You are currently viewing Some symbolic expressions for the black colour

Some symbolic expressions for the black colour

Some symbolic expressions for the black colour


अग्निः अरुण अशुचि अश्वकृत इंद्रः उकनाह उकानहः ऊर्ध्वपुण्ड्र एण एलापुत्र कल्माष काकोल काल कालक किंकिरः कुलाह कृष्ण कृष्णपाक कृष्णप्रुत् कृष्णवर्ण गंधः गौर घन देवहूती द्वि नील पीत बुक्कस मलिन मलीमस मिश्र मिश्रवर्ण मेचक लोहितकृष्ण विड व्यधिकरण शनि शनिः शार शृङ्गार श्यामाय सार सारंग सित सितकृष्ण सिति सु सुवर्ण हपुषा

अग्निः – agniḥ Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :1890

agniḥ [aṁgati ūrdhvaṁ gacchati aṁg-ni, nalopaśca Uṇ. 4. 50, or fr. aṁc

‘to go.’]

(1) Fire kopa-, ciṁtā-, śoka-, jñāna-, rāja-, &c.

(2) The God of fire.

(3) Sacrificial fire of three kinds (gārhapatya, āhavanīya and dakṣiṇa);

pitā vai gārhapatyo’gnirmātāgnirdakṣiṇaḥ smṛtaḥ . gururāhavanīyastu

sāgnitretā garīyasī .. Ms. 2. 231.

(4) The fire of the stomach, digestive faculty, gastric fluid.

(5) Bile (nābherūrdhvaṁ hṛdayādadhastādāmāśayamācakṣate

tadgataṁ sauraṁ tejaḥ pittaṁ ityācakṣate).

(6) Cauterization (agnikarman).

(7) Gold.

(8) The number three.

(9) N. of various plants:

(a) citraka Plumbago Zeylanica;

(b) raktacitraka;

(c) bhallātaka Semicarpus Anacardium;

(d) niṁbaka Citrus Acida. (10) A mystical substitute for the letter

r. In Dvandva Comp. as first member with names of deities, and with

particular words agni is changed to agnā, as -viṣṇū, -marutau, or to agnī,

-parjanyau, -varuṇau, -ṣomau [cf. L. ignis.]

[Agni is the God of Fire, the Ignis of the Latins and Ogni of the

Slavonians. He is one of the most prominent deities of the Ṛgveda. He is

an immortal, has taken up his abode among mortals as their guest; he is

the domestic priest, the successful accomplisher and protector of all

ceremonies; he is also the religious leader and preceptor of the gods, a

swift messenger employed to announce to the immortals the hymns and

to convey to them the oblations of their worshippers, and to bring them

down from the sky to the place of sacrifice. He is sometimes regarded as

the mouth and the tongue through which both gods and men participate

in the sacrifices. He is the lord, protector and leader of people, monarch

of men, the lord of the house, friendly to mankind, and like a father,

mother, brother &c. He is represented as being produced by the attrition

of two pieces of fuel which are regarded as husband and wife. Sometimes

he is considered to have been brought down from heaven or generated by

Indra between two clouds or stones, created by Dyau, or fashioned by

the gods collectively. In some passages he is represented as having a

triple existence, which may mean his three-fold manifestations as the sun

in heaven, lightning in the atmosphere, and as ordinary fire on the earth,

although the three appearances are also elsewhere otherwise explained.

His epithets are numberless and for the most part descriptive of his

physical characteristics: dhūmaketu, hutabhuj, śuci, rohitāśva, saptajihva,

tomaradhara, ghṛtānna, citrabhānu, ūrdhvaśocis, śociṣkeśa, harikeśa,

hiraṇyadaṁta, ayodaṁṣṭra &c. In a celebrated passage he is said to have

4 horns, 3 feet, 2 heads, and 7 hands. The highest divine functions are

ascribed to Agni. He is said to have spread out the two worlds and

produced them, to have supported heaven, formed the mundane regions

and luminaries of heaven, to have begotten Mitra and caused the sun to

ascend the sky. He is the head and summit of the sky, the centre of the

earth. Earth, Heaven and all beings obey his commands. He knows and

sees all worlds or creatures and witnesses all their actions. The

worshippers of Agni prosper, they are wealthy and live long. He is the

protector of that man who takes care to bring him fuel. He gives him

riches and no one can overcome him who sacrifices to this god. He

confers, and is the guardian of, immortality. He is like a water-trough in a

desert and all blessings issue from him. He is therefore constantly

supplicated for all kinds of boons, riches, food, deliverance from enemies

and demons, poverty, reproach, childlessness, hunger &c. Agni is also

associated with Indra in different hymns and the two gods are said to be

twin brothers. Such is the Vedic conception of Agni; but in the course of

mythological personifications he appears as the eldest son of Brahmā and

is called Abhimānī [Viṣṇu Purāṇa]. His wife was Svāha; by her he had 3

sons-Pāvaka, Pavamāna and Śuchi; and these had forty-five sons:

altogether 49 persons who are considered identical with the 49 fires. He

is also represented as a son of Angiras, as a king of the Pitṛs or Manes,

as a Marut and as a grandson of Sandila, and also as a star. The

Harivamśa describes him as clothed in black, having smoke for his

standard and head-piece and carrying a flaming javelin. He is borne in a

chariot drawn by red horses and the 7 winds are the wheels of his car. He

is accompanied by a ram and sometimes he is represented as riding on

that animal. Agni was appointed by Brahmā as the sovereign of the

quarter between the south and east, whence the direction is still known

as Āgneyi. The Mahābhārata represents Agni as having exhausted his

vigour and become dull by devouring many oblations at the several

sacrifices made by king Śvetaki, but he recruited his strength by

devouring the whole Khāṇḍava forest; for the story see the word


— Comp.

–a(ā)gāraṁ –raḥ, –ālayaḥ, –gṛhaṁ [agnikāryāya agāraṁ śāka-

ta.] a fire-sanctuary, house or place for keeping the sacred fire;

vasaṁścaturthognirivāgnyagāre R. 5. 25.

–astraṁ firemissile, a rocket.

–ātmaka a. [agnirātmā yasya] of the nature of fire; somātmikā

strī, -kaḥ pumān. –ādhānaṁ consecrating the fire; so -āhiti. –ādheyaḥ

[agnirādheyo yena] a Brahmaṇa who maintains the sacred fire. (–yaṁ) =

-ādhānaṁ. –āhitaḥ [agnirāhito yena, vā paranipātaḥ P. II. 2. 37.] one

who maintains the sacred fire; See āhitāgni. –idh m. (agnīdhraḥ) [agniṁ

iṁddhe sa agnīdh] the priest who kindles the sacred fire (mostly Ved).

–iṁdhanaḥ [agniridhyate anena] N. of a Mantra. (

–naṁ) kindling the fire.

–utpātaḥ [agninā divyānalena kṛtaḥ utpātaḥ] a fiery portent,

meteor, comet &c. In Bri. S. 33 it is said to be of five kinds: divi

bhuktaśubhaphalānāṁ patatāṁ rūpāṇi yāni tānyulkāḥ .

dhiṣṇyolkāśanividyuttārā iti paṁcadhā bhinnāḥ .. ulkā pakṣeṇa phalaṁ

tadvat dhiṣṇyāśanistribhiḥ pakṣaiḥ . vidyudahobhiḥ ṣaḍbhistadvattārā

vipācayati .. Different fruits are said to result from the appearances of

these portents, according to the nature of their colour, position &c.

–uddharaṇaṁ, –uddhāraḥ 1. producing fire by the friction of two

araṇis. 2. taking out, before sun-rise, the sacred fire from its cover of

ashes previous to a sacrifice.

–upasthānaṁ worship of Agni; the Mantra or hymn with which

Agni is worshipped (agnirupasthīyate’nena). –edhaḥ [agnimedhayati] an


–kaṇaḥ, –stokaḥ a spark.

–karman n. [agnau karma sa. ta.] 1. cauterization. 2. action of

fire. 3. oblation to Agni, worship of Agni (agnihotra); so -kārya offering

oblations to fire, feeding fire with ghee &c.; nirvartitāgnikāryaḥ K. 16; –

ryārdhadagdha 39, Ms. 3. 69, Y. 1. 25.

–kalā a part (or appearance) of fire; ten varieties are mentioned

(dhūmrārcirūṣmā jvalinī jvālinī visphuliṁginī . suśrīḥ surūpā kapilā

havyakavyavahe api .. yādīnāṁ daśavarṇānāṁ kalā dharmapradā amūḥ).

–kārikā [agniṁ karoti ādhatte karaṇe kartṛtvopacārāt kartari ṇvul] 1. the

means of consecrating the sacred fire, the rik called agnīdhra which

begins with agniṁ dūtaṁ puro dadhe. 2. = agnikārya. –kāṣṭhaṁ agneḥ

uddīpanaṁ kāṣṭhaṁ śāka -ta.] agallochum (aguru). –kukkuṭaḥ [agneḥ

kukkuṭaiva raktavarṇasphuliṁgatvāt] a firebrand, lighted wisp of straw.

–kuṁḍaṁ [agnerādhānārthaṁ kuṁḍaṁ] an enclosed space for

keeping the fire, a fire-vessel.

–kumāraḥ, –tanayaḥ, –sutaḥ 1. N. of Kārttikeya said to be born

from fire, See kārttikeya. 2. a kind of preparation of medicinal drugs.

–ketuḥ [agneḥ keturiva] 1. smoke. 2. N. of two Rākṣasas on the

side of Rāvaṇa and killed by Rāma.

–koṇaḥ –dik the south-east corner ruled over by Agni; iṁdro

vahniḥ pitṛpatirnairṛto varuṇo marut . kubera īśaḥ patayaḥ pūrvādīnāṁ

diśāṁ kramāt .. –kriyā [agninā nirvartitā kriyā, śāka. ta.] 1. obsequies,

funeral ceremonies. 2. branding; bheṣajāgnikriyāsu ca Y. 3. 284.

