1.P. “karṣati”, rarely ā. “-te” (perf. “cakarṣa”, 2. sg. “-ṣitha” ; fut. “karkṣyati” or “krakṣy-; kṛṣiṣy-” ; “karṣṭā” or “kraṣṭā” ; aor. “akṛkṣat” [or “akārkṣīt”] or “akrākṣīt”, iii, 1, 44 7; inf. “kraṣṭum”), to draw, draw to one’s self, drag, pull, drag away, tear &c.; to lead or conduct (as an army) ; to bend (a bow) ; to draw into one’s power, become master of, overpower ; to obtain ; to take away anything (acc.) from any one (acc.) ; to draw or make furrows, plough (ā.) (ind. p. “kṛṣṭvā”): cl.6. P. ā. “kṛṣati, -te” (p. “kṛṣat”), to draw or make furrows, plough &c.; ā. to obtain by ploughing ; to travel over Caus. “karṣayati”, to draw, drag (aor. 1. sg. “acikṛṣam”) ; to draw or tear out ; to pull to and fro, cause pain, torture, torment &c.; “to plough” see “karṣita”: Intens. (pr. p. and Subj. 3. sg. “carkṛṣat”; impf. 3. pl. “acarkṛṣur”) to plough ; “carīkṛṣyate” or Ved. “karīk-“, to plough repeatedly ([cf. Lith. ‘karszu’, ‘pleszau’; Russ. ‘ceshu’; Lat. ‘verro’, ‘vello’; Goth. ‘falh’.])
कृऋ – kṝ cl.6.P. “kirati” ( 7-1, 100; perf. “-cakāra” ; 2nd fut. “kariṣyati”; 1st fut. “karitā” or “karītā” ; aor. “akārīt” [Ved. “saṁ kāriṣat”]; ind. p. “-kīrya”; Pass. “kīryate”), to pour out, scatter, throw, cast, disperse &c.; to throw up in a heap, heap up ā. “kirate”, to throw off from one’s self P. to strew, pour over, fill with, cover with ; (perf. 3. pl. “cakarur”) Desid. “cikariṣati” Intens. “cākarti” ; ([cf. Gk. [greek]. ])
केशिन् – keśin mfn. (“inīs”), Ved. f. pl. “the attendants of Rudra” (see before) mfn. “N. of certain female demons” (see before).
कौलाल – kaulāla m. (Ved. = “kul-” 1) a potter [“the son of a potter”
क्रम् – kram cl.1.P. ā. “krāmati” ( 7-3, 76; ep. also “kramati”), “kramate” ( 1-3, 43, ep. also “krāmate”; according to cl.4. P. “krāmyati” [“kramyati” ; aor. “akramīt” &c.; ā. “kramiṣṭa, kraṁsate” [ i, 121, 1], 3. pl. “cakramanta” [ ii, 19, 2]; perf. “cakrāma”, or “cakrame”; p. “cakramāṇa” ; fut. “kramiṣyati” or “kraṁsyate” ind. p. “krāntvā, krantvā”, or “kramitvā” , to step, walk, go, go towards, approach (with “accha, adhi” acc. or loc.) &c.; to approach in order to ask for assistance (with loc.) ; to go across, go over &c.; Ved. to climb (as on a tree’s branch) ; to cover (in copulation) ; to stretch over, project over, tower above, (ind. p. “krāntvā”) ; to take possession of ; ā. to undertake, strive after, make effort for (dat.) ; (loc.) ; ā. ( 1-. 3, 38) to proceed well, advance, make progress, gain a footing, succeed, have effect ; to be appliable or practicable ; P. to be liable to the peculiar arrangement of a Vedic text called Krama (i.e. to be doubled, as a letter or word) ; ā. to read according to the Krama arrangement of a Vedic text (“a-krānta”): Caus. P. “kramayati”, to cause to step ; xi; “kramayati” or “krām-“, to make liable to the peculiar arrangement called Krama (i.e. to double a letter or word) &c.: Intens. “caṅkramyate” ( 3-1, 23 ; p. “caṅ-kramyamāṇa” [ vii, 1, 19, 3 or “-kramam-” or “caṅkramīti” ( xiv, 137 and 141; impf. 2. pl. “caṅkramata” ; fut. p. “caṅkramiṣyat” ; ind. p. “-mitvā” ; cf. “-mita”), to step to and fro, walk or wander about.
क्षम् – kṣam cl.1.ā. “kṣamate” (ep. also P. “-ti”; Ved. cl.2. P. “kṣamiti” ; cl.4. P. “kṣāmyati” [cf. Impv. ā. 3. sg. “kṣamyatām” ; perf. “cakṣame” &c., 3. pl. “-mire” ; 1. du. “cakṣaṇvahe” & 1. pl. “-ṇmahe” ; fut. 2nd “kṣaṁsyate, -ti, kṣamiṣyati”; aor. 2. sg. “akṣaṁsthās” ; inf. “kṣantum” &c.), to be patient or composed, suppress anger, keep quiet &c.; to submit to (dat.) ; iv; to bear patiently, endure, put up with (acc.), suffer ; to pardon, forgive anything (acc.) to (gen. or dat.) &c. (e.g. “kṣamasva me tad”, forgive me that ; to allow, permit, suffer (); (with Pot.) ; to bear any one, be indulgent to (Pass.) ; to resist ; to be able to do anything (inf.) ; to seem good iv: Caus. P. ā. “kṣamayati, kṣāmayate”, to ask any one (acc.) pardon for anything (acc.) ; (perf. “kṣamayām āsa”) to suffer or bear patiently (cf. “kṣamāpaya”); ([cf. Goth. ‘hramja’ (?) Angl. Sax. ‘hremman’, “to hinder, disquiet.”])
क्षर् – kṣar cl.1.P. “kṣarati” (ep. also ā. “-te”; Ved. cl.2. P. “kṣariti” ; Subj. “kṣarat”; impf. “akṣarat”; aor. 3. sg. “akṣār” (cf. ; “akṣārīt” ; p. “kṣarat”; inf. “kṣaradhyai” , to flow, stream, glide, distil, trickle &c.; to melt away, wane, perish ; to fall or slip from, be deprived of (abl.) ; to cause to flow, pour out &c. (with “mūtram”, “to urine” ; to give forth a stream, give forth anything richly 8898 (pf. “cakṣāra”) Caus. “kṣārayati”, to cause to flow (as urine) ; to overflow or soil with acrid substances (cf. “kṣāra”) (cf. “kṣārita”.)
क्षिप्र – kṣipra mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) ind.(Ved. acc. pl. n.) with a shot
क्षेम – kṣema mn. (Ved. only m.; g. “ardharcādi”), safety, tranquillity, peace, rest, security, any secure or easy or comfortable state, weal, happiness &c. (“kṣema” & “yoga” [or “pra-yuj”], rest and exertion, enjoying and acquiring ; cf. “kṣema-yoga” and “yoga-kṣ-; kṣemaṁ te”, “peace or security may be to thee” [this is also the polite address to a Vaiśya, asking him whether his property is secure ,
क्षोण – kṣoṇa mfn. (“ī”) f.Ved. nom. du. “the two sets of people” i.e. the inhabitants of heaven and earth [“eaven and earth” ; 99, 6.
खिद् – khid cl.6. “khindati” ( 7-1, 59; Ved. “khidati” ; perf. “cikheda”, or Ved. “cakhāda” ; fut. “khetsyati” , to strike, press, press down ; to be depressed or wearied cl.7.ā. “khintte”, to be pressed down, suffer pain cl.4. ā. “khidyate” (rarely P. , to be pressed down or depressed, be distressed or wearied, feel tired or exhausted &c.: Caus. P. “khedayati” (rarely ā. , to press down, molest, disturb, make tired or exhausted 85 (v.l.) ; ([cf. Gk. [greek] ?])
गम् – gam Ved. cl.1.P. “gamati” (; Subj. “gamam, gamat” [“gamātas, gamātha” , “gamāma, gaman” ; Pot. “gamema” ; inf. “gamadhyai” cl.2. P. “ganti” (; Impv. 3. sg. “gantu”, [2. sg. “gadhi” see “ā-“, or “gahi” see “adhi-, abhy-ā-, ā-, upā-“], 2. pl. “gantā” or “gantana” ; impf. 2. and 3. sg. “agan” [ pl. “aganma” [; cf. pl. “agman” ; Subj. [or aor. Subj. cf. 1. pl. “ganma”, 3. pl. “gman” ; Pot. 2. sg. “gamyās” ; Prec. 3. sg. “gamyās” ; pr. p. “gmat”, x, 22, 6): cl.3. P. “jaganti” ( ii, 14; Pot. “jagamyām, -yāt” ; impf. 2. and 3. sg. “ajagan”, 2. pl. “ajaganta” or “-tana” Ved. and Class. cl.1. P. (also ā. &c.), with substitution of “gacch” ([= [characters]]) for “gam, gacchati” (cf. ; Subj. “gācchāti” ; 2. sg. “gacchās” [ vi, 35, 3] or “gacchāsi” [ v, 5, 6]; 2. pl. “gacchāta” ; 3. pl. “gacchān” ; impf. “agacchat”; Pot. “gacchet”; pr. p. “gacchat” &c.; aor. “agamat” ; for ā. with prepositions cf. fut. “gamiṣyati” &c.; 1st fut. “gantā” [ 7-2, 58] &c.; perf. 1. sg. “jagamā” [],3. sg. “jagāma”, 2. du. “jagmathur”, 3. pl. “jagmur” &c.; p. “jaganvas” [ &c.] or “jagmivas” f. “jagmuṣī” &c.; Ved. inf. “gantave, gantavai”; Class. inf. “gantum”: Ved. ind. p. “gatvāya, gatvī”; Class. ind. p. “gatvā” [ &c.], with prepositions “-gamya” or “-gatya” to go, move, go away, set out, come &c.; to go to or towards, approach (with acc. or loc. or dat. [; cf. “prati” [ &c.; to go or pass (as time e.g. “kāle gacchati”, time going on, in the course of time) ; to fall to the share of (acc.) &c.; to go against with hostile intentions, attack ; to decease, die ; to approach carnally, have sexual intercourse with (acc.) &c.; to go to any state or condition, undergo, partake of, participate in, receive, obtain (e.g. “mitratāṁ gacchati”, “e goes to friendship” i.e. he becomes friendly) &c.; “jānubhyām avanīṁ-gam”, “to go to the earth with the knees”, kneel down ; “dharaṇīṁ mūrdhnā-gam”, “to go to the earth with the head”, make a bow ; “manasā-gam”, to go with the mind, observe, perceive ; (without “manasā”) to observe, understand, guess ; (especially Pass. “gamyate”, “to be understood or meant”) and ; “doṣeṇa” or “doṣato-gam”, to approach with an accusation, ascribe guilt to a person (acc.) Caus. “gamayati” ( 2-4, 46; Impv. 2. sg. Ved. “gamayā” or “gāmaya” [ v, 5, 10], 3. sg. “gamayatāt” ; perf. “gamayāṁ cakāra” &c.) to cause to go ( 8-1, 60 or come, lead or conduct towards, send to (dat. , bring to a place (acc. [ 1-4, 52] or loc.) &c.; to cause to go to any condition, cause to become &c.; to impart, grant ; to send away ; “to let go”, not care about ; to excel ; to spend time &c.; to cause to understand, make clear or intelligible, explain ; to convey an idea or meaning, denote ; (causal of the causal) to cause a person (acc.) to go by means of “jigamiṣati” another Desid. “jigamiṣati” ( “jigāṁsate” ; impf. “ajigāṁsat” to wish to go, be going ; to strive to obtain ; to wish to bring (to light, “prakāśam”) i: Intens. “jaṅganti” (), “jaṅgamīti” or “jaṅgamyate” ( 7-4, 85 , to visit “ganigmat”) (impf. “aganīgan”); ([cf. [characters]; Goth. ‘qvam’; Eng. ‘come’; Lat. ‘venio’ for ‘gvemio’.])
गमध्यै – gamadhyai Ved. inf. see s.v. 1. “gam”.
गव् – gav in Ved. comp. for “go”
गा – gā mfn. Ved. ifc. “going” (cf. “a-gā; agre-, tamo-, puro-, samana-“and”svasti-gā”)
गीर्वत् – gīrvat “gīr-vat” mfn. Ved. “possessed of speech” (cf. “girvan”.)
गुह् – guh cl.1.P. ā. “gūhati, -te” (cf. ; impf. “agūhat” ; perf. “jugūha” ; fut. “gūhiṣyati” ; aor. “agūhīt”, xv; Subj. 2. sg. “ghukṣas” [vi] or Ved. “guhas” [ viii, 6, 17]; pr. p. P. “gūhat”, iv, 51, 9; ā. “gūhamāna” &c.; Pass. “guhyamāna” ; aor. “guhamāna” ; Ved. ind. p. “gūdhvī”, vii, 80, 2) to cover, conceal, hide, keep secret &c.: Desid. “jughukṣati” ( 7-2, 12; 3. du. “jugukṣatas”, Pada-p. “jughukṣ-“) to wish to conceal or hide away
गुह – guha m. (3. “guhā”), Ved. instr. ind. in a hiding-place, in secret, secretly (opposed to “āvis”, and especially with “dhā, ni-dhā, kṛ”, “to conceal, remove”)
गृहि – gṛhi only gen. pl. “-hīṇām” see “-hin”; for “-haye” (Ved. inf.) see “grah”.
गृह्य – gṛhya ind. p. Ved. ifc., “seizing by” see “karṇa-, pāda-“, and “hasta-gṛhya; haste-“.
गृऋ – gṝ cl.9.P. ā. “gṛṇāti, -ṇīte” (1. sg. ā. and 3. sg. Pass. “gṛṇe” ; 1. sg. ā. “gṛṇīṣe” ; 2. pl. “gṛṇatā” ; p. P. “gṛṇat” &c.; ā. & Pass. “gṛṇāna” ; Ved. inf. Impv. “gṛṇīṣaṇi” , to call, call out to, invoke ; to announce, proclaim ; to mention with praise, praise, extol ; to pronounce, recite ; to relate, teach in verses, 4, 9 ; ([cf. [characters]; Hib. ‘goirim’; Old Germ. ‘quar’, ‘quir’, &c.; Old Pruss. ‘gerbu’, “to speak”; Angl. Sax. ‘gale’; Germ. ‘Nachtigal’; Lat. ‘gallus’ ?])
गो – go “gaus” (acc. “gām” instr. “gavā” dat. “gave”, gen. abl. “gos” loc. “gavi”; du. “gāvā” [Ved.], “gāvau”; pl. nom. “gāvas” acc. “gās” [rarely “gāvas” ii] instr. “gobhis” dat. abl. “gobhyas”, gen. “gavām” [once at the end of a Pāda at the end of Pādas only cf. “gonām” loc. “goṣu”) m. an ox f. a cow, (pl.) cattle, kine, herd of cattle &c. (in comp. before vowels [cf. “gav, gava”, qq. vv.; cf. also “gavām, gavi, gāṁ” ss.vv.; “gavāṁ vrata” N. of a Sāman; “gavāṁ tīrtha” see “go t-; goṣu-gam”, to set out for a battle [to conquer cows] ; “anything coming from or belonging to an ox or cow”, milk (generally pl.), flesh (only pl. ; “fat” ( x, 27, 22 ; = “go-ṣṭoma” (q.v.) (see also “go-āyus”); (pl.) “the herds of the sky”, the stars ; (m. [also f. rays of light (regarded as the herds of the sky, for which Indra fights with Vṛitra) 2943 &c.; m. the sign Taurus xl f. ; the sun (cf. “-putra”) ; the moon ; a kind of medicinal plant (“ṛṣabha”) ; a singer, praiser (fr. “gai”) ; “a goer”, horse (fr. 1. “gā”) on ; N. of two ṛiṣis of the (with the patr. āṅgirasa [ xvi] and Māyūka); N. of a man (who with Pushkara is said to be the “balādhyakṣa” of the sons and grandsons of Varuṇa) (cf. ; m. or f. (?) the sun’s ray called Suṣumṇa ; water f. pl., xi, 7, 50); an organ of sense ; the eye 70; a billion ; mf. the sky ; the thunderbolt on ; the hairs of the body ; f. an offering in the shape of a cow (= “dhenu” q.v.) ; a region of the sky ; ( i, 1) the earth (as the milk-cow of kings) &c.; (hence) the number “nine” ; = “go-vīthī” on ; a mother (cf. ; ( i, 11) speech, Sarasvatī (goddess of speech) ; voice, note (fr. “gai”) ; N. of Gaurī ; of the wife [or of a daughter-in-law of śuka (a daughter of the manes called Sukālas) 986 ; N. of a daughter of Kakut-stha and wife of Yayāti ; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘bos’; Old Germ. ‘chuo’; Mod. Germ. ‘Kuh’; Eng. ‘cow’; Lett. ‘gohw’; cf. also [characters]; Goth. ‘gavi’ and Mod. Germ. ‘Gau’.])
गोपय – gopaya caus. fr. “gup” or Nom. P. ā. (fr. “gopa”; cf. “gup”) “-yati, -yate” (aor. Ved. 2. du. “ajūgupatam” , to guard, protect, preserve (Pass. “gopyaṭe”, ii, iii) ; to keep lxxxix, 13; to hide, conceal, keep secret ; “to speak” or “to shine” (cf. “abhi-, pra-, saṁ-“.)
ग्रह् – grah ([ in a few passages only &c.]) or “grabh” ([; rarely cl.9.P. “gṛbhṇāti” “gṛhṇāti” (also ā. “gṛhṇīte”, irreg. “gṛhṇate” ; 3. pl. “gṛbhṇate” ; Impv. 2. sg. “gṛhāṇa”, [“-ṇā”, Saṁhitā-p., p. Pass. nom. pl. n. x, 103, 12 &c.; “gṛbhṇāna” & “gṛhṇ-” [Ved.]; “gṛhṇa” ; “-gṛhṇāhi, -gṛbhṇīhi” see “prati-grabh”; ā. “gṛbhṇīṣva” [ i, 18] or “gṛhṇ-“; 3. sg. P. “gṛhṇītāt”; Ved. Impv. “gṛbhāya” &c. see s.v. “-ya” cf. “gṛhaya”; perf. “jagrāha” &c.; 1. sg. “-grabhā” ; “-gṛbhma” ; ā. “-gṛhe”, x, 12, 5 &c.; 3. pl. “-gṛbhre” & “-gṛbhrire” ; P. Pot. “-gṛbhyāt”, x, 31, 2; ([cf. Zd. ‘gerep’, ‘geurv’; Goth. ‘greipa’; Germ. ‘greife’; Lith. ‘grebju’; Slav. ‘grablju’; Hib. ‘grabaim’, “I devour, stop.”])
ग्रामणी – grāmaṇī “grāma-ṇī” m. (fr. “-nī” ; vi, 4, 82; gen. pl. “-ṇyām”, or Ved. “-ṇīnām”, vii, 1, 56; 3, 116 ; “i” n. “leading, chief”, vii, 1, 74 the leader or chief of a village or community, lord of the manor, squire, leader of a troop or army, chief, superintendent &c.
घृण – ghṛṇa m. (“ā”), Ved. instr. ind. through heat or sunshine
घृणि – ghṛṇi m. = “-ṇa” (“ghṛṇīva” for “-ṇer-iva”); vi, 3, 7 (Ved. loc. “-ṇā”) and 16, 38
च – ca ind. and, both, also, moreover, as well as (= [characters], Lat. ‘que’, placed like these particles as an enclitic after the word which it connects with what precedes; when used with a personal pronoun this must appear in its fuller accented form (e.g. “tava ca mama ca” [not “te ca me ca”], “both of thee and me”), when used after verbs the first of them is accented ; it connects whole sentences as well as parts of sentences; in the double “ca” occurs more frequently than the single (e.g. “ahaṁ ca tvaṁ ca”, “I and thou”, viii, 62, 11); the double “ca” may also be used somewhat redundantly in class. Sanskṛit (e.g. “kva hariṇakānāṁ jīvitaṁ cātilolaṁ kva ca vajra-sārāḥ śarās te”, “where is the frail existence, of fawns and where are thy adamantine arrows?” ; in later literature, however, the first “ca” is more usually omitted (e.g. “ahaṁ tvaṁ ca”), and when more than two things are enumerated only one “ca” is often found (e.g. “tejasā yaśasā lakṣmyā sthityā ca parayā”, “in glory, in fame, in beauty, and in high position” ; elsewhere, when more than two things are enumerated, “ca” is placed after some and omitted after others (e.g. “ṛṇa-dātā ca vaidyaś ca śrotriyo nadī”, “the payer of a debt and a physician [and] a Brāhman [and] a river” ; in Ved. and even in class. Sanskṛit [ iii, 20; ix, 322 “ca” would generally be used, the second may occasionally be omitted (e.g. “indraś ca soma”, “both Indra [and thou] Soma” ; “durbhedyaś cāśusaṁdheyaḥ”, “both difficult to be divided [and] quickly united” i); with lexicographers “ca” may imply a reference to certain other words which are not expressed (e.g. “kamaṇḍalau ca karakaḥ”, “the word “karaka” has the meaning “pitcher” and other meanings”); sometimes “ca” is = “eva”, even, indeed, certainly, just (e.g. “su-cintitaṁ cauṣadhaṁ na nāma-mātreṇa karoty arogam”, “even a well-devised remedy does not cure a disease by its mere name” ; “yāvanta eva te tāvāṁśca saḥ”, “as great as they [were] just so great was he” ; occasionally “ca” is disjunctive, “but”, “on the contrary”, “on the other hand”, “yet”, “nevertheless” (“varam ādyau na cāntimaḥ”, “better the two first but not the last” ; “śāntam idam āśrama-padaṁ sphurati ca bāhuḥ”, “this hermitage is tranquil yet my arm throbs” ; “ca-ca”, though-yet ; “ca-na ca”, though – yet not ; “ca” – “na tu” (v.l. “nanu”) id., Mālav-. iv, 8; “na ca” – “ca”, though not – yet ; “ca” may be used for “vā”, “either”, “or” (e.g. “iha cāmutra vā”, “either here or hereafter” ; “strī vā pumān vā yac cānyat sattvam”, “either a woman or a man or any other being” neg. particle is joined with “ca” the two may then be translated by “neither”, “nor”; occasionally one “ca” or one “na” is omitted (e.g. “na ca paribhoktuṁ naiva śaknomi hātum”, “I am able neither to enjoy nor to abandon” ; “na pūrvāhṇe nā ca parāhṇe”, “neither in the forenoon nor in the afternoon”); “ca-ca” may express immediate connection between two acts or their simultaneous occurrence (e.g. “mama ca muktaṁ tamasā mano manasijena dhanuṣi śaraś ca niveśitaḥ”, “no sooner is my mind freed from darkness than a shaft is fixed on his bow by the heart-born god”, vi, 8); “ca” is sometimes = “ced”, “if” (cf. ; the verb is accented) ; “ca” may be used as an expletive (e.g. “anyaiś ca kratubhiś ca”, “and with other sacrifices”); “ca” is often joined to an adv. like “eva, api, tathā, tathaiva”, &c., either with or without a neg. particle (e.g. “vairiṇaṁ nopaseveta sahāyaṁ caiva vairiṇaḥ”, “one ought not to serve either an enemy or the ally of an enemy” ; (see “eva, api”, &c.) For the meaning of “ca” after an interrogative see 2. “ka”, 2. “kathā, kim, kva”); ([cf. [characters], Lat. ‘que’, ‘pe’ (in ‘nempe’ &c.); Goth. ‘uh’; Zd. ‘ca’; Old Pers. ‘ca’.])
चक्र – cakra n. (Ved. rarely m.; g. “ardharcādi”; fr. “car”?; 1. “kṛ” the wheel (of a carriage, of the Sun’s chariot [],of Time [i, 164, 2-48]; “-kraṁ-car”, to drive in a carriage vi) &c. n. a potter’s wheel (cf. “-bhrama” &c.) n. a discus or sharp circular missile weapon (esp. that of Viṣṇu) n. an oil-mill iv. 85 n. a circle &c. (“kalāpa-“, “the circle of a peacock’s tail” n. an astronomical circle (e.g. “rāśi-“, the zodiac) n. a mystical circle or diagram, Tantr.
चक्ष् – cakṣ (a reduplicated form of “kāś” = “kśā”; in the non-conjugational tenses “khyā” is substituted ; some pf. forms, however, are found) cl.2.ā. “caṣṭe” (2. du. “cakṣathe” ; pf. p. “cakṣāṇa” [“a-” neg.]; rarely P. impf. 2. sg. “acakṣas” pl. “acakṣma” ; Ved. inf. “cakṣase” , to appear, become visible ; to see, look at, observe, notice ; to tell, inform ; to take any one (acc.) for (acc.)
चत्त – catta mfn. (Ved. hidden
चतसृ – catasṛ pl. f. of “catur”, 4 (nom. and acc. “catasras” [cf. 2]; instr. “catasṛbhis” [cf. vi, 1, 180 f. ] ; gen. “-sṝṇām” ; or “-sṝṇām” [Ved. ; loc. “-sṛṣu” ; ([see “priya-“; cf. Hib. ‘ceteora’.])
चम् – cam cl.1. “-mati” (perf. “cacāma” aor. “acamīt” ; Pass. “acami” , to sip, drink ; to eat cl.5. “camnoti” Caus. “cāmayati”, xix, 69 (cf. “ā, anv-ā-; paryā-cānta, sam-ā-camya”.)
चमू – camū f. (Ved. loc. “-mū” six times; once “-mvi”, x, 91, 15; nom. du. “-mvā”, iii, 55, 20; gen. loc. “-mvos”; nom. pl. “-mvas”, viii, 2, 8; loc. pl. “-mūṣu”) a vessel or part (two or more in number) of the reservoir into which the Soma is poured
चर् – car cl.1. “carati”, rarely “-te” (Subj. “carat”, 3 pl. “carān” ; perf. “cacāra” [ &c.], 2 sg. “cacartha” ; pl. “cerur”, &c.; “-ratur” &c.; ā. “cere” ; fut. “cariṣyati, -te”; aor. “acārīt” [ xiv &c.]; inf. “caritum” [ii or “cartum” [ iii, xiii v], Ved. “caradhyai” [ i, 61, 12], “caritave” [113, 5], “carase” [92, 9 and v, 47, 4], “carāyai” [vii, 77, 1], “caritos” [ i, 1, 1, 7]; ind. p. “caritvā” ; “cartvā” ; “cīrtvā”, xiii, 495; p. “carat”) to move one’s self, go, walk, move, stir, roam about, wander (said of men, animals, water, ships, stars, &c.) &c.; to spread, be diffused (as fire) ; to move or travel through, pervade, go along, follow &c.; to behave, conduct one’s self, act, live, treat (with instr. or loc.) &c.; to be engaged in, occupied or busy with (instr e.g. “yajṇena c-“, “to be engaged in a sacrifice” &c.; (with [ iv or without [ ii, xiv] “mithunam”) to have intercourse with, have to do with (instr.); (with a p. or adj. or ind. p. or adv.) to continue performing or being (e.g. “arcantaś cerur”, “they continued worshipping” ; “svāminam avajṇāya caret”, “e may go on despising his master” &c.; (in astron.) to be in any asterism or conjunction ; to undertake, set about, under go, observe, practise, do or act in general, effect, make (e.g. “vratāni” “to observe vows” &c.; “vighnaṁ c-“, “to put a hindrance” ; “bhaikṣaṁ c-” “to beg” ; “vivādaṁ c-“, “to be engaged in a lawsuit” ; “mṛgayāṁ c-“, “to hunt” ; “sambandhāṁś c”, “to enter into connections” ; “mārgaṁ cacāra bāṇaiḥ”, “e made a way with arrows” ; “tapasā indriyāṇi c-“, to exercise one’s organs with penance &c.; to consume, eat (with acc.), graze ; to make or render (with double acc.) e.g. “narendraṁ satya-sthaṁ carāma”, “let us make the king keep his word” Caus. “cārayati”, to cause to move or walk about (aor. “acīcarat”) ; to pasture ; to send, direct, turn, move &c.; to cause any one (acc.) to walk through (acc.) ; to drive away from (abl.) ; to cause any one (acc.) to practise or perform (with acc.) ; to cause (any animal acc.) to eat ; to cause to copulate ; to ascertain (as through a spy instr.) ; to doubt (cf. “vi-“) Desid. “cicariṣati”, to try to go “cicarṣat”); to wish to act or conduct one’s self ; to try to have intercourse with (instr.), vi: Intens. “carcarīti” ā. or rarely ([ iii, 12850]) Pass. “caṇcūryate” (“-curīti” and “-cūrti” ; ind. p. “-cūrya” ; p. once P. “-cūryat” 3602) to move quickly or repeatedly, walk about, roam about (in loc.) &c.; to act wantonly or coquettishly (cf. ; ([cf. [characters] &c.])
चाण्डाल – cāṇḍāla m. = “caṇḍ-” (Ved. 1) &c. m. the worst among (in comp. xii f.; gen.
चि – ci cl.5. “cinoti, -nute” (1. pl. “cinumas” and “-nmas” ; perf. “cikāya” and “cicāya”, vii, 3, 58; 2. “cicetha”, 2, 61 ; 3. pl. “cikyur” ; p. “cikivas” ; ā. “cikye” and “cicye” ; p. “cikyāna” v; 2nd fut. p. “ceṣyat” ; 1st fut. “cetā” ; aor. “acaiṣīt” on iii, 1, 42 and vii, 2, 1; Ved. “cikayām akar”, iii, 1, 42 ; 1. sg. “acaiṣam”, 2. sg. “acais” ; 3. pl. “acaiṣur” ; ā. “aceṣṭa” ; Prec. “ceṣīṣṭa” “cīyāt”, vii, 4, 25 ; ind. p. “citvā” &c.; Pass. “cīyate” &c.; fut. “cāyiṣyate” & “ceṣy-” Cond. “acāyiṣyata” & “aceṣy-” to arrange in order, heap up, pile up, construct (a sacrificial altar; P., if the priests construct the altar for another; ā., if the sacrificer builds it for himself) ; to collect, gather together, accumulate, acquire for one’s self ; to search through (for collecting; cf. 2. “ci”) (); to cover, inlay, set with ; Pass. “cīyate”, to become covered with ; to increase, thrive ( Caus. “cayayati” and “capay-“, to heap up, gather ; “cāyayati” and “cāpay-” Desid. “cikīṣate” (also “-ti”, vii, 3, 58 to wish to pile up ; “cicīṣati” ( 7-3, 58 ; vi, 4, 16, [ed. “vivīṣ-“] to wish to accumulate or collect Desid. Caus. (p. “cicīṣayat”) to cause any one to wish to arrange in order Intens. “cecīyate” on
चि – ci Ved. cl.3. (“ciketi”, fr. “ki” ; Impv. “ciketu” ; Subj. ā. “ciketa”; impf. “aciket” ; aor. 2. pl. ā. “acidhvam” ; 3. sg. “acait” [fr. 4. “cit” to observe, perceive (with acc. or gen.) ; to fix the gaze upon, be intent upon ; to seek for cl.5. “cinoti” (p. “-nvat”, ā. “-nvāna”) to seek for, investigate, search through, make inquiries (cf. 1. “ci”) Intens. “cekite” see 4. “cit”; ([cf. Lat. ‘scio’.])
चिति – citi f. (only dat. “-taye”, Ved. inf.) understanding
जग्धि – jagdhi f. eating, consuming (dat. “-gdhyai”, Ved. inf.) V, 302 (v.l.) f. the being eaten by (instr.)
जग्ध्वाय – jagdhvāya Ved. ind. p. id.
जन् – jan cl.1. ([ and 10. “janati, -te” (Subj. “janat” ; “-nāt” ā. “-nata” impf. “ajanat” ; p. “janat”), “janayati, -te” (in later language only P. Subj. “-nayat”; impf. “ajanayat”; aor. “ajījanat”; p. “janayat”; inf. “janayitavai” xiv), twice cl.3. (Subj. “jajanat” [ ix, 8]; cf. ; pr. “jajanti” aor. ā. “janiṣṭa”; ā. “ajani” “jajāna”; 3. pl. “jajṇur” &c.; once “jajanur”, viii, 97, 10 p. “-jṇivas”; Ved. inf. “janitos”, iv, 6, 7 iii; [ 3-4, 6]; Ved. ind. p. “-nitvī” to generate, beget, produce, create, cause &c.; to produce (a song of praise, &c.) ; (cl. 10 or Caus.) to cause to be born ,; to assign, procure cl.4. “jāyate” (ep. also “-ti”; impf. “ajāyata”; pr. p. “jayamāna”; fut. “janiṣyate”; aor. “aaniṣṭa”; 1. [ viii, 6, 10] and 3. sg. “ajani”; 3 “sani” “jani”, i, 141, 1; “jāni”, 7, 36; perf. “jajṇe”, 2. sg. “-jṇiṣe” 3. pl. “-jṇire”, p. “-jṇāna”) and ([]) cl, 2. (?) ā. (2. sg. “jaṇiṣe”, 2. pl. “-jiṇre, -niṣvā” [vi, 15, 18], “-nidhvam” cf. ; impf. 3. p. “ajṇata” [aor. cl.1.ā. (impf. 3. pl. “ajanatā” ; p. “janamāna”, viii, 99, 3) to be born or produced, come into existence &c.; to grow (as plants, teeth) iv f. ; to be born as, be by birth or nature (with double nom.) ; to be born or destined for (acc.) (v.l. “jayate” for “jāy-“); to be born again Introd. 14; to become, be &c.; to be changed into (dat.) ; to take place, happen ; to be possible or applicable or suitable ; to generate, produce Pass. “janyate”, to be born or produced Desid. “jijaniṣati”, 42 Intens. “jaṇjanyate” and “jājāy-“, 43 (cf. ; ([cf. [characters] Lat. ‘gigno’, ‘(g) nascor’; Hib. ‘genim’, “I beget, generate.”])
जरद्गव – jaradgava “jarad-gava” m. (= “go-jara”) an old bull or ox, Ved. ( i, 3, 31 on m. N. of a vulture
जरसान – jarasāna m. (Ved. aor. p.) a man
जलाषह् – jalāṣah “jalā-ṣah” (nom. “-ṣāḍ” on ; acc. “-ṣāham” g. “suṣāmādi”), Ved. mfn. subduing water
जलासह् – jalāsah “jalā-sah” Ved. mfn. = “-ṣah”, 56
जा – jā mfn. (Ved. for 2. “ja” cf. ifc. “born, produced” see “agra-, adri-, apsu-jā” &c.
जागृ – jāgṛ cl.2. “-garti” (cf. cl.1. “-garati” sg. irr. “-gṛmi”, 6518; 3. pl. “jāgrati” &c. [ 6-1, 189 ; Impv. “-gṛhi, -gṛtāt, -gṛtam, -gṛta”; Subj. “-garat”; Pot. “-gṛyāt”, or “-griy-” impf. “ajāgar” [ x, 104, 9]; p. “jāgrat”; rarely ā. “jāgramāṇa” ; pf. Ved. “jāgāra” [ sg. “-gara” [ x, 149, 5], p. “-gṛvas” [see s.v.]; pf. class. [ 3-1, 38; vii, 3, 85; but cf. vi, 1, 8 “jajāgāra” or “jāgaraṁ-cakāra”; fut. 2nd “jāgriṣyati” &c. [ā. fut. 1st “-ritā” 1 ; aor. “ajāgarīt”, vii, 2, 5; Pass. impers. “ajagāri”, 3, 85; Prec. “jāgaryāt”, iii, 4, 104 to be awake or watchful &c.; to awake ; to watch over, be attentive to or intent on, care for, provide, superintend (with loc. or loc. with “adhi”) &c. (with acc. ; (said of fire) to go on burning Prāyaśc. i, 5; to be evident ; to look on Caus. (aor. 2. and 3. sg. “ajīgar” Impv. “jigṛtam, -ta”) to awaken ; “jāgarayati”, ( 7-3, 85; aor. Pass. impers. “aṇāgari” or “-gāri” id. ; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘vigilo’.])
जि – ji cl.1. “jayati, -te” (impf. “ajayat”; aor. “ajaiṣīt”, Ved. “ajais”, 1. pl. “ajaiṣma, jeṣma”, 2. sg. “jes” and ā. “jeṣi” Subj. “jeṣat, -ṣas, -ṣāma” ; aor. ā. “ajeṣṭa”; fut. 1st. “jetā” &c.; fut. 2nd. “jeṣyati”, x, 34, 6 &c.; pf. “jigāya” [ 7-3, 57], “jigetha, jigyur”; p. “jigīvas” [“-givas” ; acc. pl. “-gyuṣas”] &c.; Inf. “jiṣe”, i, 111, 4 and 112, 12; “jetave” ; Class. “jetum”: Pass. “jīyate, ajīyata” [ xi, 65], “ajāyi, jāyiṣyate”; for “jīyate” and cl.9. “jināti” see “jyā”) to win or acquire (by conquest or in gambling), conquer (in battle), vanquish (in a game or lawsuit), defeat, excel, surpass &c. (with “punar”, “to reconquer” ; to conquer (the passions), overcome or remove (any desire or difficulties or diseases) &c.; to expel from (abl.) ; to win anything (acc.) from (acc.), vanquish anyone (acc.) in a game (acc.) ; to be victorious, gain the upper hand ; often pr. in the sense of an Impv. “long live!” “glory to” &c.: Caus. “jāpayati” ( 6-1, 48 and vii, 3, 36) to cause to win ; (aor. 2. pl, “ajījipata” and “ajījap-“) ; to conquer (aor. “ajījayat”): Pass. “jāpyate”, to be made to conquer Desid. “jigīṣati, -te” ( 7-3, 57; p. “-ṣat, -ṣamāṇa”) to wish to win or obtain or conquer or excel &c.; (ā.) to seek for prey Intens. “jejīyate”
जिगीषा – jigīṣā f. desire of obtaining, (“-ṣā”, Ved. instr.) f. desire of conquering or being victorious, military ambition, i, v
जिषे – jiṣe Ved. Inf. “ji”, q.v.
जीव् – jīv cl.1. “jīvati” (ep. also ā.; Subj. “-vāti” ; “-vāt” ; p. “jīvat”; aor. “ajivīt; jīvīt” ; pf. “jijīva”; fut. “jīviṣyati”; Prec. “-vyāsam, -vyāsma” ; inf. “jīvitum”, xiv &c.; Ved. “-vāse” ; “jīvitavaī”. to live, be or remain alive &c.; to revive ; (with “punar”) ; to live by (instr.; exceptionally loc., v, 1059f.) &c.: Caus. “jīvayati” (ep. also ā.; aor. “aījijvat” or “ajijīv-” to make alive, restore to life, vivify &c.; to support life, keep alive &c.; to nourish, bring up, i, xiii ; to shout “”jīva”” (i.e. long live!) cxxiv, 113; “jīvāpayati” (cf. “-pita”) to restore to life Desid. “jijīviṣati” (ā to wish to live &c.; to seek a livelihood, wish to live by (instr.) ; “jujyūṣati” id. ; cf. “jijyūṣita”; ([cf. Lat. ‘vivo’; Lith. ‘gIvenu’.])
जुष् – juṣ cl.6.ā. “-ṣate” (also P. [“-ṣat, ajuṣat”] &c.; Subj. “-ṣāte”; Pot. “-ṣeta”; 3. pl. “-ṣerata” ; Impv. “-ṣatām”; impf. “ajuṣata”, ii, 37, 4; 1. sg. “ajuṣe” ; p. “-ṣamāṇa”) cl.3.P.irr. “jujoṣati” (Subj. and p. “jujoṣat”; cf. 2; Impv. 2. pl. “-juṣṭana” cl.1. P. “joṣati” (Subj. “joṣat”; – aor. p. “juṣāṇa”; 3. pl. “ajuṣran”, i, 71, 1; 2. sg. “joṣi”, ii, iv; 3. sg. “joṣiṣat”, ii, 35, 1 [cf. on ; pf. “jujoṣa, -juṣe”; p. “-juṣvas”, generally “-ṣāṇa”; ind. p. “juṣṭvī” to be pleased or satisfied or favourable &c.; to like, be fond of delight in (acc. or gen.), enjoy (with “tanvām” or “-vas”, “to be delighted”, iii, 1, 1; x, 8, 3) &c.; to have pleasure in granting anything (acc.) to (loc.) ; to have pleasure in (dat.), resolve to (Ved. Inf.), i, 167, 5; iv, 24, 5 ; to give pleasure to (loc.) ; to choose for (dat.) ; to devote one’s self to (acc.), practise, undergo, suffer ; to delight in visiting, frequent, visit, inhabit, enter (a carriage &c.) ; to afflict iii: Caus. ā. (Subj. 2. sg. “joṣayāse”) to like, love, behave kindly towards (acc.), cherish ; to delight in, approve of (acc.), choose ; (P. cf. ; ([cf. [characters]; Zd. ‘zaoSa’; Hib. ‘gus’; Goth. ‘kiusu’; Lat. ‘gus-tus’.])
ज्या – jyā (cf. “ji”) cl.9.P. “jināti” (Pot. “-nīyāt”; p. “-nat”; pf. “jijyau”; fut. “jyāsyati” ; ind p. “-jyāya”, 42) Ved. to overpower, oppress, deprive any one (acc.) of property (acc.) &c.; (derived fr. “jyāyas”, “senior”) to become old cl.4. ā. “jīyate” or Pass. “-yate”, Ved. to be oppressed or treated badly, be deprived of property (or everything, “sarva-jyānim” vii) &c.: Caus. “jyāpayati”, to call any one old 46: Desid. (p. “jijyāsat”) to wish to overpower Intens. “jejīyate” ; cf. “pari-“; [characters].
तक्षन् – takṣan m. (Ved. acc. “-kṣaṇam”, class. “-kṣaṇam” a wood-cutter, carpenter, [characters] &c. m. N. of a teacher
तत – tata m. (cf. “tāta”) chiefly Ved. a father (familiar expression corresponding to “nanā”, mother) &c. (voc. [like “tāta”] also term of affection addressed to a son
तद् – tad (nom. and acc. sg. n. of and base in comp. for 2. “ta” from which latter all the cases of this pron. are formed except nom. sg. m. “sas” or “sa” & f. “sā”; instr. pl. “tais” &c.; Ved. “tebhis” &c.) m. he f. she n. it, that, this (often correlative of “ya” generally standing in the preceding clause e.g. “yasya buddhiḥ sa balavān”, “of whom there is intellect he is strong”; sometimes, for the sake of emphasis, connected with the 1st and 2nd personal pronouns, with other demonstratives and with relatives e.g. “so ‘ham”, “I that very person, I myself” [“tasya” = “mama” ; “tāv imau”, “those very two”; “tad etad ākhyānam”, “that very tale” ; “yat tat kāraṇam”, “that very reason which” ; “yā sā śrī”, “that very fortune which” &c.; (“tad”) n. this world (cf. “idam”) ; = Brahma see “tat-tva”; (“tad”) ind. there, in that place, thither, to that spot (correlative of “yatra” or “yatas”) ; then, at that time, in that case (correlative of “yadā, yad” ; of “yatra” ; of “yadi” &c.; of “ced” &c.) &c.; thus, in this manner, with regard to that, ix, xiii ; (“tad etau ślokau bhavataḥ”, “with reference to that there are these two verses”) ; on that account, for that reason, therefore, consequently (sometimes correlative of “yatas, yad, yena”, “because” &c.) &c.; now (clause-connecting particle) ; so also, equally, and
तन्यतु – tanyatu m. thunder (Ved. instr. “-tā”, i, 80, 12; perhaps mfn. = “tanayitnu”, iv, 38, 8; vi, 6, 2; x, 65, 13 and 66, 10) m. wind (“a musical instrument” m. night
तना – tanā f. sg. or Ved. n. pl. id.
तम् – tam cl.4. “tāmyati” ( 7-3, 74; rarely ā. ; pf. “tatāma” ; aor. Pass. “atami” ; Ved. inf. “tamitos”, with “ā” preceding, “till exhaustion” ; pf. Pass. p. “-tānta” q.v.) to gasp for breath (as one suffocating), choke, be suffocated, faint away, be exhausted, perish, be distressed or disturbed or perplexed (“na mā tamat” [aor. subj.] “may I not be exhausted”) &c.; to stop (as breath), become immovable or stiff ; to desire (cf. 2. “-ma, -mata”) Caus. “tamayati” (aor. Pass. “atāmi” to suffocate, deprive of breath ; cf. “a-tameru”.
तमिषीची – tamiṣīcī “īs” irr. “ayas”, Ved. f. pl. (fr. “tamiṣy-ac”) oppressing, stunning, confusing
तरीषणि – tarīṣaṇi Ved. inf. “tṝ” q.v.
तिज् – tij cl.1. “tejate” (“-ti” ; p. “tejamāna”; Ved. inf. “tejase”) to be or become sharp (“tetijāna”, “sharp” ; to sharpen, x, 138, 5: Caus. “tejayati” id. ; to stir up, excite Desid. “titikṣate” ( 3-1, 5; 1. pl. “-kṣmahe” ; fut. “-kṣiṣyate” ; ep. also P. e.g. p. “-kṣat” iii) “to desire to become sharp or firm”, to bear with firmness, suffer with courage or patience, endure viii &c.: Intens. “tetikte” ( 7-4, 65; p. “-tijāna” see above ) to sharpen ; ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘dis-tinguo’, &c.])
तुग्रिय – tugriya Ved. = “-rya”
तुरीय – turīya (for “ktur-” [Zd. ‘khtuiria’] fr. “catur”), mfn. ( 5-2, 51 1) Ved. 4th &c.; consisting of 4 parts ; n. the 4th state of spirit (pure impersonal Spirit or Brahma) ( 35) ; mfn. being in that state of soul ; “tur-“, a 4th, constituting the 4th part, (n.) a 4th part &c. (with “yantra”, “a quadrant”
तुर्वणे – turvaṇe Ved. inf.; see “turv”.
तूपर – tūpara mf (“ā” ) n. Ved. hornless, (m.) a hornless goat &c.
तृऋ – tṝ cl.1.P. (rarely ā.) “tarati” (Subj. “tarat” impf. “atarat”, p. “tarat” inf. “taradhyai, -rīṣani” cl.5. “tarute” (x, 76, 2; Pot. 1. pl. “turyāma”, v f.) cl.3. “titarti” (; p. nom. pl. “titratas” ; Pot. “tuturyāt”, v f. viii), with prepositions Ved. chiefly cl.6. P. ā. (“tirate” Subj. “tirāti” impf. “atirat”, p. “tirat” inf. “tiram, tire” ; -aor. “atārīt”, i, vii; 1. pl. “-riṣma” i, vii, “-rima” viii, 13, 21; “taruṣante” v, “-ta” i, “-ṣema” vii [cf. ; ā. and Pass. “-tāri” ; P. “atārṣīt” ; “-ṣam” ; pf. “tatāra” &c.; 3. pl. “titirur”, i f.; “teritha, -ratur” ; p. “titirvas” gen. “tataruṣas” ; fut. “tariṣyati, -rīṣ-, taritā, -rītā” [cf. “pra-tar-“] ; “tarutā” ; Prec. “tīryāt, tariṣīṣṭa” ; inf. “tartum” ; “-rīt-” iv f. “-rit-” ; ind. p. “tīrtvā” ; “-tūrya” see “vi-“) to pass across or over, cross over (a river), sail across &c.; to float, swim lxxx, 14 ; to get through, attain an end or aim, live through (a definite period), study to the end &c.; to fulfil, accomplish, perform i f.; to surpass, overcome, subdue, escape &c.; to acquire, gain, viii, 100, 8 ; ā. to contend, compete ; to carry through or over, save, vii, 18, 6 Caus. “tārayati” (p. “-rayat”) to carry or lead over or across &c.; to cause to arrive at ; to rescue, save, liberate from (abl.) &c.: Desid. “titīrṣati” (also “titariṣati, -rīṣ-” ; p. ā. “titīrṣamāṇa” to wish to cross or reach by crossing iv: Intens. “tartarīti” (2. du. “-rīthas”; p. gen. “tarilratas” [ 7-4, 65]; see also “vi-; tātarti”, 92 to reach the end by passing or running or living through ; ([cf. “tara, tiras, tīrṇa”; Lat. ‘termo’, ‘trans’; Goth. ‘thairh’.])
त्यज् – tyaj cl.1. “-jati” (metrically also “-te”; pf. Ved. “tityāja”, Class. “tat-” ; “tatyaja” ; fut. “tyakṣyati” ; “tyajiṣy-” ; aor. “atyāhṣīt”; inf. “tyaktum”) to leave, abandon, quit &c.; to leave a place, go away from &c.; to let go, dismiss, discharge ; to give up, surrender, resign, part from, renounce 1 &c. (“tanum” or “deham” or “kalevaram”, “to abandon the body, die” &c.; “prāṇān” or “śvāsam” or “jīvitam”, “to give up breath or life, risk or lose one’s life” &c.); P. ā. to shun, avoid, get rid of, free one’s self from (any passion &c.) &c.; to give away, distribute, offer (as a sacrifice or oblation to a deity; “tyajate” etymologically = [characters] ) &c.; to set aside, leave unnoticed, disregard ; (ind. p. “tyaktvā”) to except ; Pass. “tyajyate”, to be abandoned by, get rid of (instr.) Caus. “tyājayati” (aor. “atityajat” to cause anyone to quit ; to cause anyone to give up lxxxiii, 34; to expel, turn out, xx, 126; to cause any one to lose, deprive of (instr.) ; to empty the body by evacuations Desid. “tityakṣati”, to be about to lose (one’s life, “prāṇān”)
दत्तादत्त – dattādatta mfn. given and received.
द्यु – dyu (nom. “dyaus”; voc. “dyaus” [ vi, 51, 5 ; acc. “dyām” “divam”; instr. “divā” or “dīvā” [see below]; dat. “dive” [“dyave” ; abl. gen. “divas” [rarely “dyos” e.g. ; loc. “divi, dyavi”; du. “dyāvā” s.v. [“dyavī” as voc. only iv, 56, 5]; pl. nom. “dyāas” [“divas” only ix, 118, 11]; acc. “dyūn” [rare, “divas, divas” e.g. i, 194, 2; iv, 3, 8]; instr. “dyubhis”; native grammarians give as stems “div” and “dyo”; the latter is declined through all cases like “go”, but really does not occur except in forms mentioned above and in “dyo-salila” “div” and “dyu” regularly alternate before vow. and cons.) m. (rarely f.) in Ved. f. in later Skr. heaven, the sky (regarded in Ved. as rising in three tiers [“avama, madhyama, uttama” or “tṛtīya” (“dyauṣ” “pitā”, while the earth is the mother [cf. “dyāvā-pṛthivī”], and Ushas the daughter), rarely as a goddess, daughter of Prajā-pati ; m. (rarely n.) day (esp. in pl. and in such forms as “divā”), by day (cf. s.v.); “dyavi-dyavi”, daily, every day; “anu dyūn”, day by day, daily; “dyubhis” and “upa dyubhis”, by day or in the course of days, a long time ; m. brightness, sheen, glow (only “dyubhis”) ; fire (nom. “dyus”) “dyu”; Gk. [greek] &c. = ‘dyaus’, ‘divas’; Lat. ‘Jou’, ‘Ju’ in ‘Ju-piter’, ‘Jovis’, ‘Jovi’ &c. = ‘dyavas’, ‘dyavi’; O.E. ‘Tiw’; O.H.G. ‘ZIu’ O.N. ‘Tyr’.]
दिर्घायु – dirghāyu mfn. long-lived. viii, 70, 7
दुर्वण्च – durvaṇca “dur-vaṇca” mfn. difficult to be deceived.
दृश् – dṛś m. (nom. “k”, Ved. “ṅ” seeing, viewing, looking at m. knowing, discerning &c. (ifc. cf. “āyurveda-d-, diṣṭa-d-, pṛthag-d-, mantra-d-, sama-d-, sarva-d-, sūryad-“)
दृऋ – dṝ cl.9.P. “dṛṇāti” Pot. “-dṛṇīyāt” ; cl.2. P. 2. sg. Subj. “darṣi”, 2. 3. sg. “dart” impf. 2. sg. “adar” (pf. “dadāra”, [2. sg. “dadaritha” ; 3 pl. “dadrur” or “dadarur”, vii, 4, 12 aor. “adarat” [Ved. “adārīt”] ; Subj. P. “darṣasi, darṣat”; ā. “darṣate”; Pot. “-ṣīṣṭa” ; Prec. “dīryāt” 15177) to burst, break asunder, split open (cf. above ); to cause to burst, tear, rend, divide Pass. “dīryate” (“-ti” “dīryamāṇa” and “dīryat”; pf. “dadre” ( xiv, 27, 2) to be split, break open, fall asunder, decay ; to be dispersed or scattered (as an army) ; to be frightened or afraid (also “darati”) Caus. P. “darayati”, to split, tear, break open ; P. ā. “dārayati, -te”; aor. “adadarat” ( 7-4, 95) to tear asunder, divide by splitting or digging &c.; to scatter, disperse Intens. P. “dardarti” or “dādarti”; Impv. 2. sg. “dādṛhi”; Subj. 3. sg. “dardirat”; impf. 2. 3. sg. “adardar”, 3. pl. “adardirur” = Caus. ‘diru’; Slav. ‘drati’; Goth. ‘tairan’; Angl. Sax. ‘teran’; Eng. ‘to tear’; Germ. ‘zerren’, ‘zehren’.]
धा – dhā cl.3.P. ā. “dadhāti, dhatte” &c. &c. (P. du. “dadhvas, dhatthas, dhattas” [ 8-2, 38]; pl. “dadhmasi” or “-mas, dhattha, dādhati”; impf. “adadhāt” pl. “-dhur”, 2. pl. “adhatta” or “adadhāta” ; Subj. “dadhat” or “-dhāt” [ 7-3, 70 , “-dhas, -dhatas, -dhan”; Pot. “dadhyāt”; Impv. “dādhātu” pl. “-dhatu”; 2. sg. “dhehi” [fr. “dhaddhi”; cf. “dhattāt” ; 2. pl. “dhatta”, i, 64, 15, “dhattana”, i, 20, 7, “dadhāta”, vii, 32, 13, or “-tana”, x, 36, 13 [cf. ; p. “dadhat, -ti” m. pl. “-tas”; ā. 1. sg. “dadhe” [at once 3. sg. = “dhatte” and = pf. ā.], 2. sg. “dhatse”, viii, 85, 5 or “dhatse” du. “dadhāthe, -dhāte”; 2. pl. “-dhidhve” [cf. pf.]; 3. pl. “dadhate” ; impf. “adhatta, -tthās”; Subj. “dadhase”, viii, 32, 6 [ 3-4, 96 ; Pot. “dadhīta” “dadhīta”, v, 66, 1; Impv. 2. sg. “dhatsva”, x, 87, 2 or “dadhiṣva”, iii, 40, 5 &c.; 2. pl. “dhaddhvam” [ 8-2, 38 or “dadhidhvam” “dadhatām” ; p. “dadhāna”); rarely cl.1. P. ā. “dadhati, -te” ; only thrice cl.2. P. “dhāti” ; and once cl.4. ā. Pot. “dhāyeta” (pf.P. “dadhau, -dhātha, -dhatur, -dhimā, -dhur” &c.; ā. “dadhe” [cf. pr.], “dadhiṣe” or “dhiṣe” du. “dadhāthe, -dhāte”, 2. pl. “dadhidhve” [cf. pr.]; 3. pl. “dadhire, dadhre”, x, 82, 5; 6, or “dhire”, i, 166, 10 &c.; p. “dadhāna” [cf. pr.]; aor. P. “adhāt, dhāt, dhās; adhur, dhur” &c.; Pot. “dheyām, -yur; dhetana” ; 2. sg. “dhāyīs” ; Impv. “dhātu” [cf. 6-i, 8 3 ; 2. pl. “dhāta” or “-tana”, 3. pl. “dhāntu” ; ā. “adhita, -thās, adhītām, adhīmahi, dhīmahi, dhimahe, dhāmahe” ; 3. sg. “ahita, hita” ; Subj. “dhethe” , “dhaithe”, vi, 67, 7; Impv. “dhiṣvā”, ii, 11, 18, &c.; P. “adhat” ; “dhat” ; P. “dhāsur” Subj. “-sathas” and “-satha” ; ā. “adhiṣi, -ṣata” ; Pot. “dhiṣīya” [P. vii, 4, 45]; “dheṣīya” ; fut. “dhāsyati, -te” or “dhātā” &c.; inf. “dhātum” &c.; Ved. also “-tave, -tavai, -tos; dhiyadhyai” ; Class. also “-dhitum”; ind. P. “dhitvā” ; “hitvā” [ 7-4, 42], “-dhāya”and”-dhām” Pass. “dhīyate” &c. [ 6-4, 66], p. “dhīyamāna” ; aor. “adhāyi, dhāyi” [ 7-3, 33 ; Prec. “dhāsīṣṭa” or “dhāyiṣīṣṭa” [vi, 4, 62]) to put, place, set, lay in or on (loc.) &c. &c. (with “daṇḍam”, to inflict punishment on [with loc. gen. ; with “tat-padavyām padam”, to put one’s foot in another’s footstep i.e. imitate, equal ii. 64); to take or bring or help to (loc. or dat.; with “āre”, to remove) ; (ā.) to direct or fix the mind or attention (“cintām, manas, matim, samādhim” &c.) upon, think of (loc. or dat.), fix or resolve upon (loc. dat. acc. with “prati” or a sentence closed with “iti”) ; to destine for, bestow on, present or impart to (loc. dat. or gen.) &c. (Pass. to be given or granted, fall to one’s [dat.] lot or share ; to appoint, establish, constitute ; to render (with double acc.) iii. 82; to make, produce, generate, create, cause, effect, perform, execute &c. (aor. with “pūrayām, mantrayām, varayām” &c. = “pūrayām” &c. “cakāra”); to seize, take hold of, hold, bear, support, wear, put on (clothes) &c.; (ā.) to accept, obtain, conceive (esp. in the womb), get, take (with “okas” or “canas”, to take pleasure or delight in [loc. or dat.]) ; to assume, have, possess, show, exhibit, incur, undergo Caus. “-dhāpayati” (see “antar-dhā, śrad-dhā” &c.): Desid. “dhitsati, -te” ( 7-4, 54), to wish to put in or lay on (loc.) (Class. Pass. “dhitsyate; dhitsya” see s.v.); “didhiṣati, -te”, to wish to give or present ; (ā.) to wish to gain, strive after (p. “didhiṣāṇa”, x, 114, 1) with “avadyam”, to bid defiance (cf. “didhiṣāyya, didhiṣu”): Intens. “dedhīyate” ‘da’, ‘dadaiti’; Gk. [greek]; Lith. ‘dedu’, ‘deti’; Slav. ‘dedja’, ‘diti’; Old Sax. ‘duan’, ‘don’, Angl. Sax. ‘don’, Engl. ‘do’; Germ. ‘tuan’; ‘tuon’, ‘thun’.]
निर्हर्तव्य – nirhartavya “nir-hartavya” () mfn. to be taken away or removed.