–krīḍā [tṛ. ta.] fire-works, illuminations.

–garbha a. [agnirgarbhe yasya] pregnant with or containing fire,

having fire in the interior; -rbhāṁ śamīmiva S. 4. 3. (–rbhaḥ) [agniriva

jārako garbho yasya] 1. N. of the plant Agnijāra. 2. the sun-stone, name

of a crystal supposed to contain and give out fire when touched by the

rays of the sun; cf. S. 2. 7. 3. the sacrificial stick araṇi which, when

churned, gives out fire. (

–rbhā) 1. N. of the Śamī plant as containing fire (the story of how

Agni was discovered to exist in the interior of the Śamī plant is told in

chap. 35 of anuśāsanaparva in Mb.). 2. N. of the earth (agneḥ sakāśāt

garbho yasyāṁ sā; when the Ganges threw the semen of Śiva out on the

Meru mountain, whatever on earth &c. was irradiated by its lustre,

became gold and the earth was thence called vasumatī). 3. N. of the

plant mahājyotiṣmatī latā (agniriva garbho madhyabhāgo yasyāḥ sā). —

graṁthaḥ [agnipratipādako graṁthaḥ śaka. ta.] the work that treats of

the worship of Agni &c.

–ghṛtaṁ [agnyuddīpanaṁ ghṛtaṁ śāka. ta.] a kind of medicinal

preparation of ghee used to stimulate the digestive power.

–cit m. [agniṁ citavān; ci-bhūtārthe kvip P. III. 2. 91] one who

has kept the sacred fire; yatibhiḥ sārdhamanagnimagnicit R. 8. 25.

–cayaḥ, –cayanaṁ, –cityā. arranging or keeping the sacred fire

(agnyādhāna); cityāgnicitye ca P. III. 1. 132. 2. (

–yaḥ, –yanaḥ) the Mantra used in this operation. 3. a heap of fire.

–citvat [agnicayanaṁ astyasmin matup masya vaḥ tāṁtatvānna

padatvaṁ Tv.] having agnicayana or agnicit. –ja, –jāta a. produced by or

from fire, born from fire. (

–jaḥ, –jātaḥ) 1. N. of the plant agnijāra (agnaye agnyuddīpanāya

jāyate sevanāt prabhavati). 2. N. of Kārttikeya. 3. Viṣṇu. (

–jaṁ, –jātaṁ) gold; so -janman. –jihva a. 1. having a fiery

tongue. 2. having fire for the tongue, epithet of a God or of Viṣṇu in the

boar incarnation. (

–hvā) 1. a tongue or flame of fire. 2. one of the 7 tongues of Agni

(karālī dhūminī śvetā lohitā nīlalohitā . suvarṇā padmarāgā ca jihvāḥ

sapta vibhāvasoḥ). 3. N. of a plant lāṁgalī (agnerjihveva śikhā yasyāḥsā);

of another plant (jalapippalī) or gajapippalī (viṣalāṁgalā). –jvālā 1. the

flame or glow of fire. 2. [agnerjvāleva śikhā yasyāḥ sā] N. of a plant with

red blossoms, chiefly used by dyers, Grislea Tomentosa (Mar.

dhāyaphūla, dhāyaṭī). –tap a. [agninā tapyate; tap –kvip] having the

warmth of fire; practising austerities by means of fire.

–tapas a. [agnibhiḥ tapyate] 1. practising very austere penance,

standing in the midst of the five fires. 2. glowing, shining or burning like

fire; (tapatīti tapāḥ agniriva tapāḥ) hot as fire.

–tejas a. having the lustre or power of fire (agneriva tejo yasya). (

–s n.) the lustre of fire. (

–s m.) N. of one of the 7 Ṛṣis of the 11th Manvantara.

–trayaṁ the three fires, See under agni. –da a. [agniṁ dāhārthaṁ

gṛhādau dadāti; dā. –ka.] 1. giving or supplying with fire. 2. tonic,

stomachic, producing appetite, stimulating digestion. 3. incendiary;

agnidān bhaktadāṁścaiva Ms. 9. 278; agnidānāṁ ca ye lokāḥ Y. 2. 74; so

-dāyaka, -dāyin. –dagdha a. 1. burnt on the funeral pile; agnidagdhāśca

ye jīvā ye’pyadagdhāḥ kule mama Vāyu. 2. burnt with fire. 3. burnt at

once without having fire put into the mouth, because destitute of issue

(?); (pl.) a class of Manes or Pitṛs who, when alive, kept up the

household flame and presented oblations to fire.

–damanī [agnirdamyate ‘nayā; dam-ṇic karaṇe lyuṭ] a narcotic

plant, Solanum Jacquini.

–dātṛ [agniṁ vidhānena dadāti] one who performs the last

(funeral) ceremonies of a man; yaścāgnidātā pretasya piṁḍaṁ dadyātsa

eva hi. –dīpana a. [agniṁ dīpayati] stimulating digestion, stomachic,


–dīpta a. [tṛ. ta.] glowing, set on fire, blazing. (–ptā)

[agnirjaṭharānalo dīptaḥ sevanāt yasyāḥ sā] N. of a plant jyotiṣmatī latā,

which is said to stimulate digestion.

–dīptiḥ f. active state of digestion.

–dūta a. [agnirdūta iva yasmin yasya vā] having Agni for a

messenger, said of the sacrifice or the deity invoked; yamaṁ ha yajño

gacchatyagnidūto araṁkṛtaḥ Rv. 10. 14. 13.

–dūṣita a. branded.

–devaḥ [agnireva devaḥ] Agni; a worshipper of Agni.

–devā [agnirdevo yasyāḥ] the third lunar mansion, the Pleiades

(kṛttikā). –dhānaṁ [agnirdhīyate ‘smin] the place or receptacle for

keeping the sacred fire, the house of an agnihotṛ; padaṁ kṛṇute

agnidhāne Rv. 10. 165. 3.

–dhāraṇaṁ maintaining the sacred fire; vratināṁ -ṇaṁ K. 55.

–nayanaṁ = -praṇayanaṁ. –niryāsaḥ [agnerjaṭharānalasyeva

dīpako niryāso yasya] N. of the plant agnijāra. –netra a. [agnirnetā

yasya] having Agni for the leader or conveyer of oblations, an epithet of a

god in general.

–padaṁ 1. the word Agni. 2. fire-place. 3. N. of a plant.

–parikri-ṣkri-yā care of the sacred fire, worship of fire, offering

oblations; gṛhārtho’gnipariṣkriyā Ms. 2. 67.

–paricchadaḥ the whole sacrificial apparatus; gṛhyaṁ

cāgniparicchadaṁ Ms. 6. 4.

–paridhānaṁ enclosing the sacrificial fire with a kind of screen.

–parīkṣā [tṛ. ta.] ordeal by fire.

–parvataḥ [agnisādhanaṁ parvataḥ] a volcano.

–pucchaḥ [agneḥ agnyādhānasthānasya puccha iva] tail or back

part of the sacrificial place; the extinction of fire.

–purāṇaṁ [agninā proktaṁ purāṇaṁ] one of the 18 Purāṇas

ascribed to Vyāsa. It derives its name from its having been

communicated originally by Agni to the sage Vasiṣṭha for the purpose of

instructing him in the two-fold knowledge of Brahma. Its stanzas are said

to be 14500. Its contents are varied. It has portions on ritual and mystic

worship, cosmical descriptions, chapters on the duties of Kings and the

art of war, a chapter on law, some chapters on Medicine and some

treatises on Rhetoric, Prosody, Grammar, Yoga, Brahmavidyā &c. &c.

–praṇayanaṁ bringing out the sacrificial fire and consecrating it

according to the proper ritual.

–pratiṣṭhā consecration of fire, especially the nuptial fire.

–praveśaḥ –śanaṁ [sa. ta.] entering the fire, self-immolation of a

widow on the funeral pile of her husband.

–praskaṁdanaṁ violation of the duties of a sacrificer

(agnihomākaraṇa); -parastvaṁ cāpyevaṁ bhaviṣyasi Mb.

–prastaraḥ [agniṁ prastṛṇāti agneḥ prastaro vā] a flint, a stone

producing fire.

–bāhuḥ [agnerbāhuriva dīrghaśikhatvāt] 1. smoke. 2. N. of a son

of the first Manu; of a son of Priyavrata and Kāmyā.

–bījaṁ 1. the seed of Agni; (fig.) gold (rudratejaḥsamudbhūtaṁ

hema bījaṁ vibhāvasoḥ). 2. N. of the letter r. –bhaṁ [agniriva bhāti;

bhā-ka.] 1. ‘shining like fire’, gold. 2. N. of the constellation kṛttikā. –bhu

n. [agnerbhavati; bhū-kvip hrasvāṁtaḥ] 1. water. 2. gold.

–bhū a. [agnerbhavati; bhūkvip] produced from fire. (

–bhūḥ) 1. ‘fire-born’, N. of Kārttikeya. 2. N. of a teacher (kāśyapa)

who was taught by Agni. 3. (arith.) six.

–bhūti a. produced from fire. (–tiḥ) [agniriva bhūtiraiśvaryaṁ

yasya] N. of a pupil of the last Tīrthaṅkāra. (

–tiḥ) f. the lustre or might of fire.

–bhrājas a. Ved. [agniriva bhrājate; bhrāj –asun] shining like fire.

–maṇiḥ [agnerutthāpako maṇiḥ śāka. ta.] the sunstone.

–math m. [agniṁ mathnāti niṣpādayati; maṁth-kvip-nalopaḥ] 1.

the sacrificer who churns the fuel-stick. 2. the Mantra used in this

operation, or the araṇi itself.