निषद् – niṣad “ni-ṣad” (“sad”) P. “-ṣīdati”, Ved. also “-ṣadati” (impf. “ny-aṣīdat”, or “ny-asīdat”; Ved. also “-asadat”; pf. P. “-ṣasāda, -ṣedur” ā. “-ṣedire” &c. &c.; aor. P. “-ṣatsi, -ṣatsat”; Pass. “ny-asādi” ; ind. p. “-ṣadya” ; Ved. inf. “-ṣade” ; for “s” and “ṣ” cf. , to sit or lie down or rest upon (loc.) &c. &c.; to sink or go down (as a ship) ; to be afflicted, suffer pain ; to perform or celebrate by sitting (“sattram”) ; (P. ā.) to set, found, establish, appoint Caus. “-ṣādayati, -te” to cause to sit down, set down, appoint
पराणुद् – parāṇud “parā-ṇud” (“nud”) P. ā. “-ṇudati, -te” (Ved. inf. “-ṇude”) to push or drive away, banish, remove
परादा – parādā “parā-dā” P. “-dadāti”, (pf. “-dadātha” aor. “-dās, -dāt” [often as Subj.], “-dur”; Ved. inf. “-dai”), to give up or over, deliver, throw away ; give in exchange for, barter against (dat.) ; to exclude from
पराभू – parābhū “parā-bhū” P. “-bhavati” (fut. “-bhaviṣyati”; Ved. inf. “-bhuve”), to perish, disappear, be lost, succumb, yield &c.; to overcome, conquer ; (Pass. p. “-bhūyamāna” to harm, hurt, injure &c.: Caus. “-bhāvayati”, to overthrow, destroy &c.; (ā.) to vanish, perish, sustain a loss
परिग्रह् – parigrah “pari-grah” P. ā. “-gṛhṇāti, -ṇīte” (Impv. 2. sg. “-gṛhāṇa” ; impf. “-agṛhṇāḥ” ; 3. sg. “-agṛhṇat” ; 3. pl. “-agṛhṇan” ; ā. “-agṛhṇanta” ; pf. 1. sg. “-jagrabha” ; 3. sg. “-jagrāha” &c.; ind. p. “-gṛhya” &c.), to take hold of on both sides, embrace, surround, enfold, envelop &c.; to fence round, hedge round ; to occupy on both sides (“sarasvatīm”) ; to seize, clutch, grasp, catch ; to put on, wear (as a dress or ornament) ; to take or carry along with one &c.; to take possession of, master, overpower ; to take (in war), take prisoner, conquer ; to take (food) ; to receive, (also as a guest) accept ; to take, adopt, conform to, follow &c.; to take by the hand, assist ; to take (a wife), marry ; to surpass, excel ; (in Ved. gram.) to enclose (“iti”) between a word twice repeated (cf. “pari-graha”).
परिग्रह – parigraha “pari-graha” m. (in Ved. gram.) the double mention of a word both before and after “iti” m. the form which precedes “iti” m. a curse, imprecation, oath m. an eclipse of the sun m. the rear or reserve of an army (v.l. “prati-gr-“)
परिचक्ष् – paricakṣ “pari-cakṣ” ā. “-caṣṭe” (3. pl. “-cakṣate”; Pot. “-cakṣīta” Pass. “-cakṣyate”; Ved. inf. “-cakṣi”), to overlook, pass over, despise, reject ; to declare guilty, condemn ; to forbid ; to mention, relate, own, acknowledge ; to call, name &c.; to address (acc.), answer
परिधा – paridhā “pari-dhā” P. ā. “-dadhāti, -dhatte”, (pf. “-dadhur, -dadhire”; fut. “-dhāsyati”; aor. “-dhāt, -dhīmahi”; ind. p. “-dhāya”; Ved. inf. “pari-dhātavai”), to lay or put or place or set round &c. &c.; to cast round, turn upon (“dṛṣṭim”, with loc. ; to put on, wear (with or sc. “vāsas”), dress &c.; surround, envelop, enclose &c. &c.; to conclude or close (the recitation of a hymn) Caus. “-dhāpayati” (ind. p. “-yitvā” , to cause a person to wrap round or put on (2 acc.) &c.; to clothe with (instr.) Desid. “-dhitsate”, to wish to put on
परिभू – paribhū “pari-bhū” P. ā. “-bhavati, -te” (pf. “-babhūva, -bhūtha, -bhūvuḥ” ; aor. “-abhūvan, -bhuvat”; Subj. “-bhūtas, -bhūthas” ; Impv. “-bhūtu” ; Ved. inf. “-bhve” ; ind. p. “-bhūya” &c.: Pass. “-bhūyate” ; fut. “-bhaviṣyate” , to be round anything, surround, enclose, contain ; to go or fly round, accompany, attend to, take care of, guide, govern ; to be superior, excel, surpass, subdue, conquer &c. &c.; to pass round or over, not heed, slight, despise, insult &c.; to disgrace ; to disappear, be lost (= “parā-bhū”) Caus. “-bhāvayati, -te” (ind. p. “-bhāvya”), to spread around, divulge, make known ; to surpass, exceed ; to soak, saturate, sprinkle ; to contain, include ; to conceive, think, consider, know, recognise as (acc.)
परिविष् – pariviṣ “pari-viṣ” P. “-veṣati” (mostly Intens. “-veveṣṭi” Subj. “-veviṣati” Pot. “-veviṣyāt” ; “-veviṣāṇi, -aveviṣat” ; ā. fut. p. “-vekṣyamāṇa” ; ind. p. “-viṣya” ; Ved. inf. “-viṣe” , to serve, wait on, offer or dress food: Pass. “-viṣyate”, to be served &c. ; to have a halo (said of sun or moon) Caus. “-veṣayati” (ind. p. “-veṣya”, also written “-veś-“), to offer food, wait on (acc.) ; to dress food
परिश्रि – pariśri “pari-śri” P. “-śrayati” (ind. p. “-śritya”; Ved. inf. “pari-śrayitavai”), to surround, encircle, fence, enclose Pass. “-śrīyasva”, be surrounded or surround thyself
परिस्तृ – paristṛ “pari-stṛ” P. ā. “-stṛṇoti, -ṇute”, or “-stṛṇāti, -ṇīte” (perf. 3. pl. “-tastaruḥ” , “-tastarire” ; ind. p. “-stīrya” ; Ved. inf. “pariśtarītavai” [cf. , to strew or lay round, enclose (as fire with grass) &c.; to envelop, cover (lit. and fig.) ; to spread, extend
पर्षणि – parṣaṇi Ved. inf. of 1. “pṛ”
पा – pā cl.1.P. ( xxii, 27) “pibati” (Ved. and ep. also ā. “-te”; rarely “pipati, -te” cl.2. “pāti, pāthas, pānti” ; p. ā. “papāna” , “pipāna” (pf. P. “papau”, 2. sg. “papātha” ; “papitha” ; “papīyāt” ; p. “papivas” ; ā. “pape, papire” ; p. “papāna” ; aor. or impf. “apāt” [cf. pl. “apuḥ” [?] ; “-pāsta” Prec. 3. sg. “peyās” ; fut. “pāsyati, -te” &c.; “pātā” Gr.; ind. p. “pītvā” &c. &c., “-tvī” ; “-pāya” &c. &c.; “pītyā” ; “pāyam” ; inf. “pibadhyai” ; “pātum” &c.; “pātave” ; “pātavaī” , to drink, quaff, suck, sip, swallow (with acc., rarely gen.) &c. &c.; (met.) to imbibe, draw in, appropriate, enjoy, feast upon (with the eyes, ears &c.) &c.; to drink up, exhaust, absorb ; to drink intoxicating liquors Pass. “pīyate” &c. &c.: Caus. “pāyayati, -te” (pf. “pāyayām āsā” ; aor. “apīpyat” ; ind. p. “pāyayitvā” ; inf. “pāyayitavai” , to cause to drink, give to drink, water (horses or cattle) &c. &c.: Desid. “pipāsati” ( also “pipīṣati”), to wish to drink, thirst Desid. of Caus. “pipāyayiṣati”, to wish or intend to give to drink Intens. “pepīyate” (p. “-yamāna” also with pass meaning), to drink greedily or repeatedly [characters] -[characters] -[characters]; Aeol. [characters] -[characters] = [characters]; Lat. ‘pa-tus’, ‘potum’, ‘bibo’ for ‘pi-bo’; Slav. ‘pi-ja’, ‘pi-ti’]
पितृयाण – pitṛyāṇa “pitṛ-yāṇa” (Ved.) mfn. trodden by or leading to the Pitris (path)
पितृयाण – pitṛyāṇa “pitṛ-yāṇa” (Ved.) .; m. (with or scil. “pathin”) the path leading to the Pitris &c.
पितृयाण – pitṛyāṇa “pitṛ-yāṇa” (Ved.) .; n. (“-yāna”) id.
पितृयाण – pitṛyāṇa “pitṛ-yāṇa” (Ved.) .; n. the vehicle of the Pitris, a car to convey virtuous persons after their decease to heaven
पिश् – piś (“piṁś”) cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 143) “piṁśati”, Ved. also ā. “-te” (pf. “pipeśa, pipiśe” “-śre” ; aor. p. “piśāna” ; “apeśīt” Gr.; fut. “peśiṣyati, peśitā” Gr.), to hew out, carve, prepare (esp. meat), make ready, adorn (A. also “one’s self”); to form, fashion, mould Pass. “piśyate” Caus. “peśayate” aor. “apīpiśat” Gr.: Desid. “pipiśiṣati” or “pipeśiṣati” Intens. see “pepiśat, śāna”. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Slav. ‘pisati’; Angl. Sax. ‘fah’.])
पृण् – pṛṇ cl.6.P. “pṛṇati” (p. “pṛṇat”, Ved. Inf. “pṛṇadhyai”) see “pṝ”.
प्रचेतित – pracetita “pra-cetita” mfn. (see “a-prac-“) noticed, observed.
प्रछ् – prach cl.6.P. (), “pṛcchati” (Ved. and ep. also ā. “pṛcchate”; pf. “papraccha” &c., “papṛkṣe” [?] ; aor. “aprākṣīt” &c., “aprāṭ” , “apraṣṭa” ; fut. “prakṣyati” &c., “praṣṭā” Gr.; ind. p. “pṛṣṭvā, -pṛcchya” ; inf. “praṣṭum” &c., “-pṛccham, -cche” , to ask, question, interrogate (acc.); to ask after inquire about (acc.); to ask or interrogate any one (acc.) about anything (acc. dat. loc., “prati”, or “adhikṛtya” with acc.; “arthe” or “hetoḥ” ifc.) (pr.p. ā. “pṛcchamāna”, “asking one’s self”, x; 34, 6) &c. &c.; (in astrol.) to consult the future ; (with “nāmato mātaram”) to inquire about one’s (gen.) mother’s name ; (with “na”) not to trouble one’s self with ; to seek, wish, long for; to ask, demand, beg, entreat (acc.) Pass. “pṛcchyate”, to be asked or questioned about (act. dat. &c., as above ) &c. &c.: Caus. “pracchayati” (aor. “apapracchat”) Gr.: Desid. “pipṛcchiṣati” Intens. “parīpṛcchyate” “pṛk”; cf. Lat. ‘preces’, ‘procus’; ‘poscere’ for ‘porscere’; Slav. ‘prositi’; Lith. ‘praszyti’; Germ. ‘frahen’, ‘fragen’; ‘forskon’, ‘forschen’.]
प्रणेतृ – praṇetṛ “pra-ṇetṛ” m. a leader, guide &c. &c. (Ved. with gen. or acc.; Class. gen. or comp.) m. a maker, creator m. an author, promulgator of a doctrine m. a performer or one who plays a musical instrument m. one who applies (a clyster)
प्रतिधा – pratidhā “prati-dhā” P. ā. “-dadhāti, -dhatte” (Ved. inf. “prati-dhātave”), to put on or in or near or back, return, restore (loc. or dat.) ; to adjust (an arrow), aim ; to put to the lips (for drinking) ; to put down (the feet), step out ; to offer, present ; to use, employ ; to restrain ; (ā.) to commence, begin, approach
प्रतिधृष् – pratidhṛṣ “prati-dhṛṣ” (only pf. “-dadharṣa” and Ved. inf. “-dhṛṣe”), to be bold against, brave, defy (cf. “a-pratidhṛṣṭa” and “-dhṛṣya”).
प्रतिमा – pratimā “prati-mā” ā. “-mimīte” (Ved. inf. “prati-mai”), to imitate, copy
प्रतृऋ – pratṝ “pra-tṝ” P. ā. “-tarati, -te” (Ved. also “-tirati, -te”; inf. “-tiram”), to go to sea, pass over, cross &c. &c.; to set out, start ; (ā.) to rise, thrive, prosper ; to raise, elevate, augment, increase, further, promote ; to extend, prolong (esp. with “āyus”, “to promote long life”; ā. “to live on, live longer”) Caus. “-tārayati” (aor. “prātītarat”), to extend, widen ; to prolong (life) ; to mislead, take in, deceive ; to lead astray, seduce, persuade to (dat. or loc.)
प्रत्यवहृ – pratyavahṛ “praty-ava-hṛ” (only Ved. inf. “-hartos”), to lessen, shorten, diminish Caus. “-hārayati”, to suspend, interrupt, finish
प्रदघस् – pradaghas “pra-daghas” (Ved. inf. of “dagh”), to cause to fall, throw down (w.r. “-daghos”).
प्रदा – pradā “pra-dā” P. “-dadāti”, rarely ā. “-datte”, (Ved. inf. “pra-dātos” ; irreg. Pot. P. “-dadet” , to give away, give, offer, present, grant, bestow &c. &c. (with or scil. “bhāryām”, to give in marriage; with “prativacas”, to grant an answer; with “pravṛttim”, to information about an event; with “yuddham”, to grant battle; with “dvaṁdva-yuddham”, to engage in single combat; with “vidyām”, to communicate or impart knowledge; with “hutāśanam”, to set fire to); to give up, abolish ; to sell (with instr. of price) ; to restore (anything lost &c.) ; to pay, discharge (a debt) ; to put or place in (loc.) Pass. “-dīyate”, to be given away, be given &c.: Caus. “-dāpayati”, to cause to give &c. &c.; to compel to give back or to repay ; to cause to put in or to ; to put or place in (loc.) ; (with “vastim”), to apply a clyster Desid. “-ditsate”, to wish to give in marriage
प्रदृऋ – pradṝ “pra-dṝ” (of P. only Ved. Impv. “-darṣi”), to break or tear to pieces Pass. “-dīryate”, to cleave asunder, split open (intr.) ; to be dispersed or scattered (as an army) Caus. “-dārayati”, to split, cleave, tear asunder
प्रबुध् – prabudh “pra-budh” ā. “-budhyate” (Ved. inf. “-budhe”), to wake up, wake, awake (intrans.) &c. &c.; to expand, open, bloom, blossom &c.; P. “-bodhati”, to become conscious or aware of know, understand, recognise as (2. acc.) Caus. “-bodkayati”, to wake up, awaken (trans.) &c.; to cause to expand or bloom ; to stimulate (by gentle friction), śarṅgS.; to make sensible, cause to know, inform, admonish, persuade, convince &c.; to instruct, teach (two acc.)
प्रभू – prabhū “pra-bhū” P. “-bhavati” (rarely ā. “-te”; Ved. inf. “-bhūṣaṇi”), to come forth, spring up, arise or originate from (abl.), appear, become visible, happen, occur &c. &c.; to be before, surpass (with “pṛṣṭham”, “to be greater or more than the back can carry”, applied to wealth to become or be numerous, increase, prevail, be powerful &c. &c. (3. sg. “prabhavati-tarām”, “as more power” ; to rule, control, have power over, be master of (gen. loc. or dat.) &c.; to be equal to or capable of (dat. or loc.) ; to be a match for (dat.) 2 ; to be able to (inf.) &c.; to profit, avail, be of use to (dat.) ; to implore, beseech (?) Caus. “-bhāvayati”, to increase, spread out, extend, augment, multiply (esp. the Soma by placing it in a greater number of vessels) ; to provide more amply, endow more richly, cause to thrive or prosper, cherish, nurture &c.; (as Nom. fr. “-bhāva” below) to gain or possess power or strength, rule over (acc.) ; to recognise Desid. of Caus. “-bibhāvayiṣati”, to wish to increase or extend
प्रभु – prabhu “pra-bhu” mfn. (Ved. also “ū” f. “vī”) excelling, mighty, powerful, rich, abundant &c. &c. mfn. more powerful than (abl.) mfn. having power over (gen.) mfn. able, capable, having power to (loc. inf. or comp.) mfn. a match for (dat.) 2 mfn. constant, eternal
प्रमा – pramā “pra-mā” ā. “-mimīte” (Ved. inf. “pra-me”; Pass. “-mīyate”), to measure, mete out, estimate ; to form, create, make ready, arrange ; to form a correct notion of (acc.), understand, know Caus. “-māpayati”, to cause correct knowledge, afford proof or authority
प्रमी – pramī “pra-mī” P. “-mināti” (“-mīṇāti” ; “-miṇoti” ; Ved. inf. “-miyam, -miye” and “-metos” cf. below), to frustrate, annul, destroy, annihilate ; to change, alter ; to neglect, transgress, infringe ; to miss, lose (one’s way or time), forget ; to cause to disappear, put out of sight ; to leave behind, outstrip, surmount, surpass (ā. or Pass. “-mīyate” aor. Subj. “-meṣṭhāḥ”) to come to naught, perish, die &c. &c.: Caus. “-māpayati”, to destroy, annihilate, kill, slay &c.; to cause to kill
प्रमियम् – pramiyam “pra-miyam” (Ved. inf.), to miss, lose
प्रमियमिये – pramiyamiye “pra-miyamiye” (Ved. inf.), to frustrate, annihilate
प्रमेतोस् – prametos “pra-metos” (Ved. inf.), to perish
प्रम्रद् – pramrad “pra-mrad” (only Ved. inf. “-mrade”), to destroy, kill (cf. “pra-mṛd”).
प्रवद् – pravad “pra-vad” P. ā. “-vadati, -te” (Ved. inf. “pra-vaditos”), to speak out, pronounce, proclaim, declare, utter, say, tell &c. &c.; to speak to (acc.) ; to raise the voice (said of birds and animals) ; to roar, splash (said of water) ; (cf. “a-pravadat”) to assert, affirm, state ; to pronounce to be, call, name (2 acc.) &c.; to offer for sale (with instr. of price) (v.l.): Caus. “-vādayati”, to cause to sound, play (with acc. of the instrument) &c.; (without an object) to play, make music (also “-vādyati”, with act. meaning
प्रवन् – pravan “pra-van” ā. “-vanute” (Ved. inf. “pravantave”), to vanquish, conquer, gain, procure
प्रवृ – pravṛ “pra-vṛ” P. ā. “-vṛṇāti”, (Ved.) “-vṛṇite” “-vṛṇoti, -vṛṇute” (3 -sg. aor. Subj. “-vṛta” , to choose out, choose as (acc.) or for (dat.) ; to accept gladly Caus. “-varayati”, to choose, select ; “-vārayati”, to please, gratify. (For “pravara”1 mfn. best, &c. see p. 690, col.3.)
प्रवृज् – pravṛj “pra-vṛj” P. ā. “-vṛṇakti, -vṛṅkte”, (Ved. inf. “-vṛje”), to strew (the sacrificial grass) ; to place in or on the fire, heat ; to perform the Pravargya ceremony
प्रसृ – prasṛ “pra-sṛ” P. “-sisarti”, (only Ved.) and “sarati” (sometimes also ā. “-te”), to move forwards, advance (“for” or “against” acc.), proceed (lit. and fig.), spring up, come forth, issue from (abl.), appear, rise, spread, extend &c. &c.; to break out (as fire, a disease &c.) (v.l.); to be displaced (as the humours of the boy) ; to be diffused (as odour) ; to pass. elapse (as night) ; to commence, begin (also Pass. e.g. “prāsāri yājṇah”, “the sacrifice began” ; to prevail, hold good, take place ; to stretch out (hands) ; to agree, promise Caus. “-sārayati”, to stretch out, extend &c. &c.; to spread out, expose (wares &c. for sale) &c.; to open wide (eyes, mouth, &c.), Mṛiccli. ; to diffuse, circulate, exhibit ; to prosecute, transact ; (in gram.) to change a semivowel into the corresponding vowel Intens. (“-sasre, -rāte, -rāṇa”) to extend, be protracted, last
प्रेमन् – preman m. (“premṇā”, Ved. “preṇā”) ind. through love or affection
प्रे – pre (“pra-” 5. “i”) cl.2.P. “praiti” (Ved. inf. “praitos” , to come forth, appear, begin ; to go on, proceed, advance (esp. as a sacrifice) ; to go forwards or farther, come to, arrive at, enter (acc.) ; to go out or away, depart (this life, with or without “asmāl lokāt”, or “itas”), die &c.: Intens. ā. “preyate”, to drive or go forth (said of Ushas)
प्रेष् – preṣ (“pra-iṣ”) P. ā. “preṣyati, -te” (Ved. inf. “preṣe” ; ind. p. “praiṣam” s.v.), to drive on, urge, impel, send forth ; to invite, summon, call upon (another priest to commence a recitation or a ceremony [acc.] e.g. “sāma preṣyati”, “e calls upon to commence the recitation of a Sāman”; esp. Impv. “preṣya”, “call upon to recite or offer [acc. or gen.] to [dat.]”) (cf. Caus. “preṣayati”, to hurl, fling, cast, throw ; to turn or direct the eyes (v.l. “prerayantyā”); to send forth, dismiss, dispatch &c.; to send into exile, banish ; to send word, send a message to a person (gen.)
फलीकृ – phalīkṛ “phalī-kṛ” P. “-karoti” (Ved. inf. “phalī-kartavai”), to separate the fruit or grain from the husks, thresh, winnow
बृह् – bṛh or vṛh, cl, 6. P. ( xxviii, 57) “brihati; vṛhati” (pf. “babarha, vavarha”; fut. “varkṣyati, varhiṣyati; varḍhā, varhitā”; aor. “barhīt, avṛkṣat”; ind. p. “vriḍhvā, varhitvā, vṛhya, barham, varham”; Ved. inf. “vṛhas”: Pass. “vṛhyate”; aor. “varhi”), to tear, pluck, root up (without a prep. only with “mūlam” Caus. “barhayati” (see “ni-bṛh”): Desid. “vivṛkṣati, vivarhiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “varīvarḍhi, varīvṛhyate”
भक्ष् – bhakṣ (prob. a secondary form fr. “bhaj”, or Nom. fr. “bhakṣa”; cf. also “bhikṣ” and “bhaṇj”) cl.10.P. ( xxxii, 22) “bhakṣayati” (rarely ā. “-te”), and in later language also cl.1. P. ā. ( xxi, 27) “bhakskati, -te” (pf. “bhakṣayām āsa” &c. fut. “bhakṣayiṣyati, -te” ; aor. “ababhakṣat” ; Pass. “abhakṣi” ; inf. “bhakṣayitum” , “-kṣitum” ; ind. p. “bhakṣayitvā” ; “-bhakṣya” ; “-bhakṣam” , to eat or drink, devour, partake of (with acc., in Ved. also with gen.; in the older language usually of fluids, in the later only exceptionally so) &c. &c.; to sting, bite ; to consume, use up, waste, destroy &c.; to drain the resources of, impoverish Caus. “bhakṣayati” see above; to cause anything (acc.) to be eaten by (acc. or instr.) 7 Desid. “bibhakṣiṣati” or “-kṣayiṣati”, to wish to eat or devour (cf. “bibhakṣayiṣu”). [Page 742,3]
भज् – bhaj cl.1.P. ā. ( xxxiii, 29) “bhajati, -te” (2. sg. as Impv. “bhakṣi” ; pf. P. “babhāja” ā. “bheje” &c.; 2. sg. “babhaktha” ; “bhejitha” ; aor. P. 2. 3. sg. “abhāk” ; “abhākṣīt, -kṣus” ; Subj. “bhakṣat” ; ā. “abhakṣi, -kta” &c.; Prec. ā. “bhakṣīya” ; 3. sg. “-kṣīṣṭa” ; “-kṣīta” ; fut. “bhakṣyati, -te” &c.; “bhajiṣyati, -te” &c.; “bhaktā” Gr.; inf. “bhaktum” &c.; “bhajitum” ; ind. p. “bhaktvā” &c., “-tvāya” ; “-bhajya” and “-bhājam” , to divide, distribute, allot or apportion to (dat. or gen.), share with (instr.) &c. &c.; (ā.) to grant, bestow, furnish, supply ; ā. (rarely P.) to obtain as one’s share, receive as (two acc.), partake of, enjoy (also carnally), possess, have (acc., Ved. also gen.) ; (ā., rarely P.) to turn or resort to, engage in, assume (as a form), put on (garments), experience, incur, undergo, feel, go or fall into (with acc., esp. of abstract noun e.g. “bhītim”, to feel terror; “nidrām”, to fall asleep; “maunam”, to become silent) &c.; to pursue, practise, cultivate ; to fall to the lot or share of (acc.) &c.; to declare for, prefer, choose (e.g. as a servant) ; to serve, honour, revere, love, adore &c.: Caus. “bhājayate, -te” (aor. “abībhajuḥ” , “ababhājat” Gr.), to divide ; to deal out, distribute ; to cause any one (acc.) to partake of or enjoy (acc. or gen.) ; to put to flight, pursue, chase, drive into (acc.) ; to cook, dress (food) Desid. “bibhakṣati, -te” (cf. “bhikṣ”): Intens. “bābhajyate, bābhakti”, Gṛ. [Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘fagus’; Goth. Old S. ‘bok’; Germ. ‘Buch’, ‘Buchstabe’; Eng. ‘buck-‘, ‘beech’.]
भाग – bhāga m. ( “bhoj”) a part, portion, share, allotment, inheritance (in Ved. also = lot, esp. fortunate lot, good fortune, luck, destiny) &c. &c. m. a part (as opp. to any whole; “bhāgam bhāgam” with Caus. of “kḷp” or “bhāgān” with “kṛ”, to divide in parts) m. a fraction (often with an ordinal number e.g. “aṣṭamo bhāgaḥ”, the eighth part, or in comp. with a cardinal e.g. “śata-bh-“; 1/100; “aśīti-bh-” = 1/80) &c. m. a quarter (see “eka-bh-, tri-bh-“) m. part i.e. place, spot, region, side (ifc. taking the place of, representing) &c. (in this sense also n.; see “bhūmi-bh-“) m. part of anything given as interest m. a half rupee m. the numerator of a fraction m. a quotient m. a degree or 360th part of the circumference of a great circle m. a division of time, the 30th part of a Rāśi or zodiacal sign m. N. of a king (also “bhāgavata”) m. of a river (one of the branches of the Candra-bhāgā)
भी – bhī cl.3.P. ( xxv, 2) “bibheti” (du. “bibhītas” or “bibhitas” Pot. “bibhīyāt” or “bibhiyāt” ; Pot. 3. pl. “bibhyeyuḥ” ; impf. 3. pl. “abibhayuḥ” ; ep. also ā. 1. sg. “bibhye” and and P. 3. sg. “bibhyati” pl. “bibhyanti”; Ved. also cl.1. A. “bhayate”, and accord, to P. “bhāyayati”; pf. “bibhāya”, 3. pl. “bibhyuḥ” &c. &c.; “bībhāya” ; “bibhayāṁ cakara” cf. ; aor. “abhaiṣīt, -ṣma, -ṣuḥ” &c., 2. sg. “bhaiṣīs” , “bhais” &c., esp. in “mābhais”, “do not be afraid”; once for pl. = “mā bhaiṣṭa” ; “bhes” ; “bhema” ā. “bhiyāna” ,; fut. “bhetā” Gr.; cond, “abheṣyat” ; inf. “bhiyase” ; “bhetum” &c.), to fear, be afraid of (abl. or gen., rarely instr, or acc.) &c. &c.; to fear for, be anxious about (abl.) Pass. “bhīyate”, aor, “abhāyi” Gr.: Caus. “bhīṣayate” ( &c.; cf. , “bhīṣayati” (; once m.c. “bhiṣ-” ; p. “bhīṣayāṇa” ; aor. “bībhiṣaḥ” , “-ṣathāḥ” , “bhāyayati, -te” ( 1-3, 68 ; Pot. “bhāyayes” 61; v.l. “bhīṣayes”; aor “bībhayat, abībhayanta” ; ind. p. “-bhāyya” , “bhāpayate” ( 6-1, 56 , to terrify, put in a fright, intimidate &c. &c.: Desid. “bibhīṣati” Gr.: Intens. “bebhīyate, bebhayīti, bebheti” “bhyas”; Lith. ‘bijotis’; Slav. ‘bojati’; Germ. ‘biben’, ‘beben’.]
भुज् – bhuj cl.7.P.ā. ( xxix, 17) “bhunakti, bhuṅkte” (rarely cl.6.P. ā. “bhuṇati, -te” ; 3. pl. ā. “bhuṇjate” ; Pot. P. “bhuṇjīyāt” ; pf. ā. “bubhuje, -jmahe, -jrire” ; 3 pl. P. “-juḥ” ; aor. “abhaukṣīt, abhnkta” Gr.; “bhojam, bhojate, bhujema” ; “bhukṣiṣīya” ; fut. “bhokṣyati, -te” &c.; “bhoktā” ; inf. “bhojase, bhujam, bhuje” “bhoktum” &c.; ind. p. “bhuktvā” or “bhuṅktvā” to enjoy, use, possess, (esp.) enjoy a meal, eat, eat and drink, consume (mostly ā.; in Ved. generally with instr., later with acc.) &c. &c.; to enjoy (carnally) ; to make use of. utilize, exploit &c.; (with “pṛthivīm, mahīm” &c.) to take possession of, rule, govern &c.; to suffer, experience, undergo, be requited or rewarded for (acc.) or at the hands of (gen.) &c. &c.; (P.) to be of use or service to (acc.) ; to pass, live through, last (a time) ; (in astron.) to pass through, fulfil Pass. “bhujyate” (aor. “abhoji”), to be enjoyed or eaten or possessed or made use of &c.: Caus. “bhojayati” (“te-“, m.c.; cf. ; once “bhuṇjāpayati” v.l.; aor. “abūbhujat, -jata” Gr.), to cause to enjoy or eat, feed with (two acc. or acc. of pers. and instr. of thing; cf. &c.; &c.; to use as food Desid. “bubhukṣati” (once), “-te”, to wish to eat, be hungry ; to wish to enjoy or partake of (cf. “bubhukṣā, -kṣita, -kṣu”): Intens. “bobhujyate”, to be eaten frequently ; “bobhokti” and “bobhujīti”, to eat or enjoy frequently Gr. ([Cf. Lat. ‘fungor’.])
भूमि – bhūmi f. (Ved. also nom. “bhūmī” gen. abl. “-myās” loc. “-myām”) the earth, soil, ground &c. &c.
भृ – bhṛ cl.1.P. ā. ( xxii, 1) “bharati, -te”; cl.3. P. ā. (xxv, 5) “bibharti” (“bibharti” only , “bibhṛte”; cl.2. P. “bharti” P. “bibhrat”, q.v.; ā. “bibhrāṇa” with act. meaning , “bibhramāṇa” with pass. meaning ; pf. “jabhāra, jabharat; jabhre, ajabhartana” ; “babhāra, babhṛma” &c.; p. “babhrāṇa” with pass. meaning ; “bibharāmbabhūva” , “-rām-āsa” ; aor. “abhār” ; “bhartam, bhṛtam” ; “abhṛta” Gr.; “abhārṣam” Subj. “bharṣat” ; “abhāriṣam” ; Prec. “bhriyāsam””, “-yāt” ; fut. “bhariṣyati” cond. “abhariṣyat” ; “bhartā” ; inf. “bhartum, bhartave, bhartavai”, Ved.; “bharadhyai” ; ind. p. “-bhṛtya” &c.), to bear, carry, convey, hold (“on” or “in” loc.) &c. &c.; to wear i.e. let grow (hair, beard, nails) &c.; to balance, hold in equipoise (as a pair of scales) ; to bear i.e. contain, possess, have, keep (also “keep in mind”) &c. &c.; to support, maintain, cherish, foster ; to hire, pay ; to carry off or along (ā. “bharate”, “for one’s self” i.e. gain, obtain, or = ‘ferri’ “to be borne along”) ; to bring, offer, procure, grant, bestow &c. &c.; to endure, experience, suffer, undergo ; to lift up, raise (the voice or a sound; ā. “bharate”, also “to rise, be heard”) ; to fill (the stomach) ; (with “garbham”) to conceive, become pregnant (cf. under “dhṛ”) ; (with “kṣitim”) to take care of, rule, govern ; (with, “ājṇām”) to submit to, obey ; (with “ūrjām”) to exert, employ Pass. “bhriyate” (ep. also “-ti”; aor. “abhāri”), to be borne &c. &c. &c.: Caus. “bhārayati” (aor. “abībharat”), to cause to bear &c.; to engage for hire Desid. “bubhūrṣati” (, “bibhariṣati” ( 8-2, 49), to wish to bear or support or maintain: Intens. “baribharti” (3. pl. “-bhrati” du. “jarbhṛtaḥ”), “barībharti” (), to bear repeatedly or continually, carry hither and thither. [Cf. Zd. ‘bar’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘fero’; Slav. ‘brati’; Goth. ‘bairan’; Germ. ‘beran’, ‘ge-baren’; Eng. ‘bear’.]
मज्ज् – majj cl.6.P. () “majjati” (Ved. “majjati”, ep. also “-te”; pf. “mamajja” [2. sg. “mamajjitha”, or “mamaṅktha”] ; aor. [“mā”] “majjīs” ; “amānkṣīt” ; Prec. “majjtāt” ; fut. “maṅkṣyati, -te” &c.; “majjiṣyati” ; “maṅktā” Gr.; inf. “majjitum” ; “maṅktum” Gr.; ind. p. “maṅktvā” or “maktvā” ; “majjya” , to sink (into), (acc. or loc.), go down, go to hell, perish, become ruined &c. &c.; to sink (in water), dive, plunge or throw one’s self into (loc.), bathe, be submerged or drowned &c.: Caus. “majjayati” (aor. “amamajjat” Gr.), to cause to sink, submerge, drown, overwhelm, destroy &c. &c.; to inundate ; to strike or plant into (loc.) Desid. “mimaṅkṣati” or “mimajjiṣati” Gr. (cf. “mimaṅkṣā”): Intens. “māmajjyate, māmaṅkti” ‘mergere’, and under ‘majjan’.]
मथ् – math or manth (q.v.) cl.1.9. P. ( xx, 18, iii, 5 and xxxi, 40) “māthati, manthati, mathnāti” (Ved. and ep. also ā. “mathate, manthate” and “mathnīte”; Impv. “mathnadhvam” ; pf. “mamātha” ; 3. pl. “mamathuḥ” ; “methuḥ, methire” ; “mamantha, -nthuḥ” ; aor. “mathīt” ; “amanthiṣṭām” ; “amathiṣata” ; fut. “mathiṣyati, -te” “manthiṣyati” &c.; “mathitā” ; inf. “mathitum” &c.; “-tos” ; “manthitavai” ; ind. p. “mathitvā, -mathya” &c.; “manthitvā”, PIṇ. i, 2, 33; “-manthya” and “-mātham” n. &c.). to stir or whirl round &c. &c.; (with “agnim”), to produce fire by rapidly whirling round or rotating a dry stick (“araṇi”) in another dry stick prepared to receive it ; (with “araṇim”), to rotate the stick for producing fire ; (with “ūrum, hastam” &c.), to use friction upon any part of the body with the object of producing offspring from it ; to churn (milk into butter), produce by churning &c. &c. (also with two acc. e.g. “sudhāṁ” “kṣīra-nidhim mathnāti”, “e churns nectar out of the ocean of milk” on ; to mix, mingle ; to stir up, shake, agitate, trouble disturb, afflict, distress, hurt, destroy &c. &c.: Pass. “mathyate” (ep. also “-ti”), to be stirred up or churned &c. &c. &c.: Caus. “manthayati” (), “māthayati” (), to cause to be stirred up or churned &c.: Desid. “mimathiṣati, mimanthiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “māmathyate, māmantti” &c. ‘mentha’, ‘menta’; Lit. ‘menture’; Germ. ‘minza’, ‘Minze’; Angl. Sax. ‘minte’; Eng. ‘mint’.]
मद् – mad (cf. “mand”) cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 99) “mādyati” (ep. also “-te”; Ved. also I. P. ā. “mādyati” “-te”; 3. P. “mamatti, -ttu, mamadat, amamaduḥ”; Ved. Impv. “matsi, -sva”; pf. “mamāda”; aor. “amādiṣuḥ, amatsuḥ, amatta”; Subj. “matsati, -sat”; fut. “maditā, madiṣyati” Gr.; Ved. inf. “maditos”), to rejoice, be glad, exult, delight or revel in (instr. gen. loc., rarely acc.), be drunk (also fig.) with (instr.) &c. &c.; to enjoy heavenly bliss (said of gods and deceased ancestors) ; to boil bubble (as water) ; to gladden, exhilarate, intoxicate, animate, inspire Caus. “mādayati, -te” ( xxxiii, 31, xix, 54; aor. “amīmadat” or “amamadat”; Ved. inf. “madayadhyai”), to gladden, delight, satisfy, exhilarate, intoxicate, inflame, inspire &c. &c.; (ā.) to be glad, rejoice, be pleased or happy or at ease ; (ā.) to enjoy heavenly bliss Desid. “mimadiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “māmadyate, māmatti” ([Perhaps orig. “to be moist”; cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘madere’.])
मधु – madhu mf (“ū” or “vī”) n. (gen. n. Ved. “madhvas, madhos”, or “madhunas”; instr. “madhvā”; dat. “madhune”; loc. “madhau”) sweet, delicious, pleasant, charming, delightful mf (“ū” or “vī”) n. bitter or pungent
मन् – man cl.8.4. ā. ( xxx, 9; xxv, 67) “manute, manyate” (ep. also “-ti”; 3. pl. “manvate” ; pf. “mene” &c.; “mamnāthe, -nāts” ; aor. “amata, amanmahi” Subj. “manāmahe, mananta”, p. “manāna” q.v. ; “maṁsi, amaṁsta” Subj. “maṁsate” Prec. “maṁsīṣṭa”, 1. pers. m.c. “masīya” ; “māṁsta” , “-stādm” ; “mandhvam” ; “amaniṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “maṁsyate” , “-ti” ; “manta, manitā” Gr.; “maniṣyate” ; inf. “mantum” &c., “mantave, -tavai” , “mantos” ; ind. p. “matvā” &c.; “manitvā” Gr.; “-matya” &c.; “-manya” &c.), to think, believe, imagine, suppose, conjecture &c. &c. (“manye”, I think, methinks, is in later language often inserted in a sentence without affecting the construction; cf. g. “cādi” and ; to regard or consider any one or anything (acc.) as (acc. with or without “iva”, or adv., often in “-vat”; in later language also dat., to express contempt [cf. g. “rājyaṁ tṛṇaya” “manye”, “I value empire at a straw” i.e. I make light of it = “laghu” “man”, and opp. to “bahu”, or “sādhu” “man”, to think much or well of. praise, approve) ; to think one’s self or be thought to be, appear as, pass for (nom.; also with “iva”) ; to be of opinion, think fit or right &c.; to agree or be of the same opinion with (acc.) ; to set the heart or mind on, honour, esteem (with “nau”, disdain), hope or wish for (acc. or gen.) &c. &c.; to think of (in prayer &c., either “to remember, meditate on”, or “mention, declare”, or “excogitate, invent”) ; to perceive, observe, leam, know, understand, comprehend (acc., Ved. also gen.). &c. &c.; to offer, present Caus. ( xxxiv, 36) “mānayati” (ep. also “-te”; aor. “amīmanat”; Pass. “mānyate”), to honour, esteem, value highly (also with “uru, bahu” and “sādhu”) &c. &c.; (ā.) “stavibhe” ; “garvake” Desid. ( xxiii, 3) “mīmāṁsate” (rarely “-ti; amīmāṁsiṣṭhās” ; “mīnāṁsyate” ; “mimaṁsate, mimaniṣate” Gr.), to reflect upon, consider, examine, investigate &c.; to cali in question, doubt (“with regard to” loc.) Desid. of Desid. “mimāmiṣate” Gr.: Intens. “manmanyate, manmanti” ‘man’; Gk. [greek] Lat. ‘meminisse’, ‘monere’; Slav. and Lith. ‘mineti’; Goth. ‘ga-munan’; Germ, ‘meinen’; Eng. ‘mean’.]
मन्द् – mand (cf. 2. “mad”) cl.1.ā. ( ii, 12) “mandate” (Ved. also P. “-ti”; pf. “mamanda, -dat, amamanduḥ” ; aor. “mandus, -dāna; amandīt, mandiṣṭa” ; Subj. “mandiṣat” Gr.; Prec. “mandiṣīmahi” ; fut. “manditā, -diṣyate” Gr.; inf. “mandadhyai” , to rejoice, be glad or delighted, be drunk or intoxicated (lit. and fig.) ; (P.) to gladden, exhilarate, intoxicate, inflame, inspirit ; to sleep (?) (); to shine, be splendid or beautiful ; to praise or to go Caus. “mandayati” (inf. “mandayadhyai”), to gladden, exhilarate, intoxicate ; to be glad or drunk
मह् – mah (orig. “magh”; cf. also “maṁh”) cl.1.10. P. ( xvii, 81; xxxv, 15) “mahati, mahayati” (Ved. and ep. also ā. “mahate, -hayate”; p. “mahat” q.v.; pf. “mamāha” Gr.; “māmahe”; Subj. “māmahanta, māmahas” ; aor. “amahīt” Gr.; fut. “mahitā, mahiṣyati” ; ind. p. “mahitvā” ; inf. “mahe”, and “mahaye” q.v.) to elate, gladden, exalt, arouse, excite ; to magnify, esteem highly, honour, revere &c.; (ā.) to rejoice, delight in (instr. or acc.) ; to give, bestow Lat. ‘magnus’, ‘mactus’; Old Germ. ‘michel’; Eng. ‘mickle’, ‘much’.]
महये – mahaye Ved. inf. for joy, for enjoyment
मा – mā cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 54) “māti”; cl.3. ā. (xxv, 6) “mimīte”; cl.4. (xxvi, 33) “māyate” (Ved. and ep. also “mimāti” Pot. “mimīyāt” Impv., “mimīhi”; Pot. “mimet” ; pf. “mamau, mame, mamire” ; aor. “aināsi” Subj. “masātai” ; “amāsīt” Gr.; Prec. “māsīṣṭa, meyāt” ; fut. “mātā; māsyati, māsyate” ; inf. “me” “-mai” ; “mātum” ; ind. p. “mitvā, -māya” &c. &c.), to measure, mete out, mark off &c. &c.; to measure across = traverse ; to measure (by any standard), compare with (instr.) ; (“māti”) to correspond in measure (either with gen., “to be large or long enough for” ; or with loc., “to find room or be contained in” ; or with “na” and instr., “to be beside one’s self with ; to measure out, apportion, grant ; to help any one (acc.) to anything (dat.) ; to prepare, arrange, fashion, form, build, make ; to show, display, exhibit (“amimīta”, “e displayed or developed himself”, iii, 29, 11) ; (in phil.) to infer, conclude; to pray (“yācṇā-karmaṇi”) Pass. “mīyate” (aor. “amāyi”); to be measured &c. &c. &c.: Caus, “māpayati, -te” (aor. “amīmapat” 2 , to cause to be measured or built, measure, build, erect &c.: Desid. “mitsati, -te” (cf. “nir-mā”): Intens. “memīyate” ‘ma’; Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘metior’, ‘mensus’, ‘mensura’; Slav. ‘mera’; Lith. ‘mera’.]
मी – mī cl.9.P. ā. ( xxxi, 4) “mīnāti, mīnīte” (Ved. also “mināti” and “minoti; mīyate” or “mīyate” [ xxvi, 28]; “mimītas, mimīyāt” [?]; pf. “mimāya” ; “mīmaya” ; “mamau, mimye” Gr.; aor. “amāsīt, amāsta” Gr.; “meṣṭa” ; aor. Pass. “amāyi” ; Prec. “mīyāt, māsīṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “mātā, māsyati, -te” Gr.; “meṣyate” ; inf. “-miyam, -miye” ; “metos” ; ind. p. “mītvā, -mīya, māya” Gr.), to lessen, diminish, destroy (A. and Pass. to perish, disappear, die) ; to lose one’s way, go astray ; to transgress, violate, frustrate, change, alter Caus. “māpayati” aor. “amīmapat”. see “pra-mī”; Desid. “mitsati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “memīyate, memayīti, memeti” ; Lat. ‘minuere’; Slav. ‘minij’; Germ. ‘minniro’, ‘minre’, ‘minder’; Angl. Sax. ‘min’.]
मृज् – mṛj (cf. “marj, mārj” and “mṛś”) cl.2.P. “mārṣṭi” (Ved. also ā. “mṛṣṭe” and cl.6. P. ā. “mṛjati, -te”, 3. pl. “mṛṇjata” ; Pot. “mṛṇjyāt” ; cl.1. P. “mārjati, -te” ; pf. “mamārja, mamṛje” &c.; 3. pl. “mamārjuḥ” ; “māmṛjuḥ” ; ā. “māmṛje, -jīta” ; aor. “amṛkṣat, -ṣata” ; “amārkṣīt” and “amārjīt” ; fut. “mraṣṭā” ; “mārṣṭā” or “mārjitā” Gr.; “mrakṣyate” or “mārkṣyate” &c.; “mārjiṣyati” Gr.; inf. “marṣṭum, mārṣṭum” and “mārjitum” &c.; ind. p. “mṛṣvā” ; “-mṛjya” ; “-mārjya” , to wipe, rub, cleanse, polish, clean, purify, embellish, adorn (ā. also “one’s self”) &c. &c.; to make smooth, curry (e.g. a horse or other animal) ; to stroke ; to wipe off or out, remove, destroy &c.; to wipe off or transfer (impurity, debt &c.) from one’s self upon (loc.) ; to carry away, win ; (“mārṣṭi”), to go ( xiii, 3): Caus. or cl.10. “marjayati, -te” (Ved., “mārjayati, -te” &c.; aor. “amamārjat” Gr.; “amīmṛjanta” ; Pass. “mārjate” , to wipe, rub, cleanse, purify, adorn &c. &c.; to wipe off, remove, destroy ; (“marjayate”), to move about, roam Desid. “mimārjiṣati” and “mimṛkṣati” Gr.: Intens. “marmṛjīti” (“-jma, -janta”, p. “-jāna”), “marmṛjyate” ; “marīmṛjyate” ; “marmārṣṭi” Gr.; to rub or wipe off, clean, purify (A. also “one’s self”). [Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘mulgere’; Slav. ‘mlesti’; Lith. ‘milsti’; Germ., ‘melke’, ‘Milch’; Eng. ‘milk’.]
मृध् – mṛdh cl.1.P. ā. ( xxi, 10 ) “mardhati, -te” (Ved. also cl, 6. P. ā. “mṛdhati, -te”; aor. “mardhīs, mardhiṣat” ; Pot. “mṛdhyās” , to neglect, forsake, abandon ; to be moist or moisten or (“undane”), Dhstup.
म्लेछ् – mlech (= “mlich”) cl.1.P. ( vii, 25) “mlecchati” (Gr. also pf. “mimleccha” fut. “mlecchitā” &c.; Ved. inf. “mlecchitavai” , to speak indistinctly (like a foreigner or barbarian who does not speak Sanskṛit) Caus. or cl.10. P. “mlecchayati” id.
यज् – yaj cl.1.P. ā. ( xxiii, 33) “yajati, -te” (1. sg. “yajase” ; Ved. Impv. “yakṣi” or “-ṣva”; pf. “iyāja” ; “ije” ; “yeje” [?] cf. on ; Ved. aor. “ayākṣīt” or “ayāṭ; ayaṣṭa”; Subj. “yakṣat, yakṣati, -te”; 3. sg. “ayakṣata” ; Prec. “ijyāt” ; “yakṣīya” ; fut. “yaṣṭā” ; “yakṣyati, -yate” &c. &c.; inf. “yaṣṭum, ījitum” ; Ved. “-ṭave; yajadhyai” or “yajadhyai”; p.p. “iṣṭa” ind. p. “iṣṭvā” ; “iṣṭvīnam” ; “-ijya” Gr.; “yājam” , to worship, adore, honour (esp. with sacrifice or oblations); to consecrate, hallow, offer (with acc., rarely dat. loc. or “prati”, of the deity or person to whom; dat. of the person for whom, or the thing for which; and instr. of the means by which the sacrifice is performed; in older language generally P. of Agni or any other mediator, and ā. of one who makes an offering on his own account cf. “yaja-māna”; later properly P. when used with reference to the officiating priest, and ā. when referring to the institutor of the sacrifice) &c. &c.; to offer i.e. to present, grant, yield, bestow ; (ā.) to sacrifice with a view to (acc.) ; to invite to sacrifice by the Yājyā verses Pass. “ijyate” (p. Ved. “ijyamāna” or “yajyamāna” on ; ep. also pr. p. “ijyat”), to be sacrificed or worshipped &c.: Caus. “yājayati” (ep. also “-te”; aor. “ayīyajat”), to assist any one (acc.) as a priest at a sacrifice (instr.) ; to cause any one (acc.) to sacrifice anything (acc.) or by means of any one (instr.) Desid. “yiyakṣati, -te” (cf. “iyakṣati”), to desire to sacrifice or worship Intens. “yāyajyate, yāyajīti, yāyaṣṭi” ‘yaz’; Gk. [greek]. ]
यज्णवोढवे – yajṇavoḍhave “yajṇa-voḍhave” (for “yajṇam” + “v-“, Ved. inf. fr. “vah”), to convey the sacrifice to the gods
यत् – yat cl.1.ā. (prob. connected with “yam” and orig. meaning, “to stretch” “yatate” (Ved. and ep. also P. “-ti”; p. “yatamāna, yatāna” and “yatāna” ; pf. “yete”, 3. pl. “yetire” &c.; aor. “ayatiṣṭa” ; fut. “yatiṣyate” , “-ti” ; inf. “yatitum” ; ind. p. “-yatya” , (P.) to place in order, marshal, join, connect ; (P. or ā.) to keep pace, be in line, rival or vie with (instr.) ; (ā.) to join (instr.), associate with (instr.), march or fly together or in line ; to conform or comply with (instr.) ; to meet, encounter (in battle) ; to seek to join one’s self with, make for, tend towards (loc.) ; to endeavour to reach, strive after, be eager or anxious for (with loc. dat. acc. with or without “prati”, once with gen.; also with “arthe, arthāya, artham” and “hetos” ifc.; or with inf.) &c.; to exert one’s self, take pains, endeavour, make effort, persevere, be cautious or watchful ; to be prepared for (acc.) Caus. (or cl.10. ) “yātayati” (or “-te”; aor. “ayīyatat”; Pass. “yātyate”), to join, unite (ā. intrans.) ; to join or attach to (loc.) P. ; to cause to fight ; to strive to obtain anything (acc.) from (abl.) ; (rarely ā.) to requite, return, reward or punish, reprove (as a fault) &c. &c.; (ā.) to surrender or yield up anything (acc) to (acc. or gen.) ; (P. ā.) to distress, torture, vex, annoy ; accord. to also “nikāre” (others “nirākāre” or “khede”) and “upaskāre”: Desid. “yiyatiṣate” Gr.: Intens. “yāyatyate” and “yāyatti”
यथा – yathā ind. (in Veda also unaccented; fr. 3. “ya”, correlative of “tathā”) in which manner or way, according as, as, like (also with “cid, ha, ha vai, iva, ivāṅga, iva ha, eva”, and followed by correl. “tathā, tathā tathā, tadvat, cvam”, Ved. also “eva”) &c. &c. (“yathaitat” or “yathaivaitat”, “as for that”; “yathā-tathā” or “yathā” – “tena satyena”, “as surely as” – “so truly”); as, for instance, namely (also “tad yathā”, “as here follows”) ; as it is or was (elliptically) ; that, so that, in order that (with Pot. or Subj., later also with fut. pres., imperf. and aor.; in earlier language “yathā” is often placed after the first word of a sentence; sometimes with ellipsis of “syāt” and “bhavet”) &c. &c.; that (esp. after verbs of “knowing”, “believing”, “earing”, “doubting” &c.; either with or without “iti” at the end of the sentence) &c.; as soon as ; as, because, since (“yathā-tathā”, “as’-“therefore”) &c.; as if (with Pot.) ; how (= ‘quam’, expressing “admiration”) ; according to what is right, properly, correctly (= “yathāvat”) (“yathā yathā-tathā tathā” or “evaīva”, “in whatever manner”, -“in that manner”, “according as” or “in proportion as”, -“so”, “by how much the more’-“by so much”, “the more’-“the more; “yathā tathā”, “in whatever manner”, “in every way”, “anyhow”; with “na”, “in no way”, “really not”; “yathā kathaṁcit”, “in any way”, “somehow or other”; “yathaiva”, “just as”; “tad yathāpināma”, “just as if”).
यथादृष्टम् – yathādṛṣṭam “yathā-dṛṣṭam” ( () ind. as seen or observed.
यथादृष्टि – yathādṛṣṭi “yathā-dṛṣṭi” () ind. as seen or observed.
यम् – yam cl.1.P. ( xxiii, 15) “yacchati” (Ved. also “-te”, and Ved. ep. “yamati, -te”; pf. “yayāma, yeme”; 2. sg. “yayantha”, 3. pl. “yemuḥ, yemire” &c. &c.; 3. du. irreg. “-yamatuḥ” ; aor. “ayān, ayamuh”; Impv. “yaṁsi, yandhi”; Pot. “yamyās, yamīmahi” ; “ayāṁsam, ayāṁsi, ayaṁsta” Subj. “yaṁsat, -satas, -sate” ; 3. sg. “-yamiṣṭa” ; “ayaṁsiṣam” Gr.; fut. “yantā” ; “yaṁsyati, yamiṣyati” &c. inf. “yantum, yamitum” ; “yantave, yamitavai” ; ind. p. “yatvā, yamitvā” &c.; “yatya” ; “-yamya” ; “-yamam” , to sustain, hold, hold up, support (ā. “one’s self”; with loc. “to be founded on”) ; to raise, wield (a weapon &c.; ā. with “āyudhaih”, “to brandish weapons”) ; to raise, extend or hold (as a screen &c.) over (dat.) ; (ā.) to extend one’s self before (dat.) ; to raise (the other scale), weigh more ; to stretch out, expand, spread, display, show ; to hold or keep in, hold back, restrain, check, curb, govern, subdue, control &c. &c.; to offer; confer, grant, bestow on (dat. or loc.), present with (instr.) &c. &c.; (with “mārgam”), to make way for (gen.) ; (with “prati” and abl.), to give anything in exchange for anything on ; (ā.) to give one’s self up to, be faithful to, obey (dat.) ; to raise, utter (a sound &c.) ; to fix, establish ; (ā.) to be firm, not budge ; to catch fire ( Pass. “yamyate” (aor. “ayā-mī”), to be raised or lifted up or held back or restrained &c. &c.: Caus. “yāmayati” (), “yamayati” ( &c.; “-te” ; aor “ayīyamat”), to restrain, hold in, control, keep or put in order: Desid. “yiyaṁsati”, to wish to restrain &c. Intens. “yaṁyamīti” (see “ud-yam”) or “yaṁyamyate” ( 7-4, 85, Vartt. 2 ([Cf. Gk. [greek] “restraint, punishment.”])
या – yā (collateral form of 5. “i”) cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 41) “yāti” (1. pl. “yāmahe” ; impf. 3. pl. “ayuḥ” ; “ayān” ; pf. “yayau, yayātha, yaya, yayuḥ” &c. &c.; “yaye” ; aor. “ayāsam” or “ayāsiṣam”; Subj. “yāsat, yeṣam, yāsiṣat” ; Prec. “yāsiṣīṣṭhās” ; fut. “yātā” &c.; “yāsyati” ; “-te” ; inf. “yātum” &c.; Ved. inf. “yai, yātave” or “-vai”; ind. p. “yātvā” ; “-yāya, -yāyam” , to go, proceed, move, walk, set out, march, advance, travel, journey (often with instr. or acc. of the way, esp. with “gatim, mārgam, adhvānam, panthānam, padavīm, yātrām”) &c. &c.; to go away, withdraw, retire &c.; (also with “palāyya”) to flee, escape (with “kṣemeṇa” or “svasti”, to escape unscathed ; to go towards or against, go or come to, enter, approach, arrive at, reach &c. &c. (with acc. often followed by “prati” e.g. with “gṛham”, to enter a house; with “ripum prati”, to march against the enemy; with “mṛgayām”, to go out hunting; with “śirasāmahīm”, to bow down to the ground with the head; with “prakṛtim”, to return to one’s natural state; with “karṇau”, to come to the ears, be heard; with “utsavād utsavam”, to go from one festival to another; with “hastam” ifc., to fall into the hands of; with “patham” or “gocaram” ifc., to come within range of; esp. with the acc. of an abstract noun = to go to any state or condition, become, be e.g. “vināśaṁ yāti”, he goes to destruction i.e. he is destroyed; “kāṭhinyaṁ yāti”, it becomes hard; “dveṣyatāṁ yāti”, he becomes hated; similarly “nidhanaṁ-yā”, to die; “nidrāṁ-yā”, to fall asleep; “udayaṁ-yā”, to rise, said of stars &c.; sometimes also with loc. e.g. “yāhi rājṇah sakāśe”, go into the presence of the king ; or even with dat. e.g. “yayatuḥ sva-niveśāya”, both went home ; “na cātmane kṛpaṇasya dhanaṁ yāti”, nor does the wealth of the miser go to [i.e. benefit] himself. ; “phalebhyo yāti”, he goes to [fetch] fruits ; to go to for any request, implore, solicit (with two acc.) ; (with “striyam”) to go to a woman for sexual intercourse ; to go to for any purpose (inf.) ; often with adverbs e.g. with “bahir”, to go out ; with “adho”, to go down, sink ; with “khaṇḍaśo” or “dalaśo”, to fall to pieces ; with “śata-dhā”, to fall into a hundred pieces ; to extend to (acc.) ; to last for (acc.) ; to pass away, elapse (said of time) &c.; to vanish, disappear (as wealth) ; to come to pass, prosper, succeed ; to proceed, behave, act ; to find out, discover ; to receive or learn (a science) from (abl.) ; to undertake, undergo (acc.) ; Impv. “yātu”, be it as it may Pass. “yāyate”, to be gone or moved Caus. “yāpayati” (aor. “ayīyapat”), to cause to depart, cause to go or march, dismiss ; to cause to go towards (acc.) (cf. “yāpita”); to direct (the gaze) towards (loc.) (v.l. “pātayati”); to drive away remove, cure (a disease) ; to cause to pass or elapse, pass or spend (time) &c.; to live (Pāli “yāpeti”) ; to cause to subsist, support, maintain ; to induce Desid. “yiyāsati”, to intend or be about to go, desire to proceed &c.: Intens. “īyāyate” (?), to move ; “yāyayate, yāyeti, yāyāti” Gr.
यु – yu (cf. “yuj”) cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 23) “yauti” (Ved. also ā. “yute” and cl.6. “yuvati, -te”; accord. to cl.9. “yunāti, yunīte”; pf. “yuyāva”, 2. sg. “yuyavitha” ; “yuyuve” ; aor. “-yāviṣṭam” (?) ; “ayaviṣṭa” Gr.; Prec. “yūyāt” ; fut. “yuvitā” ; “yavitā, yaviṣyati, -te” Gr.; ind. p. “yutvā” ; “-yūya” ; “-yutya” , to unite, attach, harness, yoke, bind, fasten ; to draw towards one’s self, take hold or gain possession of, hold fast ; to push on towards (acc.) ; to confer or bestow upon (dat.), procure ; (“yauti”), to worship, honour Pass. “yūyate” (aor. “ayāvi”) Gr.: Caus. “yāvayati” (aor. “ayīyavat”) Desid. of Caus. “yiyāvayiṣati” Desid. “yuyūṣati” (), “yiyaviṣati” (Gr.), to wish to unite or hold fast: Intens. “yoyūyate, yoyoti, yoyavīti” &c. (see “ā-, ni-yu”).