–maṁthaḥ, –thanaṁ, producing fire by friction; or the Mantra

used in this operation. (–thaḥ) [agnirmathyate anena maṁth-karaṇe

ghañ] N. of a tree gaṇikārikā (Mar. naravela) Premna Spinosa

(tatkāṣṭhayorgharṣaṇehi āśu vahnirutpadyate). –māṁdyaṁ slowness of

digestion, loss of appetite, dyspepsia.

–mārutiḥ [agniśca marucca tayorapatyaṁ iñ tato vṛddhiḥ it ca;

dvipadavṛddhau pṛ. pūrvapadasya hrasvaḥ Tv.] N. of the sage Agastya.

–mitraḥ N. of a king of the Śuṅga dynasty, son of Pushpamitra who

must have flourished before 150 B. C. — the usually accepted date of

Patanjali-as the latter mentions puṣpamitra by name.

–mukhaḥ a. having Agni at the head. (–khaḥ) [agnirmukhabhiva

yasya] 1. a deity, god, (for the gods receive oblations through Agni who

is therefore said to be their mouth; agnimukhā vai devāḥ; agnirmukhaṁ

prathamaṁ devatānāṁ &c; or agnirmukhe agre yeṣāṁ, for fire is said to

have been created before all other gods.) 2. [agnirmukhaṁ

pradhānamupāsyo yasya] one who maintains the sacred fire

(agnihotṛdvija). 3. a Brāhmaṇa in general (agnirdāhakatvāt

śāpāgnirmukhe yasya, for Brāhmaṇas are said to be vāgvajrāḥ). 4. N. of

two plants citraka Plumbago Zeylanica and bhallātaka Semicarpus

Anacardium (agniriva sparśāt duḥkhadāyakaṁ mukhamagraṁ yasya,

tanniryāsasparśena hi dehe kṣatotpattestayostathātvam). 5. a sort of

powder or cūrṇa prescribed as a tonic by cakradatta. 6. ‘fire-mouthed’,

sharp-biting, an epithet of a bug Pt. 1. (–khī) [agniriva mukhamagraṁ

yasyāḥ, gaurādi-ṅīṣ] 1 N. of a plant bhallātaka (Mar. bibavā, bhilāvā) and

lāṁgalikā (viṣalāṁgalā). 2. N. of the Gāyatrī Mantra (agnireva mukhaṁ

mukhatvena kalpitaṁ yasyāḥ sā, or agneriva mukhaṁ prajāpatimukhaṁ

utpattidvāraṁ yasyāḥ, agninā samaṁ prajāpatimukhajātatvāt; kadācidapi

no vidvān gāyatrīmudake japet . gāyatryagnimukhī yasmāttasmādutthāya

tāṁ japet .. gobhila). 3. a kitchen [pākaśāla agniriva uttaptaṁ mukhaṁ

yasyāḥ sā]. –mūḍha a. [tṛ. ta.] Ved. made insane or stupefied by

lightning or fire.

–yojanaṁ causing the sacrificial fire to blaze up.

–rakṣaṇaṁ 1. consecrating or preserving the sacred (domestic)

fire or agnihotra. 2. [agniḥ rakṣyaṁte anena atra vā] a Mantra securing

for Agni protection from evil spirits &c. 3. the house of an agnihotṛ. —

rajaḥ, –rajas m. [agniriva rajyate dīpyate; raṁj-asun, nalopaḥ] 1. a

scarlet insect by name iṁdragopa. 2. (agneḥ rajaḥ) the might or power of

Agni. 3. gold.

–rahasyaṁ mystery of (worshipping &c.) Agni; N. of the tenth

book of the Śatapatha Brahmaṇa.

–rāśiḥ a heap of fire, burning pile.

–ruhā [agniriva rohati ruh-ka] N. of the plant māṁsādanī or

māṁsarohiṇī (tadaṁkurasya vahnitulyavarṇatayā utpannatvāttathātvaṁ

tasyāḥ) –rūpa a. [agneriva rūpaṁ varṇo yasya] fire-shaped; of the nature

of fire. (

–paṁ) the nature of fire.

–retas n. the seed of Agni; (hence) gold.

–rohiṇī [agniriva rohati; ruh-ṇini] a hard inflammatory swelling in

the armpit.

–lokaḥ the world of Agni, which is situated below the summit of

Meru; in the Purāṇas it is said to be in the aṁtarikṣa, while in the Kāśī

Khaṇḍa it is said to be to the south of iṁdrapurī; etasyā dakṣiṇe bhāge

yeyaṁ pūrdṛśyate śubhā . imāmarciṣmatīṁ paśya vītihotrapurīṁ śubhām

.. –vadhūḥ Svāhā, the daughter of Daksha and wife of Agni.

–varcas a. [agnervarca iva varco yasya] glowing or bright like fire.

(–n.) the lustre of Agni. (–m.) N. of a teacher of the Puraṇas.

–varṇa a. [agneriva varṇo yasya] of the colour of fire; hot, fiery;

surāṁ pītvā dvijo mohādagnivarṇāṁ surāṁ pibet Ms. 11. 91;

gomūtramagnivarṇaṁ vā pibedudakameva vā 92. (

–rṇaḥ) 1. N. of a prince, son of Sudarśana. 2. of a King of the solar

race, See R. 19. 3. the colour of fire. (

–rṇā) a strong liquor.

–vardhaka a. stimulating digestion, tonic. (

–kaḥ) 1. a tonic. 2. regimen, diet (pathyāhāra). –vallabhaḥ

[agnervallabhaḥ sukhena dāhyatvāt] 1. the Śāla tree, Shorea Robusta. 2.

the resinous juice of it.

–vāsas a. [agniriva śuddhaṁ vāso yasya] having a red (pure like

Agni) garment. (–n) a pure garment.

–vāha a. [agniṁ vāhayati gamayati anumāpayati vā] 1. smoke. 2.

a goat.

–vāhanaṁ a goat (chāga). –vid m. 1. one who knows the mystery

about Agni. 2. an agnihotrin q. v.

–vimocanaṁ ceremony of lowering the sacrificial fire.

–visarpaḥ pain from an inflamed tumour, inflammation.

–viharaṇaṁ, –vihāraḥ 1. taking the sacrificial fire from agnīdhra to

the sadomaṁḍapa. 2. offering oblations to fire; pratyāsannā -velā K. 348.

–vīryaṁ 1. power or might of Agni. 2. gold.

–veśaḥ [agnerveśa iva] N. of an ancient medical authority

(caraka). –śaraṇaṁ –śālā –laṁ a fire-sanctuary; -mārgamādeśaya S. 5;

a house or place for keepingi the sacred fire; -rakṣaṇāya sthāpitohaṁ V.


–śarman a. [agniriva śṛṇāti tīvrakopatvāt; śṝ-manin] very

passionate. (–m.) N. of a sage.

–śikha a. [agneriva agniriva vā śikhā yasya]. fiery, fire-crested;

dahatu -khaiḥ sāyakaiḥ Ram. (

–khaḥ) 1. a lamp. 2. a rocket, fiery arrow. 3. an arrow in general.

4. safflower plant. 5. saffron. 6. jāṁgalīvṛkṣa. (–khaṁ) 1. saffron. 2. gold.


–khā) 1. a flame; śarairagniśikhopamaiḥ Mb. 2. N. of two plants

lāṁgalī (Mar. vāgacabakā or kaLalāvī) Gloriosa Superba; of another plant

(Mar. also kaLalāvī) Menispermum Cordifolium.

–śuśrūṣā careful service or worship of fire.

–śekhara a. fire-crested. (

–raḥ) N. of the kusuṁbha, kuṁkuma & jāṁgalī trees. (

–raṁ) gold.

–śauca a. [agneriva śaucaṁ yasya] bright as fire; purified by fire

K. 252.

–śrī a. [agneriva śrīryasya] glowing like fire; lighted by Agni.

–ṣṭut, –ṣṭubh, –ṣṭoma &c. see

–stut, –stubh &c.

–saṁskāraḥ 1. consecration of fire. 2. hallowing or consecrating by

means of fire; burning on the funeral pile; yathārhaṁ -raṁ mālavāya

dattvā Dk. 169; nāsya kāryo’gnisaṁskāraḥ Ms. 5. 69, R. 12. 56.

–sakhaḥ, –sahāyaḥ 1. the wind. 2. the wild pigeon (smoke-

coloured) 3. smoke.

–saṁbhava a. [paṁ. ba.] sprung or produced from fire. (

–vaḥ) 1. wild safflower. 2. lymph, result of digestion. (

–vaṁ) gold.

–sākṣika [agniḥ sākṣī yatra, kap] a. or adv. keeping fire for a

witness, in the presence of fire; paṁcabāṇa- M. 4. 12; -maryādo bhartā hi

śaraṇaṁ striyāḥ H. 1. v. l., R. 11. 48.

–sāraṁ [agnau sāraṁ yasya atyaṁtānalottāpanepi

sārāṁśādahanāt Tv.] rasāṁjana, a sort of medical preparation for the

eyes. (

–raḥ –raṁ) power or essence of fire.

–sūtraṁ a thread of fire. 2. a girdle of sacrificial grass

(mauṁjīmekhalā) put upon a young Brāhmaṇa at the time of investiture.

–staṁbhaḥ 1. stopping the burning power of Agni. 2. N. of a

Mantra used in this operation. 3. N. of a medicine so used.

–stut m. (agniṣṭut) [agniḥstūyate’tra; stu-ādhāre kvip ṣatvaṁ] the

first day of the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice; N. of a portion of that sacrifice which

extends over one day; yajeta vāśvamedhena svarjitā gosavena vā .

abhijidviśvajidbhyāṁ vā trivṛtāgniṣṭutāpi vā .. Ms. 11. 75.

–stubh (-ṣṭubh) m. [agniḥ stubhyate’tra; stubh-kvip ṣatvaṁ] 1. =

agniṣṭoma. 2. N. of a son of the sixth Manu.