युज् – yuj (cf. 2. “yu” cl.7.P. ā. “yunakti, yuṅkte” (ep. also “yuṇjati, -te”; Ved. “yojati, -te; yuje, yujmahe”, 3. pl. “yujata” Impv. “yukṣva”; Pot. “yuṇjīyāt” ; pf. “yuyoja, yuyuje” &c. &c., 3. sg. “yuyojate” ; aor. Class. P. “ayokṣīt, ayaukṣīt” or “ayujat”; Ved. also ā. “ayuji”; Ved. and Class. “ayukṣi, ayukta”; fut. “yoktā” ; “yokṣyati” ; “-te” &c. &c.; inf. “yoktum” ; “yuje” ; ind. p. “yuktvā” &c. &c.; “yuktvāya” ; “-yujya” &c.), to yoke or join or fasten or harness (horses or a chariot) &c. &c.; to make ready, prepare, arrange, fit out, set to work, use, employ, apply ; to equip (an army) ; to offer, perform (prayers, a sacrifice) ; to put on (arrows on a bow-string) ; to fix in, insert, inject (semen) ; to appoint to, charge or intrust with (loc. or dat.) ; to command, enjoin ; to turn or direct or fix or concentrate (the mind, thoughts &c.) upon (loc.) &c. &c.; (P. ā.) to concentrate the mind in order to obtain union with the Universal Spirit, be absorbed in meditation (also with “yogam”) &c.; to recollect, recall ; to join, unite, connect, add, bring together &c. &c. (ā. to be attached, cleave to ; to confer, or bestow anything (acc.) upon (gen. or loc.) (ā. with acc., to become possessed of ; with “ātmani”, to use for one’s self, enjoy ; to bring into possession of, furnish or endow with (instr.) &c.; to join one’s self to (acc.) ; (in astron.) to come into union or conjunction with (acc.) Pass. “yujyate” (ep. also “-ti”; aor. “ayoji”), to be yoked or harnessed or joined &c. &c. &c.; to attach one’s self to (loc.) ; to be made ready or prepared for (dat.) ; to be united in marriage ; to be endowed with or possessed of (instr. with or without “saha”) &c.; (in astron.) to come into conjunction with (instr.) ; to accrue to, fall to the lot of (gen.) ; to be fit or proper or suitable or right, suit anything (instr.), be fitted for (loc.), belong to or suit any one (loc. or gen.), deserve to be (nom.) &c.; (with “na”) not to be fit or proper &c. for (instr.) or to (inf., also with pass. sense = “ought not to be”) Caus. “yojayati” (m.c. also “-te”; aor. “ayūyujat”; Pass. “yojyate”), to harness, yoke with (instr.), put to (loc.) &c.; to equip (an army), draw up (troops) &c.; to use, employ, set to work, apply, undertake, carry on, perform, accomplish &c.; to urge or impel to ; to lead towards, help to (loc.) ; to set (snares, nets &c.) ; to put or fix on (esp. arrows) &c.; to aim (arrows) at (loc.) ; to fasten on or in, attack, adjust, add, insert ; (with “manas, ātmānam” &c.) to direct the thoughts to, concentrate or fix the mind upon (loc.) ; to join, unite, connect, combine, bring or put together (also = write, compose) &c.; to encompass, embrace ; to put in order, arrange, repair, restore ; to endow or furnish or provide with (instr.) &c.; to mix (food) with (instr.) ; to confer anything upon (loc.) ; (in astron.) to ascertain or know (“jānāti”) the conjunction of the moon with an asterism (instr.) 11 ; (ā.) to think little of, esteem lightly, despise in Desid. “yuyukṣati”, to wish to harness or yoke or join &c.; to wish to appoint or institute ; to wish to fix or aim (arrows) ; (ā.) to wish to be absorbed in meditation, devout Intens. “yoyujyate, yoyujīti” or “yoyokti” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘jungere’, ‘jugum’; Lith. ‘jungus’; Slav. ‘igo’; Goth. ‘juk’; Germ. ‘joh’, ‘Joch’; Angl. Sax. ‘geoc’; Eng. ‘yoke’.])
युध् – yudh cl.4.ā. ( xxvi, 64) “yudhyate” (rarely P. “-ti”; cl.1. P. “yodhati” ; Impv. “yotsi” ; pf. “yuyodha, yuyudhe” &c. &c.; aor. Ved. “yodhi, yodhat, yodhāna; ayodhīt, yodhiṣat; yutsmahi”; ep. “yotsīs”; Class. “ayuddha”; fut. “yoddhā” ; “yotsyati, -te” &c.; inf. “yudhe” or “yudhaye” ; “yudham” ; “yoddhum” ; ind. p. “-yuddhvī” ; “-yudhya” , to fight, wage war, oppose or (rarely) overcome in battle; to fight with (instr., also with “saha, samam”) or for (loc.) or against (acc.) &c. &c.; (“yudhyati”), to go ; to move, fluctuate (as waves) (cf. on Pass. “yudhyate”, to be fought (also impers.) (v.l.): Caus. “yodhayati” ( 1-3, 86; m.c. also “-te”; aor. “ayūyudhat” ; Pass. “yodhyate” , to cause to fight, lead to war, engage in battle &c. &c.; to oppose or overcome in war, be a match for (acc.) &c.; to defend Desid. “yuyutsati, -te” (P. in Class. only m.c.), to be desirous or anxious to fight, wish to fight with (instr.) &c. &c.: Caus. of Desid. “yuyutsayati”, to make desirous of fighting Intens. “yoyudhyate, yoyoddhi” (cf. “yavīyudh”) Gr. ([Cf. Zd. ‘yud’; Gk. [greek]. ])
युव – yuva actual base of the 2nd pers. pron. in the dual number (from which the forms “yuvām, yuvābhyām, yuvayos”; Ved. also “yuvam, yuvabhyām, yuvat, yuvos”, are derived).
युष्म – yuṣma (fr. “yu” + “sma”), the actual base of the 2nd pers. pron. in the pl. number (from which all cases except the nom. “yūyam” are derived, viz. “yuṣmān, yuṣmābhis, yuṣmabhyam, yuṣmat, yuṣmākam”, in Ved. also acc. f. “yuṣmās”; loc. “yuṣme”, and gen. “yuṣmāka”; cf. Gk. [greek] fr. [characters] ).
रक्ष् – rakṣ cl.1.P. ( xvii, 6) “rakṣati” (Ved. and m.c. also “-te”; pf. “rarakṣa” &c. &c.; aor. “arakṣīt” &c.; “arākṣīt” ; Prec. “rakṣyāt” Gr.; fut. “rakṣitā” ; “rakṣiṣyati” Cond. “arakṣiṣyat” ; “rakṣye” ; inf. “rakṣitum” , to guard, watch, take care of, protect, save, preserve (“from” abl.) &c. &c.; to tend (cattle) ; to rule (the earth or a country) ; to keep (a secret) ; to spare, have regard to (another’s feelings) ; to observe (a law, duty &c.) ; to guard against, ward off, keep away, prevent, frustrate, injure ; to beware of ; (ā.) to heed, attend to (loc.) ; (ā.) to conceal, hide (?) ; to conceal one’s self, be afraid (?) Caus. “rakṣayati, -te” (aor. “ararakṣat” , to guard, watch, save or protect from (abl.) Desid. “rirakṣati”, to wish to guard, intend to protect from (abl.) Intens. see “rārakṣāṇa”. ([Prob. a kind of Desid. of some root like “raj” or “rajj”; cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘arx’, ‘arceo’.])
रज्जु – rajju f. (ifc. sometimes m.; in earlier language also “rajjū”, f.; Ved. acc. “rajjvam”; gen. “rajjvās” ; probably fr. an unused “rasj”, or “rajj”; cf. “rasanā” = “raśanā”) a rope, cord, string, line &c. &c. (“rajjum ā-sthā”, to have recourse to the rope, to hang one’s self f. N. of partic. sinews or tendons proceeding from the vertebral column f. a lock of braided hair, braid (= “veṇī”) f. N. of a partic. constellation f. Caryota Urens ; a measure of 8 Hastas or 192 inches ‘rezgu’, “I plait.”]
रद् – rad cl.1.P. ( iii, 16) “radati” (rarely ā. “-te”; Ved. Impv. “ratsi”; pf. “rarāda” ; aor. “arādīt” Gr.; fut. “raditā, -diṣyati” , to scratch, scrape, gnaw, bite, rend, dig, break, split, divide ; to cut, open (a road or path) ; to lead (a river) into a channel ; to convey to, bestow on, give, dispense ‘rad-o’, ‘rod-o’; Eng. ‘rat’.]
रध् – radh or randh cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 84) “radhyati” (pf. “rarandha”, 1. pl. “rarandhima” or “redhma” Gr.; 3. pl. “rāradhuḥ” ; aor. “aradhat” ; Subj. “randhīs” Impv. “randhi” for “randdhi” ; fut. “radhitā, raddhā” Gr.; “radhiṣyati, ratsyati” ; inf. “radhitum” , to become subject to (dat.), be subdued or overthrown, succumb ; to be completed or matured (cf. “rādh”); to bring into subjection, subdue ; to deliver into the hand of (dat.) ; to hurt, torment Caus. “randhayati” (Ved. also “-te”; aor. “rīradhat” ; “ararandhat” Gr.), to make subject, deliver over to (dat.) ; to torment, afflict ; to destroy, annihilate ; to cook, prepare (food) Desid. “riradhiṣati, riratsati” Gr.: Intens. “rāradhyate, rāraddhi” Gr. (in “rārandhi” for “rāranddhi”, and v, 54, 13 “rāranta” for “rārantta”) to hand over to, deliver.
रभ् – rabh or rambh (mostly comp. with a prep.; cf. “grabh” and see “labh” with which “rabh” is connected) cl.1.ā. ( xxiii, 5) “rabhate” (m.c. also “-ti” and ep. “rambhati, -te”; pf. “rebhe” ; also “rārabhe” and 1. pl. “rarabhma”; aor. “arabdha” ; fut. “rabdhā” Gr.; “rapsyati” ; “-te” &c.; inf. “rabdhum” ; Ved. “rabham, rabhe”; ind. p. “rabhya” &c.), to take hold of, grasp, clasp, embrace (“arabhat” 8106 w.r. for “ārabhat”); to desire vehemently ; to act rashly (cf. “rabhas, rabhasa”): Pass. “rabhyate” aor. “arambhi, pāṇ”. vii, 1, 63: Caus. “rambhayati, -te” aor. “ararambhat” Desid. “ripsate” Intens. “rārabhyate, rārabhīti, rārabdhi” (as far as these forms really occur, they are only found after prepositions; cf. “anv-ā-, ā-, prā-, vy-ā-, pari-, saṁ-rabh” &c.)
रम् – ram el. 1. ā. ( xx, 23) “ramate” (Ved. also P. “ramati” or “ramṇāti” pf. “rarāma” ; “reme” &c.; aor. 3. pl. “ranta” ; “araṁsīt” ; “araṁsta” ; “raṁsiṣam” ; fut. “rantā” Gr.; “raṁsyati” ; “-te” &c.; inf. “ramitum” ; “rantum” &c.; “rantos” ; ind. p. “ratvā” ; “rantvā” ; “-ramya” or “-ratya” , to stop, stay, make fast, calm, set at rest (P.; esp. pres. “ramṇāti”) ; (P. ā.)to delight, make happy, enjoy carnally ; (ā.) to stand still, rest, abide, like to stay with (loc. or dat.) &c. &c.; (ā.; P. only m.c.) to be glad or pleased, rejoice at, delight in, be fond of (loc. instr. or inf.) &c. &c.; to play or sport, dally, have sexual intercourse with (instr. with or without “samam, saha, sākam” or “sārdham”), ChUP. &c.; to couple (said of deer) (cf. Caus.); to play with i.e. put to stake (instr.) Caus. “ramayati” or “rāmayati” (aor. “arīramat”), to cause to stay, stop, set at rest ; (“ramayati”, m.c. also “-te”) to gladden, delight, please, caress, enjoy carnally &c. (3. sg. “ramayati-tarām”, ; to enjoy one’s self, be pleased or delighted ; “mṛgān ramayati”, he tells that the deer are coupling 8 Desid. in “riraṁsā, -su” q.v.: Desid. of Caus. in “riramayiṣu” q.v.: Intesis. “raṁramyate” or “raṁramīti” , [characters]; Lith. ‘rimti’; Goth. ‘rimis’.]
रा – rā or rās cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 49) “rāti” (Ved. also ā. “rāte”; Impv. “rirīhi, rarāsva, raridhvam”; p. “rarāṇa”; 3. sg. “rarate” and “rāsate”; pf. “rarima, rare”; aor. “arāsma” Subj. “rātat” &c. Pot. “rāsīya”; Class-forms are only pr. “rāti”; fut. “rātā” ; “rāsyati” inf. “rātave” , to grant, give, bestow, impart, yield, surrender
राज् – rāj (prob. originally two roots; cf. “raj” “raṇj, ṛṇj”) cl.1.P. ā. ( “rājati, -te” (Ved. also “rāṣṭi, rāṭ”; pf. “rarāja; rarāje” or “reje”, 2. sg. P. “rarājitha” or “rejitha” &c.; aor. “arājiṣuḥ” ; “arājiṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “rājitā, rājiṣyati” ; inf. “rājase” , to reign, be king or chief, rule over (gen.), direct, govern (acc.) &c. &c.; to be illustrious or resplendent, shine, glitter ; to appear as or like (“iva”) Caus. “rājayati, -te” (aor. “ararājat”), to reign, rule ; to illuminate, make radiant (cf. “rājita”): Desid. “rirājiṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “rārājyate, rārāṣṭi” see under “rājan”.]
राध् – rādh (cf. “ṛdh” and “radh”) cl.5.4. P. ( xvii, 16; xxvi, 71) “rādhnoti” “rādhyati” (Ved. also pr. “rādhati” and “rādhyate”; pf. “rarādha” &c. &c. [2. sg. “rarādhitha” or “redhita”, cf. ; aor, “arātsīt, rādhiṣi” ; Prec. “rādhyāsam” ; fut. “rāddhā” Gr.; “rātsyati” ; ind. p. “rāddhvā, -rādhya” , to succeed (said of things), be accomplished or finished ; to succeed (said of persons), be successful with (instr.), thrive, prosper ; to be ready for, submit to (dat.) ; to be fit for, partake of, attain to (dat. or loc.), Apast. ; (“rādhyati”) to prophesy to (dat.) ; to accomplish, perform, achieve, make ready, prepare, carry out ; to hit, get at (acc.) ; to propitiate, conciliate, gratify ; to hurt, injure, destroy, exterminate (cf. Pass. “rādhyate” (aor. “arādhi”), to be conciliated or satisfied (cf. “rādhyate” above ): Caus. “rādhayati” (aor. “arīradhat” ; Pass. “rādhyate” , to accomplish, perform, prepare, make ready &c. &c.; to make favourable, propitiate, satisfy Desid. of Caus. “rirādhayiṣati” Desid. “rirātsati” or “-ritsati” 1 Intens. “rārādhyate, rārāddhi” Gr. ([Cf. “iradh”; Goth. ‘garedan’, ‘rathjo’; Slav. ‘raditi’.])
रिश् – riś (cf. “riṣ”, from which it is not in all forms distinguishable) cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 126) “riśati” (Ved. also “-te”; pf. “rireśa” &c. Gr.), to hurt, tear, pluck off, crop Caus. “reśayati” (aor. “arīriśat”) Gr.: Desid. “ririkṣati” (cf. “riṣ”): Intens. “reriśyate, rereṣṭi”
रिष् – riṣ (cf. “riś”) cl.1.4. P. ( xvii, 43 and xxvi, 120 v.l.) “reṣati” or “riṣyati” (ep. also “riṣyate”; aor. “rīḍhvam” “ariṣat” Subj. “riṣātha”, p. “rīṣat” ; “areṣīt” Gr.; fut. “reṣitā, reṣṭā” , “reṣiṣyati” ; inf. “reṣitum”, or “reṣṭum” ; Ved. inf. “riṣe, riṣas”), to be hurt or injured, receive harm, suffer wrong, perish, be lost, fail &c. &c.; to injure, hurt, harm, destroy, ruin ; Caus. “reṣayati” (aor. “arīriṣat”; Ved. forms “rīriṣīṣṭa, ririṣeḥ, riṣayadhyai”), to hurt, injure, harm, cause to miscarry or fail ; (A. “rīriṣīṣṭa”), to fail, meet with misfortune or disaster Desid. “ririkṣati” (; “ririṣiṣati” or “rireṣiṣati” Gr.), to wish to injure or harm (cf. “riś”): Intens. “reriṣyate, rereṣṭi” Gr.
रु – ru cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 24; cf. “rauti” or “ravīti” (Ved. also “ruvati” and “ravoti, -te”; p. “ruvat, ravat, ravamāṇa, ravāṇa”; pf. “rurāva” ; “ruruvire” ; aor. “arāvīt” ; Prec. “rūyāt” Gr.; fut. “ravitā” or “rotā” ; “raviṣyati” ; inf. “ravitum” , “rotum” , to roar, bellow, howl, yelp, cry aloud &c. &c.; to make any noise or sound, sing (as birds), hum (as bees) &c.; (“rauti”) to praise Caus. “rāvayati” (aor. “arūruvat” with the sense of the Intens. ; or “arīravat” , to cause to bellow or roar, cause an uproar &c.: Desid. of Caus. “rirāvayiṣati” Gr.: Desid. “rurūṣati” Intens. (Ved.) “roravīti” (p. “roruvat” and “roruvāṇa”) or (ep.) “rorūyate, -ti” or (Gr.) “roroti”. to bellow or roar &c. loudly, scream aloud, vociferate. [Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘raucus’; Angl. Sax. ‘ryn’.]
रुच् – ruc cl.1.ā. ( xviii, 5) “rocate” (Ved. and ep. also “-ti”; pf. “ruroca, ruruce” &c. &c.; Subj. “rurucanta” Pot. “rurucyās” ; p. “rurukvas, rurucāna” ; aor. “arucat” ; “arociṣṭa” &c.; “arukta” ; p. “rucāna” ; aor. Pass. “aroci” ; Prec. “rucīya” ; “rociṣīya” ; “ruciṣīya” ; fut. “rocitā” Gr.; “rociṣyate” ; inf. “rocitum” ; “ruce” ; ind. p. “rucitvā” or “rocitvā” , to shine, be bright or radiant or resplendent &c. &c.; (only in pf. P.) to make bright or resplendent ; to be splendid or beautiful or good &c.; to be agreeable to, please (dat. or gen.) &c.; to be pleased with, like (acc.) ; to be desirous of, long for (dat.) Caus. “rocayati, -te” (aor. “arūrucat, -cata”; Pass. “rocyate”), to cause to shine ; to enlighten, illuminate, make bright ; to make pleasant or beautiful ; to cause any one (acc.) to long for anything (dat.) ; to find pleasure in, like, approve, deem anything right (acc. or inf.) &c.; to choose as (double acc.) ; to purpose, intend ; (Pass.) to be pleasant or agreeable to (dat.) Desid. “ruruciṣate” or “rurociṣate” Gr.: Intens. (only p. “rorucāna”) to shine bright ‘lux’, ‘luceo’, ‘luna’, ‘lumen’; Goth. ‘liuhath’, ‘lauhmuni’; Germ. ‘lioht’, ‘lieht’, ‘licht’; Angl. Sax. ‘leoht’; Eng. ‘light’.]
रुद् – rud (cf. 1. “ru”) cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 59; cf. “roditi” (Ved. and ep. also “rudati, -te” and “rodati, -te”; pf. “ruroda, rurude” ; aor. “arudat” &c.; “arodīt, -diṣuḥ” Gr.; “araudiṣīt” ; fut. “roditā” Gr.; “rodiṣyati” ; inf. “roditum” ; ind. p. “ruditvā” or “roditvā” ; “-rudya” , to weep, cry, howl, roar, lament, wail &c. &c.; to bewail, deplore Pass. “rudyate” (aor. “arodi; rudyamāne”, “while weeping is heard” Caus. “rodayati” (aor. “arūrudat”), to cause to weep or lament &c. &c.: Desid. “rurudiṣati” Gr. (cf. “rurudiṣā, -ṣu”): Intens. “rorudyate, rorotti” (p. “rorudyamāna, rorudat”) ‘rudere’; Lith. ‘rudis’, ‘rauda’, ‘raudoti’; Angl. Sax. ‘reotan’.]
रुह् – ruh (cf., 1. “rudh”) cl.1.P. ( N. xx, 29) “rohati” (m.c. also “-te” and “ruhati, -te”; Ved. and ep. impf. or aur. “aruhat”; Pot. “ruheyam, -ruhethās, -ruhemahi”; Impv. “ruha”, p. “ruhāṇa”; pf. “ruroha, ruruhuḥ” &c. &c.; “ruruhe” ; aor. “arukṣat” &c.; fut. “roḍhā” Gr.; “rokṣyati, -te” &c.; “rohiṣye” ; inf. “roḍhum” &c.; “rohitum” ; “rohiṣyai” ; ind. p. “rūḍhvā” , “-ruhya” &c.; “-rūhya” ; “-ruham” ; “-roham” , to ascend, mount, climb ; to reach to, attain (a desire) ; to rise, spring up, grow, develop, increase, prosper, thrive &c. &c. (with “na”, “to be useless or in vain” ; to grow together or over, cicatrize, heal (as a wound) &c.: Caus. “rohayati” or (later) “ropayati, -te” (aor. “arūruhat” or “arūrupat” Gr.; Pass. “ropyate” aor. “aropi” , to cause to ascend, raise up, elevate ; to place in or on, fix in, fasten to, direct towards (with acc. or loc.) ; to transfer to, commit, entrust (cf. “ropita”); to put in the ground, plant, sow ; to lay out (a garden) ; to cause to grow, increase ; to cause to grow over or heal Desid. “rurukṣati” see “ā-ruh”: Intens. “roruhyate, roroḍhi” Gr.
ली – lī (cf. “rī”) cl.9.P. ( xxxi, 31) “lināti”, to adhere, obtain (not usually found); cl.1. P. “layati” (xxxiv, 6), to melt, liquefy, dissolve (not usually found); cl.4. ā. (xxvi, 30) “līyate” (Ved. also “lāyate”; pf. “lilye, lilyuḥ” &c.; “lilāya, lalau” Gr.; aor. “aleṣṭa” ; “alaiṣīt, alāsīt, alāsta” Gr.; fut. “letā, lātā; leṣyati” or “lāsyati, -te” ; inf. ‘letum’ or ‘latum’ ; ind. p. “-lāyam” ; “līya” Rc.), to cling or press closely, stick or adhere to (loc.) &c.; to remain sticking ; to lie, recline, alight or settle on, hide or cower down in (loc.), disappear, vanish &c.: Caus. P. “lāpayati” or “lāyayati”, to cause to cling &c. &c.; ā. “lāpayate”, to deceive; to obtain honour; to humble Desid. “lilīṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “lelīyate, lelayīti, leleti” (cf. “lelāya”).
लू – lū cl.9.P. ā. ( xxxi, 13) “lunāti, lunīte” (Ved. also “lunoti” pf. “lulāva” ; 2. sg. “lulavitha” ; 2. pl. “luluvidhve” or “-viḍhve” ; aor. “alāvīt, alaviṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “lavitā, laviṣyati, -te” ; inf. “lavitum” ; ind. p. “lūtvā” ; “-lāvam” , to cut, sever, divide, pluck, reap, gather &c. &c.; to cut off, destroy, annihilate Pass. “lūyate” (aor. “alāvi”), to be cut Gr.: Caus. “lāvayati” (aor. “alīlavat, -vata”), to cause to cut Gr.: Desid. of Caus. “lilāvayiṣati” Desid. “lulūṣati, -te” Intens. “lOluyate, loloti” Desid. of Intens. “lolūyiṣate” (ind. p. “-yam”) ‘so-luo’, ‘solvo’; Goth ‘fra-liusan’; Germ. ‘vir-lisosan’, ‘ver-lieren’; Angl. Sax. ‘for-leosan’; Eng. ‘lose’.]
वच् – vac cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 55) “vakti” (occurs only in sg. “vacmi, vakṣi, vakti”, and Impv. “vaktu”; Ved. also cl.3. P. “vivakti”; pf. “uvāca, ūj” &c. &c.; “uvaktha” ; “vavāca, vavakṣe” ; aor. “avocat, -cata” &c. &c.; in Veda also Subj. “vocati, -te, vecāti”; Pot. “vocet, -ceta”; Impv. “vocatu”; Prec. “ucyāsam” ; fut. “vaktā” &c.; “vakṣyati” &c. &c.; “-te” ; Cond. “avakṣyat” ; inf. “vāktum” &c.; “-tave” ; “-tos” ; ind. p. “uktvā” &c.; “-ucya” , to speak, say, tell, utter, announce, declare, mention, proclaim, recite, describe (with acc. with or without “prati” dat. or gen. of pers., and acc. of thing; often with double acc. e.g. “tam idaṁ vākyam uvāca”, “e spoke this speech to him”; with double acc. also “to name, call” ā. with nom; “one’s self”; with “punar”, “to speak again, repeat”; or “to answer, reply”) &c. &c.; to reproach, revile (acc.) Pass. “ucyate” (aor. “avāci”, or in later language “avoci”), to be spoken or said or told or uttered &c. &c. &c. (“yad ucyate”, “what the saying is”); to resound ; to be called or accounted, be regarded as, pass for (nom. also loc.) &c.: Caus. “vācayati, -te” (Pot. “vācayīta” ; aor. “avīvacat”; Pass. “vācyate”), to cause to say or speak or recite or pronounce (with, double acc.; often the object is to be supplied) &c.; to cause anything written or printed to speak i.e. to read out loud &c.; ( xxxiv, 35) to say, tell, declare ; to promise Desid. “vivakṣati, -te” (Pass. “vivakṣyate”), to desire to say or speak or recite or proclaim or declare &c.; (Pass.) to be meant Intens. (only “avāvacīt”) to call or cry aloud ‘vocare’, ‘vox’; Germ. ‘gi-waht’, ‘gi-wahinnen’, ‘er-w„hnen’.]
वक्तवे – vaktave Ved. inf. of “vac” (cf. above ) ( “”vaktu” mfn. speaking harshly, reviling”).
वक्तृ – vaktṛ mfn. one who speaks, a speaker, proclaimer of (Ved. gen.; Class. gen. acc., or comp.) &c. &c. mfn. croaking (said of frogs) mfn. speaking sensibly, eloquent mfn. learned, wise mfn. honest, sincere mfn. loquacious, talkative
वध् – vadh (also written “badh”; cf. “bādh”; properly only used in the aor. and Prec. tenses “avadhīt” and “-dhiṣṭa; vadhyāt” and “vadhiṣīṣṭa” ; the other tenses being supplied by “han”; cf. ; but in Ved. and ep. poetry also pres. “vadhati”; Pot. “vadhet”; fut. “vadhiṣyati, -te”; other Ved. forms are aor. “avadhīm, vahīm” Subj. “vadhiṣaḥ; badhīḥ” ; Prec. “badhyāsam, -suḥ” , to strike, slay, kill, murder, defeat, destroy &c. &c.: Pass. “vadhyate, -ti” (aor. “avadhi”), to be slain or killed &c.: Caus. “vadhayati”, to kill, slay
वन् – van cl.1.P. (Dhātiip. xiii, 19; 20; xix, 42) “vanati” (Ved. also “-te”, and “vanati”); cl.8. P. ā. (xxx, 8) “vanoti, vanute” (pf. “vāvāna, vāvantha, vavanma, vavne”; p. “vavanvas” ; aor. “vanta, vaṁsva” ; “vaṁsat, -sate” ; “vaniṣat” ; “-ṣanta” ; “vanuṣanta”, ; Pot. “vaṁsīmahi, vasīmahi” ; Prec. “vaniṣīṣṭa” “vaṁsiṣīya” ; fut. “vaniśā” Gr.; “vaniṣyate”, SāṅkhSr.; inf. “vanitum” Gr.; “-vantave” , to like, love, wish, desire ; to gain, acquire, procure (for one’s self or others) ; to conquer, win, become master of, possess ; to prepare, make ready for, aim at, attack ; to hurt, injure ( also “to sound”; “to serve, honour, worship. help, aid”): Caus. “vanayati” or “vānayati” ; xxxix, 33 v.l. (cf. “saṁ-van”): Desid. “vivāsati, -te”, to attract, seek to win over Intens. (only “vāvanaḥ” and “vāvandhi”; but cf. “vanīvan”) to love, like ‘venia’, ‘Venus’; Got. ‘gawinnan’; Germ. ‘gewinnen’; Eng. ‘win’.]
वम् – vam cl.1.P. ( xx, 19) “vamati” (Ved. also “vamiti” impf. “avamat” or “avamīt”; pf. “vavāma” “vemuḥ” &c.; “vavamuḥ” ; 2. sg. “vemitha” or “vavamitha” ; 3. sg. “uvāma” ; aor. “avān” ; fut. “vamiśā, vamiṣyati” Gr.; inf. “vamitum” ; ind. p. “vamitvā” ; “vāntvā” , to vomit, spit out, eject (lit. and fig.), emit, send forth, give out &c. &c.; to reject i.e. repent (a word) Pass. “vamyate” (aor. “avāmi” Gr.), to be vomited &c.: Caus. “vāmayati, vamayati” (cf. ; aor. “avīvamat” Gr.), to cause to vomit Desid. “vivamiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “vaṁvamyate, vaṁvanti” ‘vomere’; Lith. ‘vemti’.]
वर्तवे – vartave Ved. inf. fr. 1. “vṛ” q.v.
वस् – vas (a Vedic root connected with 1. “uṣ” q.v.; not in cl.6.P., “ucchati” (pf. “uvāsa, ūṣuḥ” &c.; aor. “avāt” [?] ; “avasran” ; Cond. “avatsyat” ; Ved. Inf. “vastave, -uṣi”), to shine, grow bright (esp. applied to the dawn) ; to bestow by shining upon (dat.) ; (with “dūre”) to drive away by shining Caus. “vāsayati”, to cause to shine “vasar” in “vasar-han”; Gk. [greek] for [characters]; Lat. ‘ver’ &c.]
वसुधित – vasudhita “vasu-dhita” (prob.) n. possession of wealth
वह् – vah cl.1.P. ā. ( xxiii, 35) “vahati, -te” (in later language ā. only m.c.; Vedic forms which may partly belong to the aor. are “vakṣi, voḍham, -ḍhām” or “voLham, -Lhām, uhīta, vakṣva, voḍhvam, ūḍhvam, uhāna”; pf. “uvāha, ūhuḥ; ūhe” &c. &c.; “vavāha, -hatuḥ” ; aor. Ved. “avākṣīt” or “avāṭ” Subj. “vakṣat, -ati”, Prec. “uhyāt; avakṣi, avoḍha” Gr.; fut. “voḍhā” ; “vakṣyati, -te” &c.; “vahiṣyati” &c.; inf. “voḍhum” &c. &c. [Ved. also “-ḍhave” and “-ḍhavai”]; “vāhe” ; “vahadhyai” ; ind. p. “ūḍhvā” ; “-uhya” &c. &c.; cf. 1. “ūh”), to carry, transport, convey (with instr. of vehicle) &c. &c.; to lead, conduct (esp. offerings to the gods, said of Agni) ; to bear along (water, said of rivers) ; to draw (a car), guide (horses &c.) ; to lead towards, to bring, procure, bestow ; to cause, effect ; to offer (a sacrifice) ; to spread, diffuse (scent) ; to shed (tears) ; to carry away, carry off, rob &c.; to lead home, take to wife, marry &c. &c.; to bear or carry on or with (Inc. or instr.) &c.; to take or carry with or about one’s self, have, possess ; to wear (clothes) ; (with “śiras”) to bear one’s head (“uccaiś-tarām”, “igh”) ; (with “vasuṁdharām” or “kṣmā-maṇḍālam”) to support i.e. rule the earth ; (with “garbham”) to be with child ; to bear, suffer, endure ; to forbear, forgive, pardon ; to undergo (with “agnim, viṣam, tulām”, “the ordeal of fire, poison, and the balance”) ; to experience, feel &c.; to exhibit, show, betray ; to pay (a fine) ; to pass, spend (time) ; (intrans.) to drive, ride, go by or in (with instr. of the vehicle), be borne or carried along, run, swim &c. &c. &c.; to draw (scil. a carriage, said of a horse) ; to blow (as wind) ; to pass away, elapse Pass. “uhyate” (ep. also “-ti”; aor. “avāhi”), to be carried (“uhyamāna”, “being carried”) &c.; to be drawn or borne by (instr.) or along or off &c. &c.: Caus. “vāhayati” (m.c. also “-te”; aor. “avīvahat”; Pass. “vāhyate”), to cause to bear or carry or convey or draw (with two acc. 6 , drive (a chariot), guide or ride (a horse), propel (a boat), go or travel by any vehicle &c.; to cause to guide (two acc.) ; to cause any one (acc.) to carry anything (acc.) on (loc.) ; to cause to take in marriage ; to cause to be conveyed by (instr.) ; to traverse (a road) ; to accomplish (a journey) ; to employ, keep going or in work ; to give, administer (see “vāhita”); to take in, deceive (see id.): Desid. “vivakṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “vanīvāhyate”, to carry hither and thither (cf. “vanīvāhana” and “vanīvāhita”); “vāvahīti”, to bear (a burden) ; “vāvahyate, vāvoḍhi” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek] for [characters]; Lat. ‘vehere’, ‘vehiculum’; Slav. ‘vesti’; Lith. ‘vezti’; Goth. ‘gawigan’; Germ. ‘wegan’, ‘bewegen’; Eng. ‘weigh’.])
वाघत् – vāghat m. (prob. fr. a “vāgh” = “vāh” = “vah”; cf. Ved. inf. “vāhe”) the institutor of a sacrifice (accord. to = “ṛtvij”, or “medhāvin”).
वाश् – vāś cl.4.ā. ( xxvi, 54) “vāśyate” (ep. also “vāśyati”, Ved. and ep. also “vāśati, -te”; pf. “vavāśe, -śire”; in also “vāvaśre” and p. “vāvaśāna”; aor. “avāśiṣṭa” ; fut. “vāśitā, vāśiṣyate” Gr.; ind. “vāśitum” ; ind. p. “vāśitvā, -vāśya” , to roar, howl, bellow, bleat, low (as a cow), cry, shriek, sing (like a bird), sound, resound &c. &c.: Caus. “vāśayati” (aor. “avavāśat”, in also “avīvaśat, avīvaśanta”), to cause to roar or low or resound or thunder ; (ā.) to roar or sound aloud Desid. “vivāśiṣate” Gr.: Intens. “vāvāśyate” (v.l. “rārāśyate” , “vāvaṣṭi” (impf. aor. “avāvaśanta, vāvaśanta, avāvaśītām”; p. “vāvaśat”), to roar or scream or sound aloud ([“vāś” is sometimes wrongly written “vās”.])
विक्षुभ् – vikṣubh “vi-kṣubh” ā. “-kṣobhate” &c. (Ved. inf. “vi-kṣobdhos” , to be shaken about or agitated or disturbed ; to confuse, disturb Caus. “-kṣobhayati”, to agitate, disturb, throw into disorder or confusion
विख्या – vikhyā “vi-khyā” P. “-khyāti” (Ved. inf. “vikhye” ; “vi-khyai” , to look about, look at, view, see, behold ; to shine, shine upon, lighten, illumine Caus. “-khyāpayati”, to show, make visible ; to make known, announce, proclaim, declare
विग्रह् – vigrah “vi-grah” P. ā. “-gṛhṇāti, -ṇīte” (Ved. also “-gṛbhṇāti, -ṇīte”), to stretch out or apart, spread out ; to distribute, divide (esp. to draw out fluids at several times) ; to hold apart, separate, isolate ; (in gram.) to analyse (cf. “vi-graha”); to wage war, fight against (acc.) ; to quarrel, contend with (instr. with or without “saha”, or “sārdham”) &c.; to seize, lay hold of (acc. or loc.) ; to receive in a friendly manner, welcome ; to perceive, observe Caus. “-grāhayati”, to cause to fight, cause to wage war against, Das. Desid. “-jighṛkṣati”, to wish to fight against
विचक्ष् – vicakṣ “vi-cakṣ” ā. “-caṣṭe” (Ved. inf. “-cakṣe”), to appear, shine ; to see distinctly, view, look at, perceive, regard ; to make manifest, show ; to proclaim, announce, tell Caus. “-cakṣayati”, to cause to see distinctly, make clear ; to proclaim, tell
वितड् – vitaḍ “vi-taḍ” P. “-tāḍayati” (Ved. Impv. “-tāḍhi, -tāLhi”, for “-taḍḍhi”), to strike back, dash to pieces ; to strike against (loc.) ; to wound
वितृऋ – vitṝ “vi-tṝ” P. “-tarati, -tirati” (Ved. inf. “-tire”), to pass across or through, traverse, pervade ; to bring away, carry off, remove ; to cross, frustrate, disappoint (a wish) ; to extend, prolong ; to give away (also in marriage), grant, afford, bestow, yield &c. (with “āsanam”, to offer a seat; with “dvāram”, to grant admittance; with “uttaram”, to favour with an answer; with “darśanam”, or “dṛṣṭim”, to grant a sight, i.e. give an audience); to give (medicine), apply (a remedy) ; to produce, effect, perform, accomplish Caus: “-tārayati”, to pass (a comb) through, comb out ; to carry out, accomplish Intens. “-tartūryate” (p. “-tarturāṇa” or “-taritrat”), to pass over violently, labour or perform energetically
विद्मन् – vidman n. knowledge, intelligence, wisdom (dat. “vidmane” as Ved. inf. to know, to learn)
विद् – vid (originally identical with 1. “vid”) cl.6.P. ā. ( xxviii, 138) “vindati, -te” (Ved. also “vitte, vide”; p. “vidāna” or “vidāna” [q.v.]; ep. 3. pl. “vindate” Pot. “vindyāt”, often = “vidyāt”; pf. “viveda” [3. pl. “vividus” Subj. “vividat”], “vividvas”, 3. pl. “vividre, vidre” &c. &c.; p. “vividvas” ; “vividivas” ; aor. “avidat, -data” [Ved. Subj. “vidāsi, -dāt”; Pot. “videt, deta” ; 3. sg. “videṣṭa” ; ā. 1. sg. “avitsi” ; fut. “vettā, vediṣyati” Gr.; “vetsyati, -te” &c.; inf. “vide” ; “vettum” &c.; “vettave” ; “-ttavai” [?] and “-tos” ; ind. p. “vittvā” ; “-vidya” &c.), to find, discover, meet or fall in with, obtain, get, acquire, partake of, possess &c. &c. (with “diśas”, to find out the quarters of she sky ; to get or procure for (dat.) ; to seek out, look for, attend to &c. &c.; to feel, experience ; to consider as, take for (two acc.) ; to come upon, befall, seize, visit ; to contrive, accomplish, perform, effect, produce ; (ā. m.c. also P.) to take to wife, marry (with or scil. “bhāryām”) &c.; to find (a husband), marry (said of a woman) ; to obtain (a son, with or scil. “sutam”) Pass. or ā. “vidyate” (ep. also “-ti”; p. “vidyamāna” [q.v.]; aor. “avedi”), to be found, exist, be &c. &c.; (esp. in later language) “vidyate”, “there is, there exists”, often with “na”, “there is not”; with “bhoktum”, “there is something to eat”; followed by a fut., “is it possible that?” ; “yathā-vide”, “as it happens” i.e. “as usual”, “as well as possible” Caus. “vedayati”, to cause to find &c. Desid. “vividiṣati” or “vivitsati, -te” Gr. (cf. “vivitsita”): Intens. “vevidyate, vevetti” (for p. “vevidat”and”-dāna” see “vi-“and”saṁvid”).
विद्युत् – vidyut “vi-dyut” ā. “-dyotate” (Ved. also P.), to flash forth, lighten, shine forth (as the rising sun) &c. &c. (“vi-dyotate”, “it lightens”; “vi-dyotamāne”, “when it lightens”); to hurl away by a stroke of lightning ; to illuminate Caus. “-dyotayati”, to illuminate, irradiate, enlighten, make brilliant &c.: Intens. (only. “vi-davidyutat”) to shine brightly
विधृ – vidhṛ “vi-dhṛ” P. ā. “-dharati, -te” (only pf. “-dadhāra”), to hold, bear, carry Caus. “-dhārayati” (rarely “-te”; Ved. inf. “-dhartari”), to keep asunder or apart, separate, divide, distribute ; to arrange, manage, contrive ; to keep off, withhold from (abl.) ; to lay hold of, seize, hold fast ; to check, restrain ; to support, maintain ; (with “vapūṁṣi”) to possess or have bodies ; (with “manas”) to keep the mind fixed upon (loc.) ; to preserve, take care of Intens. (only impf. “vy-adardhar”) to divide, separate
विनिक्ष् – vinikṣ “vi-nikṣ” P. “-nikṣati” (Ved. inf. “-nikṣe”), to pierce, penetrate
विप्रछ् – viprach “vi-prach” P. “-pṛcchati” (rarely “-te”; Ved. inf. “-pṛccham”), to ask various questions, make various inquiries
विप्रसृ – viprasṛ “vi-pra-sṛ” P. “-sarati” (Ved. inf. “-sartave”), to spread, be expanded or extended
विभास् – vibhās “vi-bhās” ā. “-bhāsate” (in Ved. also P.), to shine brightly or pleasantly, be bright Caus. “-bhāsayati”, to cause to shine, illuminate, brighten
विभु – vibhu “vi-bhu” or (Ved.)
विमद् – vimad “vi-mad” P. “-mādyati” (Ved. also “-madati”), to be joyful or merry (only p. “-madat”) ; to become perplexed or discomposed ; to confound, embarrass, disturb Caus, (only aor. “vy-amīmadam”), to confuse, perplex, be. wilder
विलिख् – vilikh “vi-likh” P. “-likhati” (Ved. inf. “-likhas”; cf. , to scratch, scrape, tear up, lacerate &c.; to rub against, reach to, touch ; to wound (the heart) i.e. vex, offend ; to scratch in or on, make a furrow or mark, write, delineate, paint &c.; (in medicine) to tear up i.e. stir up (phlegm &c.) Caus. “-lekhayati”, or “-likhāpayati”, to cause to scratch or write, Kṛiṣṇaj.
विवक्षसे – vivakṣase “vi-vakṣase” (fr. “vakṣ”, or “vac” or “vah”, either 2. sg. or Ved. inf.), occurring only as refrain and without connection with other words in the hymns of Vi-mada (accord. to , 3= “mahat”).
विवद् – vivad “vi-vad” P. ā. (cf. “-vadati, -te”, (P.) to contradict, oppose (acc.) ; (P. ā) to be at variance, contest, litigate, dispute with (instr., rarely acc.) or about (loc., rarely acc.) &c. &c. (Ved. inf. “-vade” with “yā”, “to be about to quarrel”; pr. p. ā. “-vadamāna”, “disputing”, “disputed”, “questionable”); (P.) to talk, converse ; (ā.) to raise the voice, sing (said of birds) Caus. “-vādayati”, to dispute or litigate, commence an action or lawsuit Intens. (only p. “vāvadat”), to roar aloud
विवृह् – vivṛh “vi-vṛh” (Ved. inf. “-vrihas” see “vi-” 1. and 2. “bṛh”.
विशंस् – viśaṁs “vi-śaṁs” P. “-śaṁsati” (Ved. inf. “-śase”), to recite, comprise in words ; to divide in parts for recitation
विश्रु – viśru “vi-śru” P. “-śṛṇoti”, to hear distinctly Pass. “-śrūyate” (Ved. also ā. “-śṛṇute”), to be heard or be heard of far and wide, become known or famous &c.: Caus. “-śrāvayati”, to cause to be heard everywhere, narrate, communicate &c.; to mention (one’s name) ; to tell (with acc. of pers. and acc. [v.l. loc.] of thing) ; to make famous ; to cause to resound
विषद् – viṣad “vi-ṣad” (“sad”) P. “-ṣīdati” (impf. Class. “vy-aṣīdat”, Ved. “vya-ṣīdat”, or “vy-asīdat” ; pf. “vi-ṣasāda” 118; inf. “-ṣattum” or “-ṣīditum” , to be exhausted or dejected, despond, despair &c.; to sink down, be immersed in (loc.) “vi-ṣeduḥ” w.r. for “ni-ṣ-“): Caus. “-ṣādayati”, to cause to despond or despair, vex, grieve, afflict ; B. &c.
विषु – viṣu ind. (only in comp. and derivatives, prob. connected with “viśva” accord. to 1 a Ved. acc. “viṣvam” = “viṣuvam”) on both sides, in both directions; in various directions; similarly, equally.
विष्ठा – viṣṭhā “vi-ṣṭhā” (“sthā”; for 1. “viṣṭhā” see p.996, col.2) ā. “-tiṣṭhate” (cf. ; Ved. and ep. also P.), to stand or go apart, be spread or diffused or scattered over or through (acc. or “adhi” with loc.) ; to be removed or separated from (instr.) ; to stand, be stationary stand still, remain firm, abide, dwell, stop &c. &c.; to keep ground, not to budge ; to be present or near ; to be engaged in (loc.) Caus. (only aor. “-tiṣṭhipaḥ”) to spread, expand
विसृ – visṛ “vi-sṛ” P. “-sarati, -sisarti” (Ved. and ep. also ā. perf. “vi-sasre” , to run or flow through ; to spread out in various directions, extend (intr.) ; (ā.) to open or unfold one’s self (with “tanvām”) ; to be separated, part from (instr.) ; to go forth in various directions, disperse ; to come forth, issue from (abl. or “-tas”) ; to rush upon (acc.) Caus. “-sārayati”, to send forth ; to stretch forth, extend
विसृप् – visṛp “vi-sṛp” P. “-sarpati” (m.c. also ā.; Ved. inf. “-sṛpas”), to glide, move along or about, sneak, steal &c. &c.; to fly about (as arrows) ; to be scattered or dispersed ; to be spread or diffused over (acc.) &c.; to spread, diffuse, divulge Caus. “-sarpayati”, to spread, extend
विस्रंस् – visraṁs “vi-sraṁs” ā. “-sraṁsate” (ep. also P.; Ved. inf. “-srasaḥ” cf. “vi-sras”), to fall asunder, break down, collapse, be broken (as limbs), fall off, become loose or unfastened (as hair) Caus. “-sraṁsayati”, to cause to fall asunder &c., let fall, loosen, untie &c. &c.; to betray, publish
वृज् – vṛj cl.1.7. P. ( xxxiv, 7; xxix, 24) “varjati, vṛṇakti”; cl.2.ā. ( xxiv, 19) “vṛkte” (Ved. and also “varjate” and “vṛṅkte”; Impv. “vṛṅktām” [v.l. “vṛktām”] ; “vṛṅgdhvam” ; pf. “vavarja, vavṛje” [Gr. also “vavṛṇje” “vāvṛje; vavṛjyuḥ, vavṛktam” p. f. “-varjuṣī”]; aor. “avṛk” ; “vark” [2. 3. sg.], “varktam, avṛjan” Pot. “vṛjyām” ; “avṛkta” ; “avṛkṣam, -ṣi” ; “avārkṣīs” ; “avarjīt, avajiṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “varjitā” ; “varjiṣyati” ; “varkṣyati, -te” ; inf. “vṛje, vṛṇjase, vṛjadhyai” ; “vajitum” or “vṛṇjitum” Gr.; ind. p. “vṛktvī” ; “-vṛjya, -vargam” &c.), to bend, turn ; to twist off, pull up, pluck, gather (esp. sacrificial grass) ; to wring off or break a person’s (acc.) neck ; to avert, remove ; (ā.) to keep anything from (abl. or gen.), divert, withhold, exclude, abalienate ; (ā.) to choose for one’s self, select, appropriate Pass. “vṛjyate”, to be bent or turned or twisted &c.: Caus. “varjayati” ( xxiv, 7; m.c. also “-te”; Pot. “varjayīta” ; aor. “avavarjat”), to remove, avoid, shun, relinquish, abandon, give up, renounce &c.; to spare, let live ; to exclude, omit, exempt, except (“-yitvā” with acc. = excepting, with the exception of) &c.: Pass. of Caus. “varjyate”, to be deprived of. lose (instr.) (cf. “varjita”): Desid. “vivṛkṣate” (), “vivarjiṣati, -te” (Gr.), to wish to bend or turn &c.: Intens. “varīvṛjyate, varvarkti” (Gr.; p. “varīvṛjat” , to turn aside, divert: Caus. of Intens. “varīvarjayati” (p. f. “-yantī”), to turn hither and thither (the ears)
वृत् – vṛt cl.1.ā. ( xviii, 19) “vartate” (rarely “-ti”; in Veda also “vavartti” and [once in “vartti”; Subj. “vavartat, vavartati, vavṛtat”; Pot. “vavṛtyāt, vavṛtīya”; Impv. “vavṛtsva”; impf. “avavṛtran, -tranta”; pf. “vavarta, vavṛtus, vavṛte” [here also “vāvṛte”] &c. &c.; aor. “avart, avṛtran” Subj. “vartat, vartta” ; “avṛtat” &c. &c.; “avartiṣṭa” Gr.; 3. pl. “avṛtsata” ; 2. sg. “vartithās” ; Prec. “vartiṣīṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “vartitā” Gr.; “vartsyati, -te” &c.; “vartiṣyati, -te” &c.; Cond. “avartsyat” ; “avartiṣyata” Gr.; inf. “-vṛte” ; “-vṛtas” ; “vartitum” &c.; ind. p. “vartitvā” and “vṛttvā” Gr.; “-vṛtya” &c. &c.; “-vartam” &c.), to turn, turn round, revolve, roll (also applied to the rolling down of tears) &c. &c.; to move or go on, get along, advance, proceed (with instr. “in a partic. way or manner”), take place, occur, be performed, come off &c.; to be, live, exist, be found, remain, stay, abide, dwell (with “ātmani na”, “to be not in one’s right mind”; with “manasi” or “hṛdaye”, “to dwell or be turned or thought over in the mind”; with “mūrdhni”, “to be at the head of”, “to be of most importance”; “kathaṁ vartate” with nom. or “kiṁ vartate” with gen., “ow is it with?”) ; to live on, subsist by (instr. or ind. p.), &c.; to pass away (as time, “ciraṁ vartate gatānām”, “it is long since we went”) ; to depend on (loc.) ; to be in a partic. condition, be engaged in or occupied with (loc.), āPast. &c.; to be intent on, attend to (dat.) ; to stand or be used in the sense of (loc.) ; to act, conduct one’s self, behave towards (loc. dat., or acc.; also with “itaretaram” or “parasparam”, “mutually”) &c.; to act or deal with, follow a course of conduct (also with “vṛttim”), show, display, employ, use, act in any way (instr. or acc.) towards (loc. with “parājṇayā”, “to act under another’s command”; with “prajā-rūpeṇa”, “to assume the form of a son”; with “priyam”, “to act kindly”; with “svāni”, “to mind one’s own business”; “kim idam vartase”, “what are you doing there?”) &c.; to tend or turn to, prove as (dat.) ; to be or exist or live at a partic. time, be alive or present (cf. “vartamāna, vartiṣyamāṇa”, and “vartsyat”, p.925) &c. &c.; to continue (with an ind. p., “atītya vartante”, “they continue to excel”; “iti vartate me buddhiḥ”, “such continues my opinion”) &c.; to hold good, continue in force, be supplied from what precedes ; to originate, arise from (abl.) or in (loc.) ; to become ; to associate with (“saha”) ; to have illicit intercourse with (loc.) Caus. “vartayati” (aor. “avīvṛtat” or “avavartat”; in also ā. “avavarti”; inf. “vartayadhyai” ; Pass. “vartyate” , to cause to turn or revolve, whirl, wave, brandish, hurl &c. &c.; to produce with a turning-lathe, make anything round (as a thunderbolt, a pill &c.) ; to cause to proceed or take place or be or exist, do, perform, accomplish, display, exhibit (feelings), raise or utter (a cry), shed (tears) &c.; to cause to pass (as time), spend, pass, lead a life, live, subsist on or by (instr.), enter upon a course of conduct &c. (also with “vṛttim” or “vṛttyā” or “vṛttena”; with “bhaikṣeṇa”, “to live by begging”), conduct one’s self, behave &c.; to set forth, relate, recount, explain, declare ; to begin to instruct (dat.) ; to understand, know, learn ; to treat ; (in law, with “śiras” or “śīrṣam”) to offer one’s self to be punished if another is proved innocent by an ordeal ; “to speak” or “to shine” (“bhāṣārthe” or “bhāsārthe”) Desid. “vivṛtsati, -te” (, “vivartiṣate” ( 1-3, 92), to wish to turn &c.: Intens. (Ved., rarely in later language) “varvartti, varīvartti, varīvartyate, varīvartate”, p. “varvṛtat” and “varvṛtāna” impf. 3. sg. “avarīvar”, 3. pl. “avarīvur” (Gr. also “varivartti, varīvṛtīti, varvṛtīti, varīvṛtyate”), to turn, roll, revolve, be, exist, prevail ‘vertere’; Slav. ‘vruteti’, ‘vratiti’; Lith. ‘vartyti’; Goth. ‘wairthan’; Germ. ‘werden’; Eng. ‘-ward’.]
वृध् – vṛdh cl.1.ā. ( xviii, 20) “vardhate” (Ved. and ep. also “-ti”; pf. “vavardha, vavṛdhe” &c. &c. [Ved. also “vāvṛ-; vavṛdhāti, -dhītās, -dhasva” ; “vāvṛdhete” ; p. “vāvṛdhat” ; aor. Ved. “avṛdhat, vṛdhātas, -dhātu”; p. “vṛdhat, -dhāna”]; “avardhiṣṭa” &c.; Prec. “vardhiṣīmahi” ; fut. “vardhitā” Gr.; “vartsyati” ; “vardhiṣyate” Gr.; inf. Ved. “vṛdhe” [“for increase”, “to make glad”], “vṛdhase, vāvṛdhadhyai”; Class. “vardhitum”; ind. p. “vṛddhvā”, or “vardhitvā” Gr.; in “vṛdh” is sometimes confounded with 1. “vṛt”), trans. P., to increase, augment, strengthen, cause to prosper or thrive ; to elevate, exalt, gladden, cheer, exhilarate (esp. the gods, with praise or sacrifice) ; (intrans. ā.; in Ved. P. in pf. and aor.; in Class. P. in aor. fut. and cond.; also P. m.c. in other forms), to grow, grow up, increase, be filled or extended, become longer or stronger, thrive, prosper, succeed &c. &c.; to rise, ascend (as the scale in ordeals) ; to be exalted or elevated, feel animated or inspired or excited by (instr. loc. gen.) or in regard to (dat.), become joyful, have cause for congratulation (“vṛdhaḥ, -dhat” in sacrificial formulas = “mayest thou or may he prosper”; in later language often with “diṣṭyā”) &c. &c.: Caus. “vardhayati, -te” (in later language also “vardhāpayati”; aor. Ved. “avīvṛdhat, -dhata”), to cause to increase or grow, augment, increase, make larger or longer, heighten, strengthen, further, promote (ā. “for one’s self”) &c. &c.; to rear, cherish, foster, bring up ; to elevate, raise to power, cause to prosper or thrive &c.; to exalt, magnify, glorify (esp. the gods), make joyful, gladden (ā. in Ved. also = to rejoice, be joyful, take delight in [instr.], enjoy &c. &c.; with. or scil. “diṣṭyā”) to congratulate ; (cl. 10. accord. to “to speak” or “to shine” (“bhāṣārthe” or “bhāsārthe”): Desid. of Caus. see “vivardhayiṣu”: Desid. “vivardhiṣate” or “vivṛtsati” Gr.: Intens. “varivṛdhyate, varivṛdhīti”
वृष् – vṛṣ cl.1.P. ( xvii, 56) “varṣati” (ep. also ā. “varṣate” and Ved. “vṛṣate”; pf. “vavarṣa, vavṛṣe” &c.; 3. pl. P. ep. “vavṛṣus”, or “vavarṣus”; p. P. “vavarṣvas” ; ā. “vāvṛṣāṇa” ; Impv. “vāvṛṣasva” ; aor. “avarṣīt” &c. &c.; fut. “vraṣṭā” ; “varṣitā” Gr.; “varṣiṣyati, -te” &c.; inf. “varṣitum” &c.; “varṣṭos” ; ind. p. “vṛṣṭvā” ; “-ṭvī” ; “varṣitvā” Gr.), to rain (either impers., or with Parjanya, Indra, the clouds &c., in nom.) &c. &c.; to rain down, shower down, pour forth, effuse, shed (ā. = “to bestow or distribute abundantly”; also with instr. = “to rain upon, or overwhelm with” e.g. with arrows; “varṣati”, “while it rains, during rain”) ; to strike, hurt, vex, harass Caus. “varṣayati” (aor. “avīvṛṣat” or “avavarṣat”), to cause to rain (Parjanya &c.) or to fall down as rain (flowers &c.) ; (without acc.) to cause or produce rain ; to rain upon (= overwhelm) with (a shower of arrows instr.) ; ā. to have manly power, have generative vigour Desid. “vivarṣiṣati” Gr. (cf. “vivarṣiṣu”): Intens. “varīvṛṣyate, varīvarṣṭi” &c. “cognates” see under “varṣā” and 1. “vṛṣa”.]
वोढवे – voḍhave Ved. inf. of 1. “vah”.
वोळ्हवे – voLhave Ved. inf. of 1. “vah”.
व्यथ् – vyath cl.1.ā. ( xix, 2) “vyathate” (ep. also “-ti”; pf. “vivyathe”, 3. pl. “-thuḥ” ; aor. “vyathiṣi” ; Subj “vyathiṣat” ; fut. “vyathitā, -thiṣyate” Gr.; inf. “vyathitum” inf. “vyathiṣyai”), to tremble, waver, go astray, come to naught, fail &c. &c. (with abl. = to be deprived of lose; wish “caritra-tas”, to abandon the path of virtue); to fall (on the ground) (“to be dried up” ; to cease, become ineffective (as poison) ; to be agitated or disturbed in mind, be restless or sorrowful or unhappy &c. &c.; to be afraid of (gen.) Caus. “vyathayati” (aor. “vivyathas” ; “vyathayīs” , to cause to tremble or fall &c. &c.; to cause to swerve from (abl.) ; to disquiet, frighten, agitate, Pain, afflict &c.: Pass. of Caus. “vyathyate”, to be set in restless motion Desid. “vivyathiṣate” Gr.: Intens. “vāvyathyate, vāvyatti”
व्रीलन – vrīlana n. Ved. = “vrīḍana”.
शक् – śak cl.5.P. () “śaknoti” (pf. “śaśāka, śekuḥ” &c. &c.; aor “aśakat” &c. [Ved. also Pot. “śakeyam” and “śakyām”; Impv. “śagdhi, śaktam”]; fut. “śaktā”, or “śakitā” Gr.; “śakṣyati, -te” &c.; “śakiṣyate, -te” Gr.; inf. “-śaktave” ; “śaktum” or “śakitum” Gr.), to be strong or powerful, be able to or capable of or competent for (with acc. dat. or loc., rarely acc. of a verbal noun, or with an inf. in “am” or “tum”; or with pr. p.; e.g. with “grahaṇāya” or “grahaṇe”, “to be able to seize”; “vadha-nirṇekam” “a-śaknuvan”, “unable to atone for slaughter”; “śakema vājino yamam”, “may we be able to guide horses”; “vīkṣitum” “na” “śaknoti”, “e is not able to see”; “pūrayan na śaknoti”, “e is not able to fill”) &c. &c. (in these meanings ep. also “śakyati, -te”, with inf in “tuṁ” cf. ; to be strong or exert one’s self for another (dat.), aid, help, assist ; to help to (dat. of thing) Pass. “śakyate” (ep. also “-ti”), to be overcome or subdued, succumb ; to yield, give way ; to be compelled or caused by any one (instr.) to (inf.) ; to be able or capable or possible or practicable (with an inf. in pass. sense e.g. “tat kartuṁ śakyate”, “that can be done”; sometimes with pass. p. e.g. “na śakyate vāryamāṇaḥ”, “e cannot be restrained”; or used impers., with or with out instr. e.g. “yadi” [“tvayā”] “śakyate”, “if it can be done by thee”, if it is possible”) Caus. “śākayati” (aor. “aśīśakat”), Gr.: Desid. see “śikṣ”. ([Cf. accord. to some, Gk. [greek] Germ. ‘Hag’ ‘Hecke’ ‘hegen’; ‘behagen’.])