–stomaḥ (-ṣṭomaḥ) [agneḥ stomaḥ stutisādhanaṁ yatra] N. of a

protracted ceremony or sacrificial rite extending over several days in

spring and forming an essential part of the jyotiṣṭoma. 2. a Mantra or

Kalpa with reference to this sacrifice; -me bhavo maṁtraḥ -maḥ; -masya

vyākhyānaṁ, kalpaḥ -maḥ P. IV. 3. 66. Vārt. 3. N. of the son of the sixth

Manu. 4. a species of the Soma plant; -sāman a part of the Sāma Veda

chanted at the conclusion of the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice.

–stha a. (ṣṭha) [agnau sthātumarhati; sthāka ṣatvaṁ] placed in,

over, or near the fire. (

–ṣṭhaḥ) an iron frying-pan; in the aśvamedha sacrifice the 11th

Yūpa which of all the 21 is nearest the fire.

–svāttaḥ (written both as -svātta and -ṣvātta) (pl.) [agnitaḥ i. e.

śrāddhīyaviprakararūpānalāt suṣṭhu āttaṁ grahaṇaṁ yeṣāṁ te] N. of a

class of Pitṛs or Manes who, when living on earth, maintained the sacred

or domestic fires, but who did not perform the Agniṣṭoma and other

sacrifices. They are regarded as Manes of Gods and Brāhmaṇas and also

as descendants of Marīchi, Ms. 3. 195

(manuṣyajanmanyagniṣṭomādiyāgamakṛtvā smārtakarmaniṣṭhāḥ saṁto

mṛtvā ca pitṛtvaṁ gatāḥ iti sāyaṇaḥ). –hut, –hotṛ Ved. sacrificing to

Agni, having Agni for a priest.

–hotraṁ [agnaye hūyate’tra, hu-tra, ca. ta.] 1. an oblation to Agni

(chiefly of milk, oil and sour gruel.). 2. maintenance of the sacred fire and

offering oblation to it; (agnaye hotraṁ homo’smin karmaṇīti agnihotramiti

karmanāma); or the sacred fire itself; tapovanāgnihotradhūmalekhāsu K.

26; hotā syāt -trasya Ms. 11. 36; -tramupāsate 42; strīṁ dāhayet -treṇa

Ms. 5. 167, 6. 4, Y. 1. 89. The time of throwing oblations into the fire is,

as ordained by the sun himself, evening (agnaye sāyaṁ juhuyāt sūryāya

prātarjuhuyāt). Agnihotra is of two kinds; nitya of constant obligation

(yāvajjīvamagnihotraṁ juhoti) and kāmya occasional or optional

(upasadbhiścaritvā māsamekamagnihotraṁ juhoti). (–tra) a. Ved. 1.

destined for, connected with, Agnihotra. 2. sacrificing to Agni; -havanī

(ṇī) a ladle used in sacrificial libations, or agnihotrahavirgrahaṇī ṛk Tv.;

See havirgrahaṇī; -hut offering the agrihotra; -āhutiḥ invocation or

oblation connected with agrihotra. –hotrin a. [agnihotra-matvarthe ini] 1.

one who practises the Agnihotra, or consecrates and maintains the

sacred fire. 2. one who has prepared the sacrificial place.

Rādhākāntadeva: Śabdakalpadruma (5 Vol). Third edition, reprint of the

1886 edition. Varanasi : 1967

agniḥ puṁ, (aṅgayanti agyraṁ janma prāpayanti iti vyutpattyā haviḥ


gārhapatyāhavanīyadakṣiṇāgnisabhyāvasathyaupāsanākhyeṣu ṣaḍgniṣu .

yadvā aṅgati ūrdhvaṁ gacchati iti . agi gatau . aṅgernalopaśceti niḥ

nalopaśca .) tejaḥpadārthaviśeṣaḥ . āguna iti bhāṣā . dharmasya

vasubhāryāyāṁ jātaḥ prathamo’gniḥ . tasya patnī svāhā . puttrāstrayaḥ

pāvakaḥ 1 pavamānaḥ 2 śuciḥ 3 . ṣaṣṭhamanvantare agnervasordhārāyāṁ

draviṇakādayaḥ puttrāḥ . etebhyaḥ pañcacatvāriṁśadagnayo jātāḥ .

sarvemilitvā ekonapañcāśadagnayaḥ . iti purāṇaṁ .. asya paryāyaḥ .

vaiśvānaraḥ 1 vahniḥ 2 vītihotraḥ 3 dhanañjayaḥ 4 kṛpīṭayoniḥ 5 jvalanaḥ

6 jātavedāḥ 7 tanūnapāt 8 tanūnapāḥ 9 varhiḥśuṣmā 10 varhiḥ 11 śuṣmā

12 kṛṣṇavartmā 13 śociṣkeśaḥ 14 uṣarbudhaḥ 15 āśrayāśaḥ 16 āśayāśaḥ

17 vṛhadbhānuḥ 18 kṛśānuḥ 19 pāvakaḥ 20 analaḥ 21 rohitāśvaḥ 22

vāyusakhā 23 vāyusakhaḥ 24 śikhāvān 25 śikhī 26 āśuśukṣaṇiḥ 27

hiraṇyaretāḥ 28 hutabhuk 29 havyabhuk 30 dahanaḥ 31 havyavāhanaḥ 32

saptārciḥ 33 damunāḥ 34 damūnāḥ 35 śukraḥ 36 citrabhānuḥ 37

vibhāvasuḥ 38 śuciḥ 39 appittaṁ 40 . ityamarastaṭṭīkā ca .. vṛṣākapiḥ 41

juhūvālaḥ 42 kapilaḥ 43 piṅgalaḥ 44 araṇiḥ 45 agiraḥ 46 pācanaḥ 47

viśvapsāḥ 48 chāgavāhanaḥ 49 kṛṣṇārciḥ 50 juhūvāraḥ 51 udarciḥ 52

bhāskaraḥ 53 vasuḥ 54 śuṣmaḥ 55 himārātiḥ 56 tamonut 57 suśikhaḥ 58

saptajihvaḥ 59 apapārikaḥ 60 sarvadevamukhaḥ 61 . iti jaṭādharaḥ .. * ..

asya guṇāḥ . vāyukaphastambhaśītakampanāśakatvaṁ .

āmāśayājanakatvaṁ . raktapittaprakopakatvañca . iti rājavallabhaḥ ..

apica .

agnerdurdharṣatā jyotistāpaḥ pākaḥ prakāśanam .

śoko rogo laghustaikṣṇaṁ satatañcordhvabhāsitā .. iti mokṣadharmaḥ

.. * .. atha karmaviśeṣe’gnernāmāni . yathā —

laukike pāvako hyagniḥ prathamaḥ parikīrtitaḥ 1 . laukike

navagṛhapraveśādau .

agrestu māruto nāma garbhādhāne vidhīyate 2 .

puṁsavane candranāmā 3 śuṅgākarmaṇi śobhanaḥ 4 ..

sīmante maṅgalo nāma 5 pragalmo jātakarmaṇi 6 .

nāmni syāt pārthivo hyagniḥ 7 prāśane ca śucistathā 8 .

satyanāmātha cūḍāyāṁ 9 vratādeśe samudbhavaḥ 10 . vratādeśe

upanayane .

godāne sūryanāmā ca 11 keśānte hyagnirucyate 12 . godāne

godānākhyasaṁskāre . keśānte samāvartane .

vaiśvānaro visarge tu 13 vivāhe yojakaḥ smṛtaḥ 14 . visarge

sāgnikartavyakarmaviśeṣe .

caturthyāntu śikhīnāma 15 dhṛtiragnistathāpare 16 . caturthyāṁ

vivāhānte caturthīhome . apare dhṛtihomādau .

prāyaścitte vidhuścaiva 17 pākayajña tu sāhasaḥ 18 . prāyaścitte

prāyaścittātmakamahāvyāhṛtihomādau . pākayajñe pākāṅgakahome

vṛṣotsargagṛhapratiṣṭhādau .

lakṣahome cavahniḥsyāt 19 koṭihome hutāśanaḥ 20 .

pūrṇāhutyāṁ mṛḍonāma 20 śāntike varadastathā 22 ..

pauṣṭike baladaścaiva 23 krodhāgniścābhicārike 24 .

vaśyarthe śamano nāma 25 varadāne’bhidūṣakaḥ 26 ..

koṣṭhetu jaṭharo nāma 27 kravyādo’mṛtabhakṣane 28 .. iti

gobhilaputtrakṛtasaṁgrahaḥ .. * .. atha tasya rūpaṁ . yathā —

piṅgabhrūśmaśukeśākṣaḥ pīnāṅgajaṭharo’ruṇaḥ .

chāgasthaḥ sākṣasūtro’gniḥ saptārciḥ śaktidhārakaḥ ..

ityādityapurāṇaṁ .. * .. atha homīyāgneḥ śubhalakṣaṇāni . yathā —

arciṣmān piṇḍitaśikhaḥ sarpiḥkāñcanasannibhaḥ .

snigdhaḥ pradakṣiṇaścaiva vahniḥ syāt kāryasiddhaye .. iti

bāyupurāṇaṁ .. * .. vaidyakamate agnistridhā bhaumaḥ 1 divyaḥ 2

udaryaḥ 3 tatrādyaḥ kāṣṭhendhanaprabhavaḥ ūrdhvajvalanasvabhāvaḥ

pacanasvedādisamarthaśca . dvitīya udakendhanaḥ paryagjvalanaśīlo

vāḍavaḥ . tṛtīya ubhayendhanaḥ paryagjvalanaśīlaḥ bhuktasyāhārasya

rasādipariṇāmanimittañca vidyudādiśca . iti vijayarakṣitopari

sandehabhañjikā .. * .. apica —

mandastīkṣṇo’tha viṣamaḥ samaśceti caturvidhaḥ .

kaphapittānilādhikyāttatsāmyājjāṭharo’nalaḥ .. taṣāṁ kāryaṁ yathā —

viṣamovātajānrogān tīkṣṇaḥ pittanimittajān .

karotyagnistathā mando vikārān kaphasambhavān ..

samāsamāgneraśitā mātrā samyagvipacyate .

svalpāpi naiva mandāgnerviṣamāgnestu dehinaḥ ..

kadācit pacyate samyak kadācicca na pacyate .

tīkṣṇāgniriti taṁ vidyāt samāgniḥ śreṣṭha ucyate .. iti mādhavakaraḥ ..

atyantatīkṣṇāgnireva hi bhasmaka ucyate . sa tu āhārābhāve śoṇitādīn

dhātūn pācayitvā āśu mārayati . iti rakṣitaḥ .. * .. (dehajanyāgneḥ

nādotpādakatvaṁ yathā saṅgītadarpaṇe —

ātmanā preritaṁ cittaṁ vahnimāhanti dehajam .

brahmagranthisthitaṁ prāṇaṁ sa prerayati pāvakaḥ ..

pāvakapreritaḥ so’tha kramādūrdhvapathe caran .

atisūkṣmadhvaniṁ nābhau hṛdi sūkṣmaṁ gale punaḥ ..

puṣṭaṁ śīrṣe tvapuṣṭañca kṛtrimaṁ vadane tathā .

āvirbhāvayatītyevaṁ pañcadhā kīrtyate budhaiḥ ..

nakāraṁ prāṇanāmānaṁ dakāramanalaṁ viduḥ .

jātaḥ prāṇāgnisaṁyogāttena nādo’bhidhīyate agneḥ sarvasākṣitvādi

yathā rāmāyaṇe —

tvamagne sarvadevānāṁ śarīrāntaragocaraḥ .

tvaṁ sākṣī mama dehasthastrāhi māṁ devamattama . yathā ca

bhārate —

ādityacandrāvanilo’nalaśca .

daurbhūmirāpo hṛdayaṁ yamaśca ..

ahaśca rātriśca ubhe ca sandhye .

dharmaśca jānāti narasya vṛttam .. asya sarvaprathamārādhyatvaṁ

ṛgvedasya sarvaprathamasūkte ūktaṁ yathā — agnimīle purohitam . ityādi

. viṣṇuḥ . sūryaḥ .) agnikoṇādhipatiḥ . ityamaraḥ . citrakavṛkṣaḥ .

raktacitrakaḥ . mallātakaḥ . nimbukaḥ .. pittaṁ . svarṇaṁ . iti

rājanirghaṇṭaḥ .

अरुण – aruṇa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899aruṇa mf (“ā” [ v, 63, 6, &c.] or “ī” [ x, 61, 4, &, (nom. pl. “aruṇayas”)

95, 6]) n. ( “ṛ” , reddish-brown, tawny, red, ruddy (the colour of the

morning opposed to the darkness of night) &c.

mf (“ā”) n. perplexed

aruṇa mf (“ā”) n. dumb

aruṇa m. red colour

aruṇa m. the dawn (personified as the charioteer of the sun)

aruṇa m. the sun

aruṇa m. a kind of leprosy (with red [cf. spots and insensibility of the


aruṇa m. a little poisonous animal

aruṇa m. the plant Rottleria Tinctoria

aruṇa m. molasses

aruṇa m. N. of a teacher

aruṇa m. of the composer of the hymn (with the patron. Vaitahavya)

aruṇa m. of the Nāga priest Aṭa

aruṇa m. of a son of Kṛiṣṇa

aruṇa m. of the Daitya Mura

aruṇa m. of an Asura “varuṇa”), of the father of the fabulous bird Jaṭāyu

aruṇa (“aruṇa”) m. pl. N. of a pupil of Upaveśi (cf. “aruṇa” m. above) ,

m. pl. N. of a class of Ketus (seventy seven in number)

aruṇa m. (named as the composers of certain Mantras).

aruṇa (“ā”) f. the plants Betula, madder (Rubia Manjith), Tori, a black

kind of the same, Colocynth or bitter apple, the plant that yields the red

and black berry used for the jewellers weight (called Retti)

aruṇa m. N. of a river , (“īs”) f. red cow (in the Vedic myths) and

aruṇa m. the dawn

aruṇa (“am”) n. red colour

aruṇa m. a ruby

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


aruṇa a. (ṇā, –ṇī f.) [ṛ-unan; cf. Uṇ. 3. 60]

(1) Reddish brown, tawny, red, ruddy (of the colour of the morning as

opposed to the darkness of night); pratyākhyātaviśeṣakaṁ kurabakaṁ

śyāmāvadātāruṇaṁ M. 3. 5; nayanānyaruṇāni ghūrṇayan Ku. 4. 12.

(2) Perplexed, embarrassed.

(3) Dumb. –ṇaḥ

(1) Red colour, the colour of the dawn or morning twilight.

(2) The dawn personified as the charioteer of the sun;

āviṣkṛtāruṇapuraḥsara ekatorkaḥ S. 4. 1, 7. 4; vibhāvarī yadyaruṇāya

kalpate Ku. 5. 44; R. 5. 71. [Aruṇa is represented as the elder brother of

Garuḍa, being the son of Vinatā by Kaśyapa. Vinatā prematurely hatched

the egg and the child was born without thighs, and hence he is called

Anūru ‘thighless’, or Vipāda ‘footless.’ He cursed his mother that since

she had brought him forth before the due season she would be a slave to

her rival Kadrū; but at her earnest entreaties, he modified the curse and

said that her next son would deliver her from bondage. Aruṇa now holds

the office of the charioteer of the sun. His wife was Śyeni, who bore him

two sons Sampāti and Jaṭayu].

(3) The sun; rāgeṇa bālāruṇakomalena Ku. 3. 30, 5. 8; saṁsṛjyate

sarasijairaruṇāṁśubhinnaiḥ R. 5. 69; S. 1. 32.

(4) A kind of leprosy with red spots and insensibility of the skin.

(5) A little poisonous creature.

(6) N. of a plant puṁnāga; also a synonym of arka q. v.

(7) Molasses (guḍa)

(8) N. of a peak of the Himālaya situated to the west of Kailāsa.

(9) N. of one of the 12 Ādityas, the one presiding over Magha. –ṇā

(1) N. of several plants

(a) ativiṣā (Mar. ativikha);

(b) Madder (maṁjiṣṭhā);

(c) trivṛt commonly called Teori;

(d) a black kind of the same (śyāmākā);

(e) bitter apple (iṁdravāruṇī);

(f) the Gunja plant that yields the red and black berry (guṁja)

used as a weight by jewellers &c.

(g) muṁḍatiktā.

(2) N. of a river. –ṇī

(1) A red cow (Nir.).

(2) The early dawn. –ṇaṁ

(1) Red colour.

(2) Gold.

(3) Saffron.

— Comp.

–agrajaḥ N. of Garuḍa (aruṇaḥ agrajo yasya). –anujaḥ, –avarajaḥ

N. of Garuḍa, younger brother of Aruṇa.

–arcis m. the sun.

–aśva a. having red horses, epithet of the Maruts.

–ātmajaḥ 1. son of Aruṇa, N. of Jaṭāyu. –2. N. of Saturn, Savarṇi

Manu, Karṇa, Sugrīva, Yama and the two Aśvins. (

–jā) N. of Yamuna and Tāpti.

–īkṣaṇa a. red-eyed.

–udakaṁ N. of a lake. (

–kā) N. of a river.

–udayaḥ break of day, dawn; catasro ghaṭikāḥ prātararuṇodaya

ucyate. –upalaḥ a ruby.

–kamalaṁ a red lotus.

–jyotis m. N. of Śiva.

–dūrvā reddish fennel.

–priya a. ‘beloved of red flowers and lotuses’, N. of the sun. (

–yā) 1. the sun’s wife. –2. shadow.

–psu a. [aruṇaṁ psu rūpaṁ yasya] Ved. of reddish shape or


–babhru a. reddish-yellow.

–yuj a. furnished with red rays of light, epithet of the dawn.

–locana a. red-eyed. (

–naḥ) a pigeon.

–sārathiḥ ‘having Aruṇa for his charioteer,’ the sun.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

aruṇa Uṇ. 3, 60. 1) adj. f. ā und ī (ved.). a) “röthlich, rothbraun; die Farbe

des Morgens” im Gegensatz “zum Schwarz der Nacht”: kṛṣṇaṁ ca

varṇamaruṇaṁ ca saṁ dhuḥ ṚV. 1, 73, 7 (AV. 12, 1, 52). der Strahlen,

Rinder, Rosse der Morgenröthe 92, 2. 15. 113, 14. 124, 11. 5, 80, 3. des

Soma und der Soma-Pflanze: vṛkṣasya śākhāmaruṇasya bapsataḥ 10, 94,

3. 7, 98, 1. 9, 45, 3. des Wolfs 1, 105, 18. des Aussatzes (vgl. 2,c.) AV. 5,

22, 3. 6, 20, 3. — ṚV. 1, 134, 3. 2, 1, 6. 4, j, 16. 8, 90, 6. VS. 16, 6. 39. 24,

3. 11. 29, 58. AV. 10, 2, 11. 11, 5, 12. 10, 2. 13, 2, 26. ŚAT. BR. 3, 3, 1,

15. KĀTY. ŚR. 7, 6, 14. 22, 9, 13. aruṇapuṣpa ŚAT. BR. 4, 5, 10, 2. KĀTY.

ŚR. 25, 12, 18. prācī digiyamabhavattāvadaruṇā ŚṚÑGĀRAT. 8. kuravakaḥ

AK. 2, 4, 2, 55. pallava BRAHMA-P. in LA. 59, 10. kapotāṅgāruṇo dhūmaḥ

R. 3, 5, 7. bhasmāruṇam – dagdhāsthisthānamaṇḍalam 2, 77, 8.

pāṇḍarāruṇavarṇāni nīlalohitakāni ca – mahābhrāṇi cakāśire 5, 55, 15.

pāṇḍurāruṇavarṇāni srotāṁsi vimalānyapi. susruvurgiridhātubhyaḥ

sabhasmāni bhujaṁgavat.. DAŚ. 1, 18. (meghāḥ) gardabhāruṇāḥ R. 3,

30, 4. himāruṇāḥ. śītavṛddhatarāyāmāstriyāmā bhānti sāṁpratam

(hemante), tuṣārāruṇamaṇḍalaḥ saniḥśvāsa ivādarśacandramā na

prakāśate 3, 22, 12. 13. tāṁ nirīkṣya – kṣitau kṣitirajo’ruṇām 5, 33, 2.

karau ca tava – padmapatrāruṇau śubhau 3, 52, 31. nakha ŚĀK. 138.

kopādaruṇalocanaḥ DEV. 3, 7. KUMĀRAS, 4, 12. AMAR. 44. Ueber die

Personification der aruṇāḥ ketavaḥ s. u. ketu. Die Lexicographen

bestimmen die Farbe durch folgende Umschreibungen: avyaktarāga AK.

1, 1, 4, 25. H. an. 3, 192. MED. ṇ. 33. bālasaṁdhyābha H. 1396.

saṁdhyārāga H. an. MED. piṅga H. an. 3, 191. kapila MED. ṇ. 34. gaura

AK. 3, 4, 25, 191. ārakta TRIK. 3, 3, 120. Das m. bezeichnet die “rothe

Farbe” in abstr. — b) “verwirrt” (vyākula) TRIK. 3, 3, 120. — c) “stumm”

H. an. 3, 192. MED. ṇ. 34, — 2) m. a) “Morgenröthe”, personif. “der

Wagenlenker der Sonne” AK. 1, 1, 2, 33. TRIK. 3, 3, 119. H. 102. an. 3,

191. MED. ṇ. 33. aruṇodaye M. 10, 33. R. 2, 71, 17. bālāruṇa KUMĀRAS.

3, 30. aruṇāṁśa RAGH. 5, 69. āviṣkṛtāruṇapuraḥsaraḥ (arkaḥ) ŚĀK. 77.

kiṁ vābhaviṣyadaruṇastamasāṁ vibhettā taṁ cetsahasrakiraṇo dhuri

nākariṣyat 163. KUMĀRAS. 5, 44. ein Sohn der Vinatā und Bruder

Garuḍa’s R. 3, 20, 33. HARIV. 224. 2499. 11556. 12507. 14175. VP. 149.

Schüler des Sūrya Verz. d. B. H. No. 939. — b) “Sonne” AK. 1, 1, 2, 31. 3,

4, 13, 51. TRIK. 1, 1, 100. 3, 3, 119. H. 95. an. 3, 191. MED. ṇ. 33.

pariṇatāruṇaprakāśaḥ śalabhasamūha iva ŚĀK. 31. — c) “eine Art

Aussatz” H. an. MED. Vgl. u. 1,a. — d) N. eines kleinen giftigen Thieres

(mūṣika) SUŚR. 2, 279, 20. — e) N. einer Pflanze, “Rottleria tinctoria”

(puṁnāga) RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. Als Synonym von arka “Sonne” auch ein

Name für die “Pflanze” arka ŚKDR. — f) “Melasse” (guḍa) RĀJAN. im

ŚKDR. — g) N. pr. ein Lehrer mit dem Bein. Aupaveśi ŚAT. BR. 2, 2, 2, 20.

Aupaveśi Gautama 10, 6, 1, 1. Schüler des Upaveśi 14, 9, 4, 33 (hier

proparox.) = BṚH. ĀR. UP. 6, 5, 3. WEBER, Lit. 129. Vater von Uddālaka

COLEBR. Misc. Ess. I, 37. 54. 83. 84. 87. Sohn Vītadravya’s ṚV. ANUKR.

zu 10, 91. Vgl. āruṇi. — ein Asura (trailokye mahābādhāṁ kariṣyati) DEV.

11, 49. — Aruṇa Āṭa ein Schlangenpriester PAÑCAV. BR. in Ind. St. 1, 35.

— ein König aus dem Sonnengeschlecht LIA. I, Anh. CVI (zu S. VI, N. 8).

— 3) f. -ṇā. a) N. verschiedener Pflanzen: a) = ativiṣā, eine “Birkenart”

AK. 2, 4, 3, 18. TRIK. 3, 3, 119. H. an. 3, 192. MED. ṇ. 34. — b) “Grapp,

Färberröthe” (mañjiṣṭhā) TRIK. H. an. MED. — g) “Ipomoea Turpethum

R. Br.” (oder wohl eine andere “rothblühende” Species), trivṛt H. an.

MED. — d) “Abrus precatorius” (guñjā), mit “rothen” Beeren RĀJAN. im

ŚKDR. — e) “die Koloquinthe” (indravāruṇī) id. — z) = muṇḍitikā id. — h)

= śyāmā H. an. MED. — b) N. eines Flusses LIA. I, 59. — 4) f. -ṇī. a) (sc.

go) “die röthliche Kuh”, vom Gespann der Morgenröthe und den Kühen im

Indra-Mythus: kṣāmā bhindanto aruṇīrapa vran ṚV. 4, 2, 16. 1, 112, 19.

121, 3. sajūruṣā aruṇībhiḥ VS. 12, 74. Vgl. NAIGH. 1, 15. — b) “die

Morgenröthe”: āvahantyaruṇīrjyotiṣāgāt ṚV. 4, 14, 3. — 5) n. a) “Röthe”:

divispṛgyātyaruṇāni kṛṇvan ṚV. 10, 168, 1. 2, 34, 12. — b) “Gold”: aruṇaṁ

rajatam AV. 13, 4, 5, 6. — Vgl. aruṣa.

aruṇa 1) a) aruṇāḥ ketavaḥ als Verfasser von Mantra Ind. St. 3, 459; vgl.

386. 391, weiter unten u. 2) i) und u. ketu 7). — 2) a) Vater des Jaṭāyu

MBH. 3, 16045. — d) Verz. d. Oxf. H. 309,a,20. — g) Aupaveśi TS. 6, 1, 9,

2. 4, 5, 1. TBR. 2, 1, 5, 11. Vaitahavja (lies Vītahavya st. Vītadravya) Ind.

St.3,203,b. ein Sohn Kṛṣṇa’s BHĀG. P. 10, 90, 33. des Daitja Mura 59, 12.

— h) “Röthe, rothe Farbe” BHĀG. P. 10, 29, 2. — i) Bez. “bestimmter”

Ketu (77 an der Zahl) VARĀH. BṚH. S. 11, 24; vgl. oben u. 1, a). — 3) b)

MBH. 9, 2429. fg. — 5) c) “Rubin” BHĀG. P. 4, 25, 15.

aruṇa 2) g) N. pr. eines Asura MBH. 16, 119 nach der Lesart der ed.

Bomb., varuṇa ed. Calc. — 3) b) MBH. 3, 7022.

Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975

aruṇa 1 I

aruṇa 2 II A king of the solar dynasty, and father of Triśaṅku. (Devī

Bhāgavata, Saptama Skandha).

aruṇa 3 III A sage in ancient India. A community of Ṛṣis was denoted by

this name. Those Ṛṣis were called Aruṇas. The Ajas, Pṛśnis, Sikatas,

Ketus and Aruṇas-they attained Svarga by self study. (M.B., Śānti Parva,

Chapter 26, Verse 7).

aruṇa 4 IV A serpent. Karkkoṭaka, Vāsuki, Takṣaka, Pṛthuśravas, Aruṇa,

Kuñjara, Mitra, Śaṁkha, Kumuda, Puṇḍarīka, and the chief of serpents,

Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (M.B., Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 15).

aruṇa 5 V A Ṛṣi. Taittarīya Āraṇyaka refers to him as born from the flesh

of Brahmā at the time of creation.

aruṇa 6 VI A Dānava (Asura) born in the dynasty of Vipracitti. He did

tapas for long years repeating the Gāyatrī mantra, and got from Brahmā

the boon not to die in war. Becoming very arrogant on account of this

boon he left Pātāla (nether region) for the earth and deputed a

messenger to challenge Indra for war. At that time a heavenly voice

called out that as long as Aruṇa did not give up the Gāyatrī he could not

be worsted in war. Then the Devas sent Bṛhaspati to Aruṇa to make him

give up Gāyatrī. Aruṇa questioned Bṛhaspati as to why he of the enemy

camp had come to him (Aruṇa). Bṛhaspati replied: “You and I are not

different; both of us are worshippers of Gāyatrī Devī. Being told so Aruṇa

gave up worship of Gāyatrī Devī, and she felt offended at this and sent

thousands of beetles against him. Thus, without fighting Aruṇa and his

army were extinguished. (Devī Bhāgavata).

aruṇa 7 VII A son of Narakāsura. When Narakāsura was killed Aruṇa

along with his six brothers fought against Śrī Kṛṣṇa and was killed.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

aruṇa aruṇa (akin to arus, cf. aruṣa).

I. adj., f. ṇā and ṇī, Tawny, dark red, Chr. 293, 2 = Rigv. i. 88, 2; Rām. 3,

5, 7.

II. m.

1. The dawn, Man. 10, 33.

2. The sun, Śāk. d. 31 (pariṇata-, The setting sun).

3. A proper name, Dev. 11, 49.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

aruṇa f. ā (ved. also ī) ruddy, light-brown, yellowish. m. redness, pers. as

Aruṇa, the Dawn, conceived as the charioteer of the Sun; the Sun itself;

N. of an old teacher etc. f. ī a red cow; the dawn. n. redness, gold, ruby.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

aruṇa ar-uṇa, a. (ā; V. also ī) ruddy; lightbrown; golden; m. redness;

dawn (personified as charioteer of the sun); sun;

-kara, m. sun;

-tā, f. redness;

-psu, a. ruddy.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

aruṇa pu° ṛ–unan . 1 sūrye, 2 sūryasārathau, 3 guḍe, 4 sandhyārāge 5

niḥśabde, 6 dānavabhede 7 kuṣṭhabhede, 8 punnāgavṛkṣe . 9 avyaktarāge

10 kṛṣṇamiśritaraktavarṇe ca 11 tadvati tri° . 12 kuṅkume, 13 sindūre ca

na° . 14 mañjiṣṭhāyām 15 śyāmākāyām, 16 ativiṣāyām 17 nadībhede 18

kadambapuṣpāyāñca strī . 19 trivṛtāyāṁ medi° 20 indravāruṇyām 21

guñjāyāṁ rājani° 22 muṇḍatiktāyām ca strī . tatra anūrau vibhāvarī

yadyaruṇāya kalpate kumā° yāvat pratāpanidhirākramate na

bhānurahnāya tāvadaruṇena tamonirastam raghuḥ .

tārkṣyaścāriṣṭanemiśca garuḍaśca mahābalaḥ aṁruṇaścāruṇiścaiva

vinatāyāḥ sutāḥ smṛtāḥ hari° aruṇogaruḍabhrātā javāpuṣpasamaprabhaḥ

. yogānāñcaiva sarveṣāṁ sādhyānāmadhipaḥ kṛtaḥ hariva° .

tadutpattyādikathā anūruśabde 191 uktā . sūrye saṁsṛjyate

sarijairaruṇāśubhinnaiḥ raghuḥ rāgeṇa bālāruṇakomalena kumā° . varṇe

tadvati ca nayanānyaruṇāni ghūrṇayan kumā° aruṇapuṣpāṇi phālgunāni

śata° brā° . dadhat sandhyāruṇavyomasphurattārānukāriṇīḥ māghaḥ .

dvādaśādityamadhye māghamāsādhipe 23 ādityabhede aruṇo

māghamāse vai ādityahṛdayam vivaraṇamādityaśabde . 24 deśabhede

pu° . dhūmādi° vuñ . āruṇakaḥ tadbhave tri° guṇavacanāt bhāve imanic

aruṇimā pu° ṣyañ āraṇyam na° . tal aruṇatā strī tva aruṇatvam na° .

raktādivarṇe . apatye iñ . āruṇiḥ jaṭāyau sūryaputremande yame

karṇevaivasvatamanau sugrīve ṛṣibhede ca . aśvinākumārayoḥ dvi° va°

yamunāyāṁ tapatyāṁ ca strī guṇavacanāt bhṛśā° abhūtatdbhāvekyaṅ

aruṇāyate aruṇāyamānaḥ . gaurā° ṅīṣ . 25 aruṇavarṇāyāṁ gavi strī .

aruṇyogāva uṣasāsamiti niruktoktāyām 26 ūṣāyāmapi strī . 27

mandaragiristhe sarovare tasya cāruṇajalatvāttathātvam

sarāṁsyathaiteṣvaruṇañca mānasaṁ mahāhradaḥ śvetajalaṁ

yathākramāt si° śi° . eteṣu mandarādiviṣkambhaśaileṣu

guḍakuṅkumasindūrādīnāñcāruṇavarṇatvāttathātvam .

अशुचि – aśuci Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899aśuci “a-śuci” mfn. ( 6-2, 161) impure, foul

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


aśuci a.

(1) Not clean, dirty, foul, impure; so’śuciḥ sarvakarmasu; in mourning;


(2) Black. –ciḥ The black colour. –ciḥ f.

(1) Impurity.

(2) Degradation.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

aśuci a. impure.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

aśuci a-śuci, a. impure: -tva, n. impurity;

-bhakṣaṇa, n. eating impure things;

-bhāva, m. impurity;

-varṇa, a. of impure colour: -tā, f. impurity of colour.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

aśuci tri° virodhe na° ta° . 1 śaucaśūnye 2 apavitre mūtrādau ca . striyāṁ

ṅīp . aśucyonaiva tāstena yena vaikārikaṁ hitat śaṅkhaḥ .

śucitatkālajīvināṁ karmāghikāritvenāśuceḥ paryudastatvam aśucidravyāṇi

ca aśuddhiśabde vakṣyante vratānāmupavāsānāṁ śrāḍvādīnāñca

saṅgame . karoti yaḥ kṣaurakarma so’śuciḥ sarvakarmasu smṛtiḥ

trirātramaśucirbhavet smṛtiḥ . aśucitvaṁ ca

vaidikakarmānarhatvaprayojakodharmaviśeṣaḥ tacca kartṛniṣṭha

dravyaniṣṭhañca . sūtakanimittaṁ duṣṭadravyasaṁsargakṛtañca

kartṛniṣṭham . dravyaniṣṭhantu vastusvabhāvakṛtam yathā

malamūtrapurīṣāsthi nirgataṁ hyaśuci smṛtam . nāraṁ smṛṣṭvā tu

sasnehaṁ sacelaṁ jalamāviśedityādi smṛtyuktaṁ

tatsaṁsargayutadravyaniṣṭhañca adhikamaśuddhiśabde vakṣyate . śuciḥ

śubhraḥ . tadbhinne 3 kṛṣṇavarṇe pu° 4 tadvati tri° striyāṁ vā ṅīp tasya

bhāvaḥ aṇ aśaucam ṣyañ āśaucyam . aśucibhāve na° āśaucyāt

vipramucyeta brāhmaṇān svastivācya ca smṛtiḥ vā pūrbapadavṛddhiḥ

aśaucyamapi tatraiva . aśucau bhavaḥ ṣyañ vā pūrbapadaḥdīrgha a

(ā)śaucyaḥ tadbhave tri° .

अश्वकृत – aśvakṛta Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975aśvakṛta A river. Once a sage called Rcīka went to Gādhi and asked for

the hand of his daughter, Satyavatī, in marriage. He demanded as dowry

a thousand horses black in colour and with only one ear for each. Ṛcīka

prayed to Varuṇa and he gave him the horses required. The river

Aśvakṛta (created by horse) was made by the flow of urine from these

horses. (Chapter 57, Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa).

इंद्रः – iṁdraḥ Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :1890

iṁdraḥ [iṁd-ran; iṁdatīti iṁdraḥ; idi aiśvarye Malli.]

(1) The lord of gods.

(2) The god of rain, rain; cloud.

(3) A lord or ruler (as of men &c.); first or best (of any class of

objects), always as the last member of comp.; nareṁdraḥ a lord of men i.

e. a king; so mṛgeṁdraḥ a lion; gajeṁdraḥ the lord or chief of elephants;

so yogīṁdraḥ, kapīṁdraḥ.

(4) A prince, king.

(5) The pupil of the right eye.

(6) N. of the plant kuṭaja.

(7) Night.

(8) One of the divisions of bhāratavarṣa.

(9) N. of the 26th Yoga. (10) The human or animal soul.

(11) A vegetable poison.

(12) The Yoga star in the 26th Nakshatra.

(13) Greatness. –drā The wife of Indra, Indrāṇī. [Indra, the god of the

firmament, is the Jupiter Pluvius of the Indian Āryans. In the Vedas he is

placed in the first rank among the gods; yet he is not regarded as an

uncreated being, being distinctly spoken of in various passages of the

Vedas as being born, and as having a father and a mother. He is

sometimes represented as having been produced by the gods as a

destroyer of enemies, as the son of Ekāṣṭaka, and in Rv. 10. 90. 13 he is

said to have sprung from the mouth of Purusha. He is of a ruddy or golden

colour, and can assume any form at will. He rides in a bright golden

chariot drawn by two tawny horses. His most famous weapon is the

thunderbolt which he uses with deadly effect in his warfare with the

demous of darkness, drought and inclement weather, variously called Ahi,

Vṛtra, Śambara, Namuchi &c. He storms and breaks through their castles,

and sends down fertilizing showers of rain to the great delight of his

worshippers. He is thus the lord of the atmosphere, the dispenser of rain,

and governor of the weather. He is represented as being assisted by the

Maruts or storm-gods in his warfare. Besides the thunderbolt he uses

arrows, a large hook, and a net. The Soma juice is his most favourite

food, and under its exhilarating influence he performs great achievements

(cf. Rv. 10. 119), and pleases his devout worshippers, who are said to

invite the god to drink the juice. He is their friend and even their brother;

a father, and the most fatherly of fathers; the helper of the poor, and the

deliverer and comforter of his servants. He is a wall of defence; his friend

is never slain or defeated. He richly rewards his adorers, particularly

those who bring him libations of Soma, and he is supplicated for all sorts

of temporal blessings, as cows, horses, chariots, health, intelligence,

prosperous days, long life, and victory in war. In the Vedas Indra’s wife is

Indrani, who is invoked among the goddesses.

Such is the Vedic conception of Indra. But in later mythology he falls in

the second rank. He is said to be one of the sons of Kaśyapa and

Dākṣāyaṇi or Aditi. He is inferior to the triad Brahma, Viṣṇu and Maheśa

(though in some places Viṣṇu is regarded as his younger brother, cf. R.

14. 59, 15. 40), but he is the chief of all the other gods, and is commonly

styled Sureśa, Devendra &c. As in the Vedas so in later mythology, he is

the regent of the atmosphere, and of the east quarter, and his world is

called Svarga. He sends the lightning, uses the thunderbolt and sends

down rain. He is frequently at war with Asuras, whom he constantly

dreads, and by whom he is sometimes defeated. The Indra of mythology

is famous for his incontinence and adultery, one prominent instance of

which is his seduction of Ahalya, the wife of Gautama (see Ahalyā), and

for which he is often spoken of as Ahalyā-jāra. The curse of the sage

impressed upon him a 1000 marks resembling the female organ, and he

was therefore called Sayoni; but these marks were afterwards changed

into eyes, and he is hence called Netra-yoni and Sahasrākṣa. In the

Rāmāyaṇa Indra is represented as having been defeated and carried off

to Laṅkā by Rāvaṇa’s son called Meghanāda, who for this exploit received

the title of ‘Indrajit.’ It was only at the intercession of Brahmā and the

gods that Indra was released, and this humiliation was regarded as a

punishment for his seduction of Ahalya. He is also represented as being in

constant dread of sages practising potent penances, and as sending

down nymphs to beguile their minds (see. Apsaras). In the Purāṇas he is

said to have destroyed the offspring of Diti in her womb, and to have cut

off the wings of mountains when they grew troublesome. Other stories

are also told in which Indra was once worsted by Raja, grandson of

Purūravas, owing to the curse of Durvāsas, and other accounts show that

he and Kṛṣṇa were at war with each other for the Pārijāta tree which the

latter wanted to remove from Svarga, and which he succeeded in doing in

spite of Indra’s resistance. His wife is Indrani, the daughter of the demon

Puloman, and his son is named Jayanta. He is also said to be father of

Arjuna. His epithets are numerous; mostly descriptive of his

achievements, e. g. vṛtrahan, balabhid, pākaśāsana, gotrabhid,

puraṁdara, śatakratu, jiṣṇu, namucisūdana &c. (see Ak. I. 1. 44-47). The

Heaven of Indra is Svarga; its capital, Amarāvati; his garden, Nandana;

his elephant, Airāvata; his horse, Uchchaiśravas; his bow, the rain-bow,

and his sword, Paranja].

— Comp.

–agniḥ the fire produced from the contact of clouds; -dhūmaḥ

frost, snow; -devatā the 16th lunarmansion.

–anujaḥ, –avarajaḥ an epithet of Viṣṇu and of Narayaṇa.

–ariḥ an Asura or demon.

–avasānaḥ a desert.

–aśanaḥ 1. hemp (dried and chewed). –2. the shrub which bears

the seed used in jeweller’s weight, (guṁjāvṛkṣa) –āyudhaṁ Indra’s

weapon, the rainbow; iṁdrāyudhadyotitatoraṇāṁkaṁ R. 7. 4, 12. 79; K.

127. (

–dhaḥ) 1. N. of horse in Kādambarī (i. e. Kapinjala changed into a

horse). –2. a horse marked with black about the eyes. (

–dhā) a kind of leech.

–āsanaṁ 1. the throne of Indra. –2. a throne in general. –3. a

foot of five short syllables.

–ijyaḥ N. of bṛhaspati the preceptor of gods.

–īśvaraḥ one of the forms of Śiva-linga.

–utsavaḥ a festival honouring Indra.

–ṛṣabha a. having Indra as a bull, or impregnated by Indra, an

epithet of the earth.

–karman m. an epithet of Viṣṇu (performing Indra’s deeds).

–kīlaḥ 1. N. of the mountain maṁdara. –2. a rock. (

–laṁ) the banner of Indra.

–kuṁjaraḥ Indra’s elephant, Airāvata.

–kūṭaḥ N. of a mountain.

–kṛṣṭa a. ‘ploughed by Indra,’ growing exuberantly or in a wild

state. (

–ṣṭaḥ) a kind of corn produced by rain-water.

–ketuḥ Indra’s banner.

–kośaḥ –ṣaḥ, –ṣakaḥ 1. a couch, sofa. –2. a plat-form. –3. a

projection of the roof of a house. –4. a pin or bracket projecting from the

wall (nāgadaṁta). –giriḥ the maheṁdra mountain.

–guruḥ, ācāryaḥ the teacher of Indra; i. e. bṛhaspati. –gopaḥ, —

gopakaḥ [iṁdro gopo rakṣako’sya, varṣābhavatvāttasya] a kind of insect

of red or white colour; K. 100.

–caṁdanaṁ the white sandal wood.

–cāpaṁ, –dhanus n. 1. a rainbow; vidyutvaṁtaṁlalitavanitāḥ

seṁdracāpaṁ sacitrāḥ Me. 64; Śi. 7. 4. –2. the bow of Indra.

–chaṁdas n. [iṁdra iva sahasranetreṇa sahasragucchena

chādyate] a necklace consisting of 1000 strings.

–jananaṁ Indra’s birth.

–jananīya a. treating of Indra’s birth (as a work).

–jā a. Ved. born or arising from Indra.

–jālaṁ [iṁdrasya parameśvarasya jālaṁ māyeva] 1. the net of

Indra. –2. a weapon used by Arjuna; a stratagem or trick in war. –3.

deception, cheating. –4. conjur ing, jugglery, magical tricks;

svapneṁdrajālasadṛśaḥ khalu jīvalokaḥ Śānti. 2. 2; K. 105.

–jālika a. [iṁdrajāla-ṭhan] deceptive, unreal, delusive. (

–kaḥ) a juggler, conjurer.

–jit m. ‘conqueror of Indra’, N. of a son of Rāvaṇa who was killed

by Lakṣmaṇa. [Indrajit is another name of Meghanāda, a son Rāvaṇa.

When Rāvaṇa warred against Indra in his own heaven, his son

Meghanāda was with him, and fought most valiantly. During the combat,

Meghanāda, by virtue of the magical power of becoming invisible which

he had obtained from Śiva, bound Indra, and bore him off in triumph to

Lanka. Brahmā and the other gods hurried thither to obtain his release,

and gave to Meghanāda the title of Indrajit, ‘conqueror of Indra’; but the

victor refused to release his prisoner unless he were promised

immortality. Brahmā refused to grant this extravagant demand, but he

strenuously persisted, and achieved his object. In the Rāmāyaṇa he is

represented to have been decapitated by Lakṣmaṇa while he was

engaged in a sacrifice]. -haṁtṛ or vijayin m. N. of Lakṣmaṇa.

–jyeṣṭha a. Ved. led by Indra.

–tāpanaḥ the thundering of clouds.

–tūlaṁ, tūlakaṁ a flock of cotton.

–damanaḥ the son of Bāṇāsura.

–dāruḥ the tree Pinus Devadāru.

–druḥ, drumaḥ 1 the plant Terminalia Arjuna (arjuna). –2. the

plant kuṭaja. –dvīpaḥ –paṁ one of the 9 Dvīpas or divisions of the

continent (of India).

–dhvajaḥ a flag raised on the 12th day of the bright half of Bhādra.

–nakṣatraṁ Indra’s lunar mansion phalgunī. –netraṁ 1. the eye of

Indra. –2. the number one thousand.

–nīlaḥ [iṁdra iva nīlaḥ śyāmaḥ] a sapphire; R. 13. 54; 16. 69; Me.

46, 77.

–nīlakaḥ an emerald.

–patnī Indra’s wife, śacī. –parṇī, –puṣpā N. of a medicinal plant.

–parvataḥ 1. the maheṁdra mountain. –2. a blue mountain.

–putrā N. of aditi. –purogama, –puraḥsara, –śreṣṭa a. led or

preceded by Indra, having Indra at the head.

–purohitaḥ N. of bṛhaspati. (–tā) the asterism Pushya.

–prasthaṁ N. of a city on the Yamunā, the residence of the

Pāṇḍavas (identified with the modern Delhi);

iṁdraprasthagamastāvatkāri mā saṁtu cedayaḥ Śi. 2. 63.

–praharaṇaṁ Indra’s weapon, the thunderbolt.

–bheṣajaṁ dried ginger.

–makhaḥ a sacrifice in honour of Indra.

–mahaḥ 1. a festival in honour of Indra. –2. the rainy season; –

kāmukaḥ a dog.

–mādana a. animating or delighting Indra.

–medin a. Ved. whose friend or ally is Indra.

–yavaḥ, –vaṁ seed of the Kutaja tree.

–luptaḥ, –ptaṁ, –luptakaṁ 1. excessive baldness of the head. –2.

loss of beard.

–lokaḥ Indra’s world, Svarga or Paradise.

–lokeśaḥ 1. lord of the Indra’s world, i. e. Indra. –2. a guest (who,

if hospitably received, confers paradise on his host).

–vaṁśā, –vajrā N. of two metres, see Appendix.

–vallarī, –vallī N. of a plant (pārijāta) or of iṁdravāruṇī. –vastiḥ

[iṁdrasya ātmanaḥ vastiriva] the calf (of the leg).

–vātatama a. Ved. desired by Indra.

–vāyū (du) Indra and Vayu.

–vāruṇī, –vāruṇikā Colocynth, a wild bitter gourd (Mar. moṭhī

kaṁvaḍaLa). –vāh a. carrying Indra.

–vṛkṣaḥ the Devadaru tree.

–vṛddhā a kind of abscess.

–vaiḍūryaṁ a kind of precious stone.

–vrataṁ Indra’s rule of conduct; one of the duties of a king (who

is said to follow iṁdravrata when he distributes benefits as Indra pours

down rain); vārṣikāṁścaturo māsān yarthedropyabhivarṣati .

tathābhivarṣetsvaṁ rāṣṭraṁ kāmairiṁdravrataṁ caran … –śaktiḥ f.

Indrāṇī, the wife of Indra, or his energy personified.

–śatruḥ 1. an enemy or destroyer of Indra (when the accent is on

the last syllable), an epithet of prahlāda; R. 7. 35. –2. [iṁdraḥ śatruḥ

yasya] one whose enemy is Indra, an epithet of vṛtra (when the accent is

on the first syllable). (This refers to a. legend in the Śat. Br., where it is

said that Vṛtra’s father intended his son to become the destroyer of

Indra, and asked him to say iṁdraśatrurvadhasva &c., but who, through

mistake, accented the word on the first syllable, and