शम् – śam cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 92), “śāmyati” (rarely “-te”, and ep. also “śanati, -te”; Ved. “śamyati, śimyati”, and cl.9. “śamnāti” [ ii, 9], “śamnīṣe, śamnīthās” Impv. “śamnīṣva, śamīṣva, śamiṣva, śamīdhvam”; pf. “śaśāma, śemuḥ” &c.; “śaśame” Subj. “śaśamate” ; p. “śaśamāna” [q.v.]; aor. “aśamiṣṭhās” ; “aśamat” [cf. pres.]; Prec. “śamyāt” Gr.; fut. “śamiśā, śamiṣyati” ; ind. p. “śamitvā, śāntvā, śāmam” , to toil at, fatigue or exert one’s self (esp. in performing ritual acts) ; to prepare, arrange ; to become tired, finish, stop, come to an end, rest, be quiet or calm or satisfied or contented &c.; to cease, be allayed or extinguished &c.; cl.9. (cf. above ) to put an end to, hurt, injure, destroy Pass. “śamyate” (aor. “aśami”) Caus. “śamayati” (m.c. also “śāmayati”; aor. “aśīśamat”; Pass. “śāmyate”), to appease, allay, alleviate, pacify, calm, soothe, settle &c. &c.; to put to an end or to death, kill, slay, destroy, remove, extinguish. sup. press &c. &c.; to leave off, desist ; to conquer, subdue Desid. “śiśamiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “śaṁśamīti” (), “śaṁśamyate, śaṁśanti” (Gr.), to be entirely appeased or extinguished (pf. “śaṁśamāṁ cakruḥ” ([Cf. Gk. [greek] ]),
शयध्यै – śayadhyai Ved. inf. of 1. “śī” q.v.
शस् – śas cl.1.P. ( xvii, 78) “śasati” (Ved. also “-śasti” and “-śāsti”; pf. “śaśāsa” ; 3. pl. “śaśasuḥ” Gr.; fut. “śasitā” ; “śasiṣyati” ; Ved. inf. “-śasas” ; ind. p. “-śasya” , to cut down, kill, slaughter (mostly “vi-śas” q.v.)
शास् – śās (cf. “śaṁs”) cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 67) “śāsti” (Ved. and ep. also “śāste” and “śāsati, -te”; du. “śiṣṭhaḥ” &c. ; 3. pl. “śāsati” ; impf. “aśāt” &c.; Impv. “śādhi, śāstana” ; Pot. “śiṣyāt” ; pf. “śaśāsa, -suḥ” [in also Impv. “śaśādhi” and Subj. “śaśās”] &c. &c.; aor. “aśiṣat” [in also 1. pl. “śiṣāmahi” and p. “śiṣat”] ; fut. “śāsitā” Gr.; “śāsiṣyati, -te” &c.; inf. “śāstum” ; “śāsitum” &c.; ind. p. “śāsitvā” or “śiṣṭvā” ; “-śiṣya” ; “-śāsya” &c.), to chastise, correct, censure, punish &c. &c.; to restrain, control, rule, govern (also with “rājyam” or “aiśvaryam”) &c.; to administer the laws (with “dharmam”, “to administer justice”) ; to direct, bid, order, command, enjoin, decree (with an inf. or a sentence followed by “iti”) ; to teach, instruct, inform (with two acc., or with acc. of pers. and dat. or loc. of thing) &c. &c.; to confess (a crime) ; to announce, proclaim ; to predict, foretell ; to blame, reject, disdain (?) ; to praise, commend (= “śaṁs”) Pass. “śāsyate” or “śiṣyate” (cf. “śiṣ”), to be chastised or corrected &c. &c.: Caus. “śāśayati” (aor. “aśaśāsat” , to recommend Desid. “śiśāsiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “śeśiṣyate, śāśāsti”
शी – śī cl.2.ā. “śete” (with Guṇa throughout the pr. stem: thus, “śaye” [in also 3. sg.], “śeṣe” &c., 3. pl. “śerate” [in also “śere” and Class. “śayire”]; Pot. “śayīta” &c.; Impv. “-śetām” and “śayām” ; impf. “aśeta” &c., 3. pl. “aśerata” [in also “aśeran”], p. “śayāna” &c.; Ved. and ep. also cl.1. “śayate, -ti”; impf. “aśayat” and “aśāyata” ; pf. “śiśye, śiśyire” ; p. Ved. “śaśayāna”, Class. “śiśyāna”; aor. “aśayiṣṭa” Subj. “śeṣan” ; fut. “śayitā” sg. “-tāse” ; “śayiṣyate, -ti” ; “śeṣyate, -ti” ; inf. “śayadhyai” ; “śayitum” ; ind. p. “śayitvā” &c.; “-śayya” , to lie, lie down, recline, rest, repose &c. &c.; to remain unused (as Soma) ; to lie down to sleep, fall asleep, sleep &c.; (with “patye”) to lie down to a husband (for sexual intercourse) ; (“madanena-śī” = “to be impotent”) Pass. “śayyate” Gr. (aor. “aśāyi” “śīyat”): Caus. “śāyayati, -te” (aor. “aśīśayat”), to cause to lie down, lay down, put, throw, fix on or in (loc.) &c.; to cause to lie down, allow to rest or sleep Desid. “śiśayiṣate”, to wish to rest or sleep Intens. “śāśayyate, śeśayīti, śeśeti” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek] “to lie”; [characters] “a bed.”])
शुच् – śuc cl.1.P. ( vii, 1) “śocati” (Ved. and ep. also “-te”; once in “-śucyati” [cf. “saṁ-śuc”]; and in “śocimi”; pf. “śuśoca” Impv. “śuśugdhi” Pot. “śuśucīta”, p. “śuśukvas” and “śuśucāna” aor. “aśucat” [p. “śucat” and “śucamāna”] ; “aśocīt” [2. sg. “śocīḥ”] ; “aśociṣṭa” Gr.; Prec. “śucyāsam” ; fut. “śoktā” or “śocitā” ; “śuciṣyati, -te” &c. &c.; inf. “śucadhyai” ; “śoktum” or “śocitum” &c.; ind. p. “śocitvā” ; “śucitvā” to shine, flame, gleam, glow, burn ; to suffer violent heat or pain, be sorrowful or afflicted, grieve, mourn at or for (loc. or acc. with “prati”) &c. &c.; to bewail, lament, regret (acc.) &c.; to be absorbed in deep meditation ; (cl. 4. P. ā. “śucyati, -te”) to be bright or pure (cf. Caus. and “śuci”); to be wet ; to decay, be putrid, stink Pass. (only aor. “aśoci”) to be kindled, burn, flame Caus. “śocayati, -te” (p. “śucayat” [q.v.] ; aor. “aśūśucat, śūśucat” , to set on fire, burn ; to cause to suffer pain, afflict, distress ; to feel pain or sorrow, grieve, mourn ; to lament, regret ; to purify Pass. of Caus. “śocyate” Desid. “śuśuciṣati” or “śuśociṣati” Intens. “śośucyate, śośokti”, to shine or flame brightly Gr. (only “śośucan” ; cf. “śośucat, śośucāna, śośucyamāna”).
शुभ् – śubh (or 1. “śumbh”) cl.1.ā. or 6. P. ( xviii, 11; xxviii, 33) “śobhate, śumbhati” or “śumbhati” (ep. also “śobhati”, and Ved. “śumbhate”; 3. sg. “śobhe” ; pf. “śuśobha, śuśubhe” &c.; “śuśumbha” Gr.; aor., “aśubhat, aśobhiṣṭa, aśumbhīt” ; p. “śumbhāna, śubhāna” ; fut. “śobhitā” or “śumbhitā” Gr.; “śobhiṣyati” ; “śumbhiṣyati” Gr.; inf. “śubhe, śobhāse” ; “śobhitum” Gr.), to beautify, embellish, adorn, beautify one’s self. (ā.) look beautiful or handsome, shine, be bright or splendid; (with “iva” or “yathā”, “to shine or look like”; with “na”, “to look bad, have a bad appearance, appear to disadvantage”) &c. &c.; to prepare, make fit or ready, (ā.) prepare one’s self. ; (“śumbhate” accord. to some) to flash or flit i.e. glide rapidly past or along (cf. “śubhāna, śumbhamāna”, and “pra-śumbh”); (“śumbhati”) wrongly for “śundhati” (to be connected with “śudh”, to purify) ; (“śumbhati”) to harm, injure (in this sense rather to be regarded as a second “śumbh” cf. 2. “śumbh, ni-śumbh”): Pass. aor. “aśobhi-tarām” Caus. “śbhayati” (aor. “aśūśubhat”; cf. “śobhita”), to cause to shine beautify, ornament, decorate &c. &c.; (“śubhayati, -te”) to ornament, decorate, (ā.) decorate one’s self. ; (only pr. p. “śubhayat”), to fly rapidly along Desid. “śuśobhiṣate” (accord. to Gr. also “-ti”, and “śuśubhiṣati, -te”), to wish to prepare or make ready Intens. “śośubhyate” (Gr. also “śośobdhi”), to shine brightly or in tensely, be very splendid or beautiful
शृध् – śṛdh cl.1.P. ā. ( xviii, 21; xxxiii, 61) “śardhati, -te” (pr. p. Ved. “śardhat” and “śardhamāna”; Gr. also pf. “śaśṛdhe”; aor. “aśṛdhat”, or “aśardhiṣṭa”; fut. “śartsyati” or “śardhiṣyate”; inf. “śardhitum”; ind. p. “śardhitvā” or “śṛddhvā”), to break wind downwards (in “ava-” and “vi-śṛdh” q.v.); to mock at, ridicule, defy (with gen.) ; to moisten, become moist or wet Caus. “śardhayati” (only in “ati-praśardhayat”) Desid. “śiśardhiṣate, śiśṛtsati” Gr.: Intens. “śarīśṛdhyate, śarīśṛdhīti, śarīśarddhi”
शोभसे – śobhase Ved. inf. of “śubh” q.v.
श्याव – śyāva mf (“ā”) n. (connected with “śyāma”) dark-brown, brown, dark-coloured, dark &c. mf (“ā”) n. drawn by brown or bay horses (said of chariots, Ved.) mf (“ā”) n. pungent and sweet and sour
श्रद्धा – śraddhā “śrad-dhā” P. ā. “-dadhāti, -dhatte” (pr. p. “śraddadhat, śrad-dadhāna”; Ved. inf. “śraddhe” cf. “śrat” above ), to have faith or faithfulness, have belief or confidence, believe, be true or trustful (with “na”, “to disbelieve” &c.) &c. &c.; to credit, think anything true (two acc.) &c.; to believe or have faith in or be true to (with dat., and in later language with gen. of thing or person, or with loc. of thing) &c. &c.; to expect anything (acc.) from (abl.) ; to consent, assent to, approve, welcome (with acc.; with “na”, “to disapprove”) ; to be desirous of (acc.), wish to (inf.) Caus. “-dhāpayati”, to make faithful, render trustful, inspire confidence
श्रथ् – śrath or śranth (cf. “ślath”) cl.9.P. ( xxxi, 39) “śrathnāti” (Ved. also “śrathnīte” and “śṛnthati”, and accord. to also “śrathati, śrāthayati, śranthati, -te”; pf. “śaśrātha” or “śaśrantha” Gr.; 3. sg. “-śaśrathe” ; 3. pl. “śrethuḥ” or “śaśranthuḥ” Gr.; aor. “aśranthīt, -thiṣṭa” ; fut. “śranthiṣyati” ; inf. “śrathitum” or “śranthitum” ; ind. p. “śrathitvā” or “śranthitvā” ; “-śrathya” , to be loosened or untied or unbent, become loose or slack, yield, give way (cf. ; to make slack, disable, disarm ; (ā.) to loosen one’s own (bonds &c.) ; v.l. for “grath, granth”: Caus. “śrathayati, -te” (in Saṁhitāp. also “śrathāyati” and accord. to Gr. also “śrāthayati” and “śranthayati” [cf. below]; aor. “aśiśrathat” [3. sg. Subj. “śiśrathat” and 3. pl. Impv. “śiśrathantu” or “aśaśranthat”), to loosen, untie, unbend, slacken, relax (ā. “to become loose, yield”) ; to remit, Pardon (sin) ; (“śrāthayati”), to strive eagerly, endeavour, use exertion ; to delight, gladden ; (“śranthayati”), to bind, tie, connect, arrange ; to hurt, kill
श्रि – śri cl.1.P. ā. ( xxi, 31) “śrayati, -te” (pf. “śiśrāya, śiśriye”; aor. “aśret, āśriyan” ; “aśrait” ; “aśiśriyat” &c.; “aśrāyiṣṭa” Gr. [Ved. forms belonging either to the pf. or aor. type are also “aśiśret, -śrema, -śrayuḥ, śiśrīta”]; fut. “śrayitā” Gr.; “śrayiṣyati, -te” &c.; inf. “śrayitum” ; “śrayitavai” ; ind. p. “śrayitvā” &c., “-śritya” &c.) P. to cause to lean or rest on, lay on or in, fix on, fasten to, direct or turn towards, (esp.) spread or diffuse (light or radiance or beauty) over (loc.) ; (ā. or Pass., rarely P.) to lean on, rest on, recline against (acc.), cling to (loc.), be supported or fixed or depend on, abide in or on (acc. loc. or adv.) ; (ā. P.) to go to, approach, resort or have recourse to (for help or refuge), tend towards (acc.) &c.; (ā.) to go into, enter, fall to the lot or take possession of (acc. or loc.) ; (ā. P.) to attain, undergo, get into any state or condition (acc.) &c.; to assume (with “śrāvikā-tvam”, “to assume the form of a śrāvikā”, q.v.) ; to show, betray (heroism) ; to honour, worship Pass. “śrīyate” (aor. “aśrāyi”: cf. above ) &c. &c.: Caus. “śrāpayati” (in “uc-chr-“) ; “śrāyayati” (aor. “aśiśrayat”; for “aśiśriyat” see above ) Gr.: Desid. “śiśrayiṣati, -te” or “śiśrīṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “śeśrīyate, śeśrayīti, śeśreti” ‘clino’, ‘clivus’; Lith. ‘szlyti’, ‘szleti’, ‘szlaitas’; Goth. ‘hlains’; ‘hlaiw’; Germ. ‘hlinen’, ‘linen’, ‘lehnen’; Angl. Sax. ‘hlinian’; Eng. ‘lean’.]
श्रीयध्यै – śrīyadhyai Ved. inf.
श्रीयसे – śrīyase (dat. and Ved. inf.), for beauty or splendour or glory, splendidly, gloriously
श्रु – śru cl.5.P. ( xxii, 44) “śṛṇoti” (Ved. and ep. also ā. “śṛṇute”, and in 3. sg. “śṛṇve”, 2. sg. “-viṣe”, 3. pl. “-vire” [cf. below]; Impv. “śṛṇu, -ṇudhī” and “-ṇuhī” pl. “śṛṇutā, -ṇota” and “-ṇotana” ; pf. “śuśrāva” [once in with pass. sense], “śuśruve” [2. sg. “śuśrotha”, 1. pl. “śuśruma”, in also “-mas; śuśravat, śuśrūyās” “śuśruvas” q.v.]; aor. Ved. “aśravam, aśrot”, 2. sg. “śroṣi”; Subj. “śravat, -vathaḥ”; [?] “śruvam” ; Impv. “śrudhī, śrotu” ; “aśrauṣīt” &c.; Subj. “śroṣan” Impv. “śroṣantu” [cf. “śroṣamāṇa”]; Prec. “śrūyāsam” &c.; fut. “śrotā” ; “śroṣyati, -te” &c.; inf. “śrotum” &c.; ind. p. “śrutvā” &c.; “-śrutya” &c.; “śrāvam” &c.), to hear, listen or attend to anything (acc.), give ear to any one (acc. or gen.), hear or learn anything about (acc.) or from (abl. gen. instr., “mukhāt” or “śakāśāt”), or that anything is (two acc.) &c. &c.; to hear (from a teacher), study, learn &c.; to be attentive, be obedient, obey &c.: Pass. “śrūyate” (ep. also “-ti”; and in “śṛṇve” &c. [cf. above] with pass. meaning; aor. “aśrāvi, śrāvi”), to be heard or perceived or learnt about (acc.) or from (gen. abl. or “mukhāt”; in later language often 3. sg. “śrūyate” impers. “it is heard”, “one hears or learns or reads in a book”, = “it is said”, “it is written in (with loc.)”; Impv. “śrūyatām”, “let it be heard” = “listen!”) &c. &c.; to be celebrated or renowned, be known as, pass for, be called (nom.) ; to be heard or learnt (from a teacher) ; to be taught or stated (in a book) ; to be heard i.e. pronounced or employed (as a sound or word) Caus. “śrāvayati” (ep. also “-te”, in also “śravayati”; aor. “aśuśravi, -vuḥ” ; “aśuśruvat” ; “aśiśravat” Gr.; Pass. “śrāvyate” see below), to cause to be heard or learnt, announce, proclaim, declare &c. &c.; to cause to hear, inform, instruct, communicate, relate, tell (with acc. of thing, and acc. gen., or dat. of pers., or with instr. in sense of “through”) &c.: Pass. of Caus. “śrāvyate”, to be informed of (acc.) &c.: Desid. “śuśrūṣate” ( 1-3, 57; ep. or m.c. also “-ti”; Pass. “śuśrūṣyate”), to wish or like to hear (acc.), desire to attend or listen to (dat.) &c. &c.; to attend upon, serve, obey (acc., rarely gen.) &c.: Caus. of Desid. “śuśrūṣayati”, to wait upon, be at the service of (acc.) on Desid. of Caus. “śiśrāvayiṣati” or “śuśrāvayiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “śośrūyate, śośravīti, śośroti” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek] = “śrudhi”, [characters] = “śruta” &c.; Lat. ‘cluo’, ‘in-clutus’; Slav. ‘sluti’; Germ. ‘laut’; Eng. ‘loud’.])
श्वस् – śvas (cf. 3 “-śuṣ”) cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 61) “śvasiti” (Ved. and ep. also “śvasati, -te”; Impv. “śvasihi” , “śvasa” ; impf. [or aor.] “aśvasīt”, ep. also “aśvasat”; Pot. or Prec. “śvasyāt”, ep. also “śvaset”; pr. p. “śvasat”, ep. also “śvasamāna” [for “śvasamāna” see below]; pf. “śaśvāsa” ; fut. “śvasitā” Gr.; “śvasiṣyati” ; inf. “śvasitum” ; ind. p. “-śvasya” , to blow, hiss, pant, snort &c. &c.; to breathe, respire, draw breath (also = live) &c.; to sigh, groan ; to strike, kill Caus. “śvāsayati” (aor. “aśiśvasat”), to cause to blow or breathe &c.; to cause heavy breathing Desid. “śiśvasiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “śāśvasyate, śāśvasti” (only p. “śāśvasat”, snorting
स – sa the actual base for the nom. case of the 3rd pers. pron. “tad” q.v. (occurring only in the nom. sg. mf. [“sa” or “sas, sā”], and in the Ved. loc. [“sasmin” ; the final “s” of the nom. m. is dropped before all consonants [except before “p” in “t” in ; “sa” occasionally blends with another vowel [as in “saīṣaḥ”]; and it is often for emphasis connected with another pron. as with “aham, tvam, eṣa, ayam” &c. [e.g. “so ‘ham” “sa tvam”, “I (or thou) that very person”; cf. under “tad”, p.434], the verb then following in the 1st and 2nd pers. even if “aham” or “tvam” be omitted [e.g. “sa” “tvā pṛcchāmi” “I that very person ask you” ; “sa” “vai no brūhi” “do thou tell us” ; similarly, to denote emphasis, with “bhavān” [e.g. “sa bhavān vijayāya pratiṣṭhatām”, “let your Highness set out for victory” ; it sometimes [and frequently in the Brāhmaṇas] stands as the first word of a sentence preceding a rel. pronoun or adv. such as “ya, yad, yadi, yathā, ced”; in this position “sa” may be used pleonastically or as a kind of ind., even where another gender or number is required [e.g. “sa yadi” “sthāvarā āpo bhananti”, “if those waters are stagnant” ; in the Sāṁkhya “sa”, like “eṣa, ka”, and “ya”, is used to denote Purusha, “the Universal Soul”) ‘ha’, ‘hA’; Gk. [greek]. ]
संयु – saṁyu “saṁ-yu” P. ā. “-yauti, -yute; -yunāti, -nīte” (Ved. also “-yuvati, -te”), to join or unite with one’s self, take into one’s self, devour ; to join to another, bestow on, impart ; to join together, connect with (instr.), unite, mix, mingle
संवृत् – saṁvṛt “saṁ-vṛt” ā. “-vartate” (pf. p. “-vavṛtvas” q.v.; Ved. inf. “-vṛtas”; ind. “-vartam”), to turn or go towards, approach near to, arrive at ; to go against, attack (acc.) ; to meet, encounter (as foes) ; to come together, be rolled together, be conglomerated ; (also with “mithas”) to have sexual intercourse together ; to take shape, come into being, be produced, arise from (abl.) &c. &c.; to come round or about, come to pass, happen, occur, take place, be fulfilled (as time) ; &c.; to begin, commence ; to be, exist &c.; to become, grow, get (with nom.) ; to be conducive to, serve for (dat.) Caus. “vartayati”, to cause to turn or revolve, roll (lit. and fig.) &c. &c.; to turn towards or hither ; to clench (the fist) ; to wrap up, envelop ; to crumple up, crush, destroy ; to bring about, accomplish, perform, execute ; to fulfil, satisfy (a wish) ; to think of. find out (a remedy) Desid. “-vivṛtsati”, to wish to have sexual intercourse with (acc.)
संसद् – saṁsad “saṁ-sad” P. “-sīdati” (Ved. also “-te” and “-sadati”), to sit down together with (instr.) or upon (acc.), sit down ; to sink down collapse, l’s discouraged or distressed, pine away (with “kṣudhā”, “to perish with hunger”) &c.: Caus. “-sādayati”, to cause tc sit down together ; to meet, encounter (acc.) ; to weigh down, afflict, distress
संस्था – saṁsthā “saṁ-sthā” ā. “-tiṣṭhate” ( 1-3, 22; ep. and m.c. also P. “-tiṣṭhati”; Ved. inf. “-sthātos” , to stand together, hold together (pf. p. du. “-tasthāne”, said of heaven and earth) ; to come or stay near (loc.) ; to meet (as enemies), come into conflict ; to stand still, remain, stay, abide (lit. and fig.; with “vākye”, “to obey”) &c.; to be accomplished or completed (esp. applied to rites) ; to prosper, succeed, get on well ; to come to an end, perish, be lost, die ; to become, be turned into or assume the form of (acc.) Caus “-sthāpayati” (subj. aor. “tiṣṭipaḥ” , to cause to stand up or firm, raise on their legs again (fallen horses) ; to raise up, restore (dethroned kings) ; to confirm, encourage, comfort (“ātmānam”, or “hṛdayam”, “one’s self” i.e. “take heart again”) ; to fix or place upon or in (loc.) &c.; to put or add to (“uparī”) ; to build (a town) ; to heap, store up (goods) ; to found, establish, fix, settle, introduce, set a foot ; to cause to stand still, stop, restrain, suppress (breath, semen &c.) ; to accomplish, conclude, complete (esp. a rite) ; to put to death, kill ; to perform the last office for i.e. to burn, cremate (a dead body) ; to put to subjection, subject Desid. of Caus. “-sthāpayiṣati”, to wish to finish or conclude
संह्वे – saṁhve “saṁ-hve” ā. “-hvayate” ( 1-3, 30; Ved. inf. “saṁ-hvayitavai”), to call out loudly, shout together ; to relate, make known
संग्रह् – saṁgrah “saṁ-grah” (or “grabh”) P. ā. “-gṛhṇāti, -gṛhṇīte” (Ved. generally “-gṛbhṇāti, -gṛbhṇīte”), to seize or hold together, take or lay hold of. grab, grasp, gripe, clasp, clench, snatch &c. &c.; to take, receive (kindly or hospitably), encourage, support, favour, protect ; to seize on, attack (as an illness) ; to apprehend, conceive, understand ; to carry off &c.; to gather together, assemble, collect, compile &c.; to include, comprehend, contain ; to draw together, contract, make narrower, abridge ; to draw together (a bow in order to unstring it) ; to hold in, restrain, check, govern ; to constrain, force ; to keep together, close, shut (as the mouth) ; to concentrate (the mind) ; to take in marriage, marry ; to mention, name ; Caus. “-grāhayati”, to cause to grasp or take hold of or receive or comprehend or understand, impart, communicate (with acc. of thing and acc. or dat. of person) Desid. “jighṛkṣati”, to wish to take hold of &c.; to wish to collect ; to wish to take in marriage, desire to marry
सच् – sac (connected with 2. “sajj, saṇj, sakh”; cf. “sap”) cl.1.ā. ( vi, 2) “sacate” (in also P. “sacati” and “siṣakti”, 2. sg. “saścasi”, 3. pl. “saścati”, 2. 3. pl. “saścata”, 1. sg. ā. “saśce”; p. “sacamāna, sacāna” and “saścat” or “saścat” [q.v.]; pf. Ved. “saścima, saścuḥ”; ā. “saścire” ; “secire” ; aor. 3. pl. “asakṣata” ; “sakṣat, sakṣata, sakṣante, sakṣīmahi” ; “asaciṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “sacitā, saciṣyate” ; inf. “sacadhyai” , to be associated or united with, have to do with, be familiar with, associate one’s self with (instr.) ; be possessed of. enjoy (instr. or acc.) ; to take part or participate in, suffer, endure (instr.) ; to belong to, be attached or devoted to, serve, follow, seek, pursue, favour, assist (acc.) ; to he connected with (instr.) on ; to fall to the lot of (acc.) ; to be together ; (“siṣakti”), to go after, follow, accompany, adhere or be attached to (acc.) ; to help any one to anything (two dat.) ; to abide in (loc.) ; (3. pl. “saścati” and “saścata”), to follow, obey ; to belong to (acc.) ; to be devoted to or fond of (acc.) [characters]; Lat. ‘sequor’; Lith. ‘seku’.]
संचक्ष् – saṁcakṣ “saṁ-cakṣ” ā. “-caṣṭe” (pf. p. “cakṣāṇa”; Ved. inf. “-cakṣe” and “-cakṣi”), to look attentively at, observe, notice, consider, survey, examine, reflect upon ; to enumerate ; to report or relate fully ; to call, name ; to avoid, shun (aor. “sam acakṣiṣṭa”) (cf. “ava-” and “pari-saṁcakṣya”).
सद् – sad cl.1. or 6.P. ( xx, 24 and xxvii 133) “sīdati” (ep. also “-te”; Ved. “sadati” or “sīdati, -te”; pf. “sasāda, sasattha, sedus, sedire” ; “sīdatus” ; “sasadyāt”. ; aor. “asadat” [cf. pres. “stem”] Gr.; 2. 3. sg. “satsi, satsat” ; “asādīt” ; fut. “sattā” Gr.; “satsyati” ; “sīdiṣyati” ; inf. “sade” ; “sattum” ; “sīditum” ; ind. p. “-sadya, -sadam” ; “-sādam” , to sit down (esp. at a sacrifice), sit upon or in or at (acc. or loc.) ; to sit down before, besiege, lie in wait for, watch (acc.) ; to sink down, sink into despondency or distress, become faint or wearied or dejected or low-spirited, despond, despair, pine or waste away, perish &c.: Pass. “sadyate” (aor. “asādi, sādi” Caus. “sādayati, -te” (aor. “asīṣadat”), to cause to sit down or be seated, place down, put upon or in (loc.) &c. &c.; to put in distress, afflict, weary, exhaust, ruin, destroy &c.: Desid. “siṣatsati” Gr.: Intens. “sāsadyate” (Gr. also “sāsatti”), to sit down in an indecent posture ‘sidere’, ‘sedere’; Lith. ‘sesti’, ‘sedeti’; Slav. ‘sesti’; Goth. ‘sitan’; Germ. ‘sitzen’; Angl. Sax. ‘sittan’; Eng. ‘sit’.]
संतृऋ – saṁtṝ “saṁ-tṝ” P. “-tarati” (Ved. also “-tirati”; rarely ā.), to cross or traverse together, pass through (acc.) &c. &c.; to escape or be rescued from (abl.) ; to bring safely over, rescue, save Caus. “-tārayati” (Pass. “-tāryate”), to cause to pass over, save or preserve from (abl.)
संदृश् – saṁdṛś “saṁ-dṛś” P. ā. (only in non-conj. tenses e.g. pf. “-dadarśa, -dadṛśe” fut. “-drakṣyati, -te”; ind. p. “-dṛśya”; inf. “-draṣṭum”, Ved. “-dṛśe”; cf. “sam-paś”), to see together or at the same time see well or completely, behold, view, perceive, observe, consider &c.; (ā. and Pass. “-dṛśyate”), to be seen at the same time, appear together with (instr.) ; to look like, resemble, be similar or equal ; to be observed, become visible, appear &c.: Caus. “-darśayati”, to cause to be seen, display, show, feign (“ātmānam mṛta-vat saṁ-d-“, “to feign one’s self dead”) ; to represent ; to expose, explain ; to show one’s self to (acc.) Desid. of Caus. see “saṁ-didarśayiṣu”: Desid. see “saṁ-didṛkṣu”.
संनश् – saṁnaś “saṁ-naś” (only in Ved. inf. “saṁnaśe”), to reach, attain
सप्तजानि – saptajāni “sapta-jāni” mfn. (Ved.; prob.) having 7 brothers or sisters
सप्तजामि – saptajāmi “sapta-jāmi” mfn. (Ved.; prob.) having 7 brothers or sisters
सम् – sam ind. (connected with 7. “sa” and 2. “sama”, and opp. to 3. “vi” q.v.) with, together with, along with, together, altogether (used as a preposition or prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives, like Gk. [greek] Lat. ‘con’, and expressing “conjunction”, “union”, “thoroughness”, “intensity”, “completeness” e.g. “saṁyuj”, “to join together”; “saṁ-dhā”, “to place together”; “saṁ-dhi”, “placing together”; “saṁ-tap”, “to consume utterly by burning”; “sam-uccheda”, “destroying altogether, complete destruction”; in Ved. the verb connected with it has sometimes to be supplied, e.g. “āpo agnim yaśasaḥ saṁ hi pūrvīih”, “for many glorious waters surrounded Agni”; it is sometimes prefixed to nouns in the sense of 2. “sama”, “same”; cf. “samartha”)
समस् – samas “sam-as” P. “-asyati” (Ved. inf. “sam-āsam”), to throw or put together, add, combine, compound, mix, mingle, connect Pass. “-asyate”, to be put together or combined &c.; (in gram.) to be compounded, form a compound
समिन्ध् – samindh “sam-indh” ā. “-inddhe”, or “-indhe” (once in 3. pl. impf. “-aindhan”; cf. ; Ved. inf. “-idham” and “-idhe”), to set fire to, set alight, light up, kindle, ignite, inflame (lit. and fig.) ; to take fire ; to swell, increase, exhibit, show, betray. (skill) Pass. “-idhyate”, to be kindled, take fire, break out into flame
समृध् – samṛdh “sam-ṛdh” P. “-ṛdhyati, -ṛdhnoti” (Ved. inf. “-ṛdhe”), to succeed well, prosper, flourish, increase or grow greatly Pass. “-ṛdhyate”, to be completely successful, be fulfilled or accomplished, succeed, prosper ; to share in abundantly, be amply furnished with (instr.) Caus. “-ardhayati”, to cause to succeed or prosper, accomplish, fulfil ; to cause to be abundantly furnished with (instr.) ; to bestow liberally on (dat.)
सम्पृच् – sampṛc “sam-pṛc” P. ā. “-pṛṇakti, -pṛṅkte” (Ved. also Impv. “-pipṛgdhi”; Pot. “-pipṛcyāt”; inf. “-pṛcaḥ”), to mix together, commingle, bring into contact, connect, unite (ā. and Pass., “to be mixed &c.”; “to be in contact or connected or united”) &c. &c.; to fill up, fill or satiate or endow or present with (instr.; ā. and Pass., “to be filled or presented with”)
सम्प्रछ् – samprach “sam-prach” P. ā. “-pṛcchati, -te” (Ved. inf. “-pṛccham” and “pṛcche”), to ask, question about (with two acc.), inquire into the future ; (ā.) to make inquiries, consult about, salute or greet one another
सम्प्रश्न – sampraśna “sam-praśna” m. asking, inquiring about (comp.), inquiry, question (“-praśno’tra na vidyate”, “there is here no question, it is a matter of course”) &c. m. courteous inquiry m. a refuge, asylum (Ved.)
सम्प्रवद् – sampravad “sam-pra-vad” P. ā. “-vadati, -te” (Ved. inf. “-vaditos”), to pronounce aloud ; (P.) to utter cries together, sing together ; (ā.) to talk or converse together ; Caus. “vādayati” see below.
सम्भृ – sambhṛ “sam-bhṛ” P. ā. “-bharati, -te” (Ved. pf. “-jabhāra”), to draw together, roll or fold up ; (ā) to close (the jaws) ; to bring together, gather, collect, unite, compose, arrange, prepare, make ready, procure (materials or ingredients of any kind, esp. for a sacrifice; with “sam-bhārān-“, “to collect all requisites”, “prepare what is necessary”) &c. &c.; to pay back ; to maintain, cherish ; to offer, present Cam. “-bhārayati”, to cause to bring together or prepare
सम्मृद् – sammṛd “sam-mṛd” P. “-mṛdnāti, -mardati” (Ved. inf. “-marditoḥ”), to press or squeeze together, rub or grind to pieces, crush, destroy Caus. “-mardayati” (pr. p. “-mardayāna”), to cause to be rubbed together, crush, pound, bruise ; to rub ; to clean
सह् – sah cl.1.ā. ( xx, 22) “sahate” (Ved. and ep. also “-ti” and exceptionally “sāhati”, once in 1. sg. “sahyāmi”; p. “sahat” “sahamāna” [q.v.]; pf. “sehe, sasāha”; Ved. also “sasāhe” and “sāsāhat; sāsahat; sāsahīṣṭāḥ”,; “sāsahyāma”,; p. “sehāna, sāsahāna, sāsahvas” and “sāhvas” [q.v.]; aor. “asākṣi, sākṣi, sākṣate” ; “sākṣīt” ; “sakṣati” ; “sakṣat, sākṣāma” ; Impv. “sakṣi, sākṣva” ; p. “sakṣat” ; “asahisṭa” ; Prec. “sahyās, sāhyāma” ; “sākṣīya”. ; “sāhiṣīmahi” ; fut. “soḍhā” &c.; “sahitā” Gr.; “sakṣyati” , “-te” ; “sākṣye” [?] ; “-sahiṣyati, -te” ; Cond. “asahisyat” ; inf “sahadhyai” ; “sāḍhyai” ; “soḍhum, sahitum” ; ind. p. “soḍhvā” ; “sādhvā, sahitvā” Gr.; “sahya” &c.; “saham” , to prevail, be victorious; to overcome, vanquish, conquer, defeat (enemies), gain, win (battles) ; to offer violence to (acc.) ; to master, suppress, restrain &c.; to be able to or capable of (inf. or loc.) ; to bear up against, resist, with. stand &c. &c.; to bear, put up with, endure, suffer, tolerate (with “na”, “to grudge”) &c.; to be lenient towards, have patience with any one (gen.) ; to spare any one ; to let pass, approve anything ; (with “kalam, kala-kṣepam” &c.) to bide or wait patiently for the right time Caus. or cl.10. “sāhayati” (aor. “asīṣahat”), to forbear Desid. of Caus. “sisāhayiṣati” Desid. “sīkṣate” (p. “sīkṣat”; accord. to “sisahiṣa”), to wish to overcome Intens. “sāsaṣyate, sāsoḍhi” (cf “sāsahi”) Gr. ([Cf. “sahas” and [characters] for [characters]; [characters]. ])
साध् – sādh (connected with 2. “sidh”) cl.1.P. ā. “sādati, -te”; accord. to “sādhyati”, cl.5. “sādhnoti” (in also “sadhnoti”; pf. “sasādha”; aor. “asātsīt”; fut. “sāddhā, sātsyati”; inf. “sāddhum”, in later language “sādhitum”; Ved. inf. “sadhase” q.v.), to go straight to any goal or aim, attain an object, to be successful, succeed, prosper ; to being straight to an object or end, further, promote, advance, accomplish, complete, finish ; to submit or agree to, obey ; (“sādhyati”) to be completed or accomplished Caus. “sādhayati” (m.c. also “-te”; aor. “asīṣadhat”; Ved. also “sīṣadhati, -dhaḥ, -dhema, -dhātu”; Pass. “sādhyate” &c.), to straighten, make straight (a path) ; to guide straight or well, direct or bring to a goal ; to master, subdue, overpower, conquer, win, win over &c. &c.; to summon, conjure up (a god or spirit) ; (in law) to enforce payment, recover (a debt), collect (taxes) &c.; to subdue a disease, set right, heal, cure ; to bring to an end or conclusion, complete, make perfect, bring about, accomplish, effect, fulfil, execute, practice (with “vākyam”, “to execute any one’s [gen.] order”; with “naiṣkarmyam”, “to practise inactivity”; with “marum”, “to practise abstinence”; with “mantram”, “to practise the recitation of spells”) &c.; to attain one’s object, be successful ; to produce, make, render (two acc.) ; to establish a truth, substantiate, prove, demonstrate ; to make ready, prepare ; to gain, obtain, acquire, procure &c.; to find out (by calculation), Gaiṇt.; to grant, bestow, yield &c.; to put or place in (loc.) ; to set out, proceed, go (in dram. accord. to = “gam”) &c.: Desid. of Caus. “siṣādhayisati” or “sisādhayirhati”, to desire to establish or prove Desid. “siṣātsati” Gr.: Intens., “sāsādhyate, sāsdidhi”
साधसे – sādhase (Ved. inf.) for levelling or preparing land (with “ksaitrāya”)
सिव् – siv cl.4.P. ( xxvi, 2) “sīvyati” (Ved. also “-te”; pf. “siṣeva” Gr.; aor. “asevīt” ; fut. “sevitā, seviṣyati” ; ind. p. “syūtva” or “sevitvā” ; “-sīvya” , to sew, sew on, darn, stitch, stitch together, (fig.) join, unite &c. &c.: Caus. “sīvayati” () or “sevayati” (aor. “asīṣivat” Gr.), to sew, stitch: Desid. “siseviṣati” or “susyūṣati” Gr.: Intens. “seṣīvyate” ([Cf. Gk. [greek] = [characters]; Lat. ‘suere’ ‘sutor’; Slav. ‘siti’; Goth. ‘siujan’; Angl. Sax. ‘seowian’; Eng. ‘sew’.])
सुदृश् – sudṛś “su-dṛś” mf (Ved. “-dṛśī”) n. keen-sighted mf (Ved. “-dṛśī”) n. well-looking, handsome mf (Ved. “-dṛśī”) n. having beautiful eyes (“-dṛk” f. “a pretty woman”)
सू – sū ind., Ved. and in some comp. = “su”, well, good &c. (cf. “sū-nara, sū-nṛta” &c.)
सृज् – sṛj (cf. 1. 2. “sarj”) cl.6.P. ( xxviii, 121) “sṛjati” (Ved. and ep. also “-te”, and once in “sarjati”; pf. “sasarja, sasṛje” [2. sg. accord. to , “sasarjitha” and “sasraṣṭha”, in once “sasarktha”]; Vedic forms are “sasṛjmahe, -jrire, sasṛjyāt, asasṛgram”; p. “sasṛjāna” q.v.; “sasṛgmahe”; aor. “asrākṣīt; asṛkṣi, asṛṣṭa” [Ved. also “asṛgram” or “-ran; asarji; asrāk, asrāṭ; srās; srakṣat”; p. “sṛjāna” q.v.] ; fut. “sraṣṭā” ; “srakṣyati, -te” &c.; inf. “sraṣṭum” &c.; ind. p. “sṛṣṭvā” ; “-sṛjya” &c.; “-sargam” or “-sarjam” , to let go or fly, discharge, throw, cast, hurl at (acc. or dat.) &c. &c.; to cast or let go (a measuring line) ; to emit, pour forth, shed, cause to flow (rain, streams &c.) &c. &c.; to utter (a sound) ; to turn or direct (glances) ; to let loose, cause (horses) to go quickly; ā. “to speed, run, hasten” ; to release, set free ; to open (a door) ; to publish, proclaim ; to draw out and twist (a thread), twist, wind, spin (lit. and fig.; ā. “sṛjyate”, “for one’s self”; cf. on 15, and ; (in older language only ā.) to emit from one’s self i.e. create, procreate, produce, beget &c. &c.; to procure, grant, bestow &c.; to use, employ ; to get, acquire, obtain, take (interest on money lent) ; to hang on, fasten to (loc.) “asṛjat”, w.r. for “asajat”; see “saṇj”): Pass. “sṛjyate” (aor. “asarji”), to be let loose or emitted or created &c. &c.: Caus. “sarjayati, -te” (aor. “asasarjat” or “asīsṛjat”), to cause to let loose, let go, create &c. &c.: Desid. “sisṛkṣati, -te”, to wish to send forth or hurl or throw ; (ā.) to wish to produce or create Intens. “sarīsṛjyate, sarīsṛṣṭi” &c. Gr.
स्तृ – stṛ (or “stṝ”). cl.5.9. P. ā. ( xxvii, 6; xxxi, 14) “stṛṇoti, stṛṇute” or “stṛnāti, striṇīte” (Ved. and ep. also “starati, -te”; pf. “tastāra, tastare” [3. pl. “tastaruḥ, tastarire”] &c.; 3. sg. [with pass. sense] “tistire” ; 3. pl. “tastrire” ; p. ā. “tistirāṇa” ; aor. “astar, star” ; “astṛṣi, astṛta” ; “astarīt” ; “astārṣīt, astarīṣṭa, astīrṣṭa” Gr.; Prec. “stṛṣīya” ; “staryāt” or “stīryāt; stṛṣīṣṭa, starīṣīṣṭa, stīrṣīṣṭa” Gr.; fut. “startā” Gr.; “stariṣyati, te-” [Gr. also “starīṣ-“] &c.; inf. “startum” or “starītum” Gr.; “startave, -tavai, starītavai” ; “starītave” ; “-stire, -stṛṇīṣaṇi” ; ind. p. “stīrtvā” or “stṛtvā” ; “-stīrya” ; “-stṛtya” , to spread, spread out or about, strew, scatter (esp. the sacrificial grass; in this sense in older language only cl.9.P. A.) ; to spread over, bestrew, cover &c.; (cl. 5. P. ā.) to lay low, overthrow, slay (an enemy) Pass. “stīryate” (“-ti”) or “striyate” (Gr. also “staryate”; aor. “astāri”), to be spread or strewn &c. &c. &c.: Caus. “stārayati” (aor. “atastarat”), to spread, cover Desid. “tistīrṣate” or “tustūrṣate” (Gr. also P. and “tistarīṣati, -te”), to wish to spread or strew or lay low Intens. “tāstaryate, testīryate, tāstarti” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘sternere’; Goth. ‘straujan’; Germ. ‘streuen’; Angl. Sax. ‘streowian’; Eng. ‘strew’.])
स्थिरप्स्नु – sthirapsnu “sthira-psnu” mfn. (Ved.) having constant food
स्ना – snā (cf. “snu”) cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 44) “snāti” cl.4. P. ( vii, 12) “snāyati” (ep. also ā. “snāyate” Pot. “snāyāt”; ep. also “snāyīta”; pf. “sasnau”, 3. pl. “sasnuḥ” ; fut. “snātā” Gr.; “snāsyati, -te” &c.; aor. “asnāsīt” Gr.; Prec. “snāyāt” [cf. above] or “sneyāt” ; inf. “snātum” &c.; ind. p. “snātvā, -snāya” &c.; Ved. also “snātvī” , to bathe, perform the ceremony of bathing or certain prescribed oblations (esp. on returning home from the house of a religious preceptor, or on concluding certain vows &c., also with “avabhṛtham”) &c. &c.; to smear one’s self with (instr.) Pass. “snāyate” (aor. “asnāyi” impers.) Caus. “snāpayati” or “snapayati”, (with prep. only “snāp-“), to cause to bathe, wash, cleanse &c. &c.; to wash away ; to steep or soak in (loc.) ; to bathe with tears, weep for(?) Desid. “sisnāsati” cf. “siṣṇāsu”): Intens. “sāsnāyate, sāsnāti, sāsneti” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘nare’.])
स्यन्द् – syand (or “syad”; often confounded with “spand”) cl.1.ā. ( xviii, 22) “syandate” (ep. and m.c. also “-ti”; pf. “siṣyanda, siṣyaduḥ” ; “sasyande, -dire” Gr.; aor. 2. 3. sg. “-asyān” ; “asyandiṣṭa, asyantta, asyadat” Gr.; fut. “syanttā, syanditā” ; “syantsyati” ; “syandiṣyate, syantsyate” Gr.; inf. “syade” ; “syanttum” ; ind. p. “syanttvā, syattvā, -syadya” ; “syanditvā” Gr.), to move or flow on rapidly, flow, stream, run, drive (in a carriage), rush, hasten, speed &c. &c.; to discharge liquid, trickle, ooze, drip, sprinkle, pour forth (acc.) &c.; to issue from (abl.) Caus. “syandayati” (aor. “asiṣyadat”; Ved. inf. “syandayādhyai”), to stream, flow, run &c.; to cause to flow or run Desid. “sisyandiṣate, sisyantsate, sisyantsati” Gr.: Intens. see “acchā-syand”, under 3. “accha”, and next.
स्रंस् – sraṁs (or “sras”; sometimes written “śraṁś” or “śraṁs”) cl.1.ā. ( xviii, 15) “sraṁsate” (ep. and m.c. also “-ti”; pf. “sesraṁsa, -ṁsuḥ” ; 3. pl. “-sraṁsire” ; aor. “asrat” ; “asrasat, srasema” ; “asraṁsiṣṭa” ; fut. “sraṁsitā, sraṁsiṣyate” Gr.; Ved. inf. “-srasas; sraṁsitum” Gr.; ind. p. “sraṁsitvā, srastvā” ; “-sraṁsya, -srasya” &c.), to fall, drop, fall down, slip off, get loose from (abl.) &c. &c.; to fall asunder or to pieces ; to hang down, dangle, droop ; to be broken, perish, cease ; to go Pass. “srasyate” (aor. “asraṁsi”) Gr.: Caus. “sraṁsayati” (aor. “asisrasat”; Pass. “sraṁsyate”), to cause to fall down, loosen &c.; to let hang (the belly) ; to disturb, remove, destroy Desid. “sisraṁsiṣate” Gr.: Intens. “sanīsrasyate, sanīsraṁsti” (cf. next).
स्वद् – svad or svād (prob. fr. 5. “su” + “ad”) cl.1.ā. ( ii, 17) “svadate” (Ved. also P. “svadati”; pf. “sasvade” ; “sasvāde” Gr.; fut. “svāditā, svādiṣyate” ; Ved. inf. “-sude”; ind. p. “-svādya” , to taste well, be sweet or pleasant to (dat. or gen.) &c. &c.; to taste with pleasure, relish, enjoy, like (acc.), delight in (loc.) ; (P.) to make palatable, season ; to make sweet or pleasant or agreeable ; to be pleasant or wholesome ; P. ā. “svādati, -te” (cf. , to taste, relish, enjoy (generally v.l. “khād” q.v.) Caus. “svadayati, -te” (aor. “asiṣvadat”), to make savoury or palatable, sweeten, season, prepare, cook ; to propitiate, conciliate ; “svādayati” (cf. , to eat, relish, taste, enjoy Desid. of Caus. “sisvādayiṣati” Gr.: Desid. “sisvādiṣate” Intens. “sāsvādyate, sāsvātti” ‘suadeo’, and under ‘svAdu’.]
स्वप् – svap cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 60) “svapiti” (Ved. and ep. also “svapati, -te”; Impv. “svaptu” ; Pot. “svapīta” ; pf. “suṣvāpa” [3. pl. “suṣupuḥ”; p. “suṣupvas” and “suṣupāṇa”, qq.vv.] &c. &c.; apr. “asvāpsīt”; Prec. “supyāt” fut. “svaptā” ; “svapiṣyati” ; “-te” ; “svapsyati” &c.; “-te” &c.; inf. “svaptum” &c.; ind. p. “suptvā” &c., “-svāpam” , to sleep, fall asleep (with “varṣa-śatam”, “to sleep for a hundred years, sleep the eternal sleep”) &c. &c.; to lie down, recline upon (loc.) &c.; to be dead ; Pass. “supyate” (aor. “asvāpi”) &c.; Caus. “svāpayati”, or (m.c.) “svapayati” (aor. “asūṣupat”; in also “siṣvapaḥ, siṣvap”; Pass. “svāpyate”), to cause to sleep, lull to rest ; to kill Desid. of Caus. “suṣvāpayiṣati” Gr.: Desid. “suṣupsati”, to wish to sleep Intens. “soṣupyate, sāsvapīti, sāsvapti, soṣupīti, soṣopti” Gr. ([Cf. Gk. [greek]; Lat. ‘somnus’ for ‘sop-nus’, ‘sopor’, ‘sopire’; Slav. ‘supati’; Lith. ‘sapnas’; Angl. Sax. ‘swefan’, “to sleep.”])
स्वर्य – svarya mf (“ā”, Ved. “ī”) n. resounding, roaring, crashing, loud mf (“ā”, Ved. “ī”) n. beneficial to the voice
हन् – han cl.2.P. ( xxiv, 2) “hanti” (3. du. “hataḥ”, 3. pl. “ghnanti”; rarely ā. “hate”, 3. pl. “ghnate”; and cl.1. “hanati”, Ved. also “jighnate, -ti”; Pot. “hanyāt” also “hanīta, ghnīta”; Impv. “jahi” “handhi”; impf. “ahan”, Ved. and ep. also “ahanat, ahanan, aghnanta”; p. “jaghnat, ghnamāna” ; pf. “jaghāna, jaghnuḥ” ep. also “jaghne, -nire” Subj. “jaghanat” ; p. “jaghnivas”, Ved. also “jaghanvas”; aor. “ahānīt” [cf. “vadh”]; fut. “hantā” ; “haṁsyati” ; “haniṣyati, -te” &c.; inf. “hantum”, Ved. also “hantave, -tavai, -toḥ”; ind. p. “hatvā”, Ved. also “-tvī, -tvāya, -hatya; -hanya” ; “-ghātam” &c.), to strike, beat (also a drum), pound, hammer (acc.), strike &c. upon (loc.) &c. &c.; to smite, slay, hit, kill, mar, destroy ; to put to death, cause to be executed ; to strike off ; to ward off, avert ; to hurt, wound (the heart) ; to hurl (a dart) upon (gen.) ; (in astron.) to touch, come into contact ; to obstruct, hinder ; to repress, give up, abandon (anger, sorrow &c.) ; (?) to go, move Pass. “hanyate” (ep. also “-ti”; aor. “avadhi” or “aghāni”), to be struck or killed &c. &c.: Caus. “ghātayati, -te” (properly a Nom. fr. “ghāta” q.v.; aor. “ajīghatat” or “ajīghanat”), to cause to be slain or killed, kill, slay, put to death, punish &c.; to notify a person’s death (“kaṁsaṁ ghātayati” = “kaṁsa-vadham ācaṣṭe”) 6 ; to mar, destroy (v.l.): Desid. “jighāṁsati, -te” (Pot. “jighāṁsīyat” ; impf. “ajighāṁsīḥ” , to wish to kill or destroy &c. &c.: Intens. “jaṅghanti” (; p. “jaṅghanat, jaṅghnat” or “ghanighnat”), “jaṅghanyate” (with pass. sense , “jeghnīyate” ( 7-4, 31), to strike = tread upon (loc. or acc.) ; to slay, kill ; to dispel (darkness), destroy (evil, harm) ; to hurt, injure, wound ‘de-fendere’, ‘of-fendere’; Lit. ‘genu’, ‘giti’; Slav. ‘gunati’.]
हस्तिचर्म – hasticarma “hasti-carma” (Ved.) the skin of an elephants
हि – hi i (cf. “hay”) cl.5.P. () “hinoti” (Ved. also “hinute, hinvati” and “hinvati, -te”; p. “hinvāna” [with aet. and pass. sense] ; “hayat” ; 1: sg. “hiṣe” ; pf. “jighāya, jighyuḥ” &c.; “jighye” [with pass. sense] ; aor. “ahema” “ahema, ahyan, heta” p. “hiyāna” [with pass. sense] ; “ahyam” [?], “ahait” ; “ahaiṣīt” ; “aheṣata” ; fut. “hetā” Gr.; “heṣyati” &c.; inf. “-hye” , to send forth set in motion, impel, urge on, hasten on (ā. also intrans.) ; to stimulate or incite to (dat.) ; to assist or help to (dat.) ; to discharge, b, hurl, cast, shoot ; to convey, bring, procure ; to forsake, abandon, get rid of ; (“hinvati”) to gladden, delight Pass. “hīyate” (aor. “ahāyi”) Gr.: Caus. “hāyuyati” (aor. “ajīhayat”) Desid. of Caus. “jihāpayiṣati” Desid. “jighīṣati” Inteus. “jeghīyate, jeghayīti, jegheti”
हिंस् – hiṁs (orig. Desid. of “han”) cl.1.7. P. ( xxix, 19; xxxiv, 23) “hiṁsati, hinasti” (Ved. and ep. also ā. “hiṁsate, hiṁste”; 2. sg. “hiṁsi” for “hinassi” ; pf. “jihiṁsa, -sima, jīhiṁsīh” ; aor. “ahiṁsīt, hiṁsīt” &c.; fut. “hiṁsita” Gr.; “hiṁsiṣyati, -te” &c.; inf. “hiṁsitum” [Ved. also “hiesitoḥ”] ; ind. p. “hiṁsitvā” ; “-hiṁsya” , to injure, harm, wound, kill, destroy &c. &c.: Pass. “hiṁsyate” (aor. “ahiṁsi”), to be injured or killed (in “a-hiṁsyamāna”) &c.: Caus. or cl.10.P. ( xxxiv, 23) “hiṁsayati” (aor. “ajihiṁsat”), to injure, harm, kill, slay Desid. “jihiṁsiṣati”, to wish to injure &c. Intens, “jehiṁsyate, jehiṁsti” Gr.
हु – hu cl.3.P. ( xxv, 1) “jhoti” (Ved. and ep. also ā. “juhute” 3. p. pr. “juh” 3. pl. pr. “jilhvati, -te” &c.; 2. sg. Impv. “juhudhi” &c.; “hoṣi” ; p. P. “juhvat”; ā. “juhvāna” [also with pass. sense]; 3. pl. impf. “ajuhavuḥ” ; pf. P. “juhāva, juhuvuḥ” ; ā. “juhuve” ; “juhve, juhure” ; “juhvire” ; “juhavāṁ-cakāra” ; “juhavām-āsa” ; aor. “ahauṣīt” &c.; Prec. “hūyāt” Gr.; fut. “hotā” ; “hoṣyati, -te” &c.; Cond. “ahoṣyat” ; inf. “hotum, -tos, -tavai”, and ind. p. “hutvā” &c.), to sacrifice (esp. pour butter into the fire), offer or present an oblation (acc. or gen.) to (dat.) or in (loc.), sacrifice to, worship or honour (acc.) with (instr.) &c. &c.; to sprinkle on (loc.) ; to eat Pass. “hūyate” (aor. “ahāvi”), to be offered or sacrificed &c. &c.: Caus. “hāvayati” (aor. “ajūhavat”), to cause to sacrifice or to be sacrificed or to be honoured with sacrifice &c.: Desid. “juhūṣati”, to wish to sacrifice Intens. “johavīti” (impf. “ajohavīt” or “ajuhavīt” , “johūyate, johoti” (Gr.), to offer oblations repeatedly or abundantly. [Cf. Gk. [greek] in [characters] (for [characters] ), [characters]; Lat. ‘futis’, “water-pot.”]
हृष् – hṛṣ cl.1.P. ā. “harṣati, -te” (fr. P. only p. “harṣat”), to be excited or impatient, rejoice in the prospect of, be anxious or impatient for (dat.) ; to speak or affirm falsely, lie cl.4. P. ( xxvi, 119) “hṛṣyati” (ep. and m.c. also “-te”; pf. “jaharṣa, jahṛṣuḥ; jahṛṣe, -ṣire” &c.; aor. “ahṛṣat” ; fut. “harṣitā, harṣiṣyati” Gr.; inf. “harṣitum” ; ind. p. “-hṛṣya” &c.), to thrill with rapture, rejoice, exult, be glad or pleased &c.; to become sexually excited ; to become erect or stiff or rigid, bristle (said of the hairs of the body &c.), become on edge (like the teeth) Pass. “hṛṣyate” (aor. “aharṣi”) Gr.: Caus. “harṣayati, -te” (aor. “ajīhṛṣat”, or “ajaharṣat”), to excite, make impatient or eager for (victory &c.) &c. &c.; to rejoice, be glad ; to cause to bristle Desid. “jiharṣiṣati” Gr.: Intens. “jarīhṛṣyate, jarharṣṭi” &c. (Ved. forms “jarhṛṣanta, jarhṛṣāṇa” and “jāhṛṣāṇa”), to be impatient or excited ; to excite violently ‘horreo’ for ‘horseo’.]
हेष् – heṣ (cf. “hreṣ”) cl.1.ā. ( xvi, 20) “heṣate” (Ved. ep. also “-ti”; p. “heṣat” ; “heṣamāṇa” ; pf. “jiheṣire” ; fut. “heṣitā” &c. Gr.), to neigh, whinny
ह्नु – hnu cl.2.ā. ( xxiv, 73) “hnute” (Ved. and ep. also “hnauti” and “hnavati, -te”; pf. “juhnuve” Gr.; aor. “ahnoṣṭa” ; fut. “hnotā, hnoṣyate” ; inf. “hnotum” ; ind. p. “hnutya” ; generally with prepositions; cf. “apa-, api-, ni-hnu” &c.), to hide from (dat.) ; to drive or take away Pass. “hnūyate” (aor. “ahnāvi”) Gr.: Caus. “hnāvayati” (aor. “ajuhnavat”) Desid. “juhnūṣate” Intens. “johnūyate, johnoti”
ह्वे – hve cl.1.P. ā. ( xxiii, 39) “hvayati, -te” (Ved. also “havate” and “huvati, -te”; other present forms are “hve” ; “hvāmahe” ; “homa, hūmahe, juhūmasi” ; p. “huvāna” [with pass. sense] ; “hvayāna” ; pf. “juhāva, juhuvuḥ” &c.; “juhve, juhūre” ; “juhuve, huhurire” ; “hvayāṁ-āsa” and “hvayāṁ-cakre” ; aor. “ahvat, ahvata” [or “ahvāsta” &c. &c.; “ahvi” ; “ahūmahi, ahūṣata” ; “ahvāsīt” [?] ; fut. “hvātā” Gr.; “hvayiṣyati, -te” ; “hvāsyate” ; inf. Class. “hvātum”; Ved. “havitave, hvayitum, -tavai; huvadhyai”; ind. p. Class. “hūtvā”; Ved. “-hūya” and “-hāvam”), to call, call upon, summon, challenge, invoke (with “nāmnā”, “to call by name”; with “yuddhe”, “to challenge to fight”) &c. &c.; to emulate, vie with Pass. “hūyate” (aor. “ahāvi”, or “ahvāyi”), to be called &c. Caus. “hvāyayati” (aor. “ajūhavat” or “ajuhāvat”), to cause anyone (acc.) to be challenged by (instr.) Desid. “juhūṣati, -te” Gr.: Intens. “johūyate” or “johavīti” (“johuvanta, ajohavuḥ, johuvat, johuvāna” or “johoti” (Gr.), to call on, invoke &c. [Cf. Gk. [greek]] [Page 1308,3]

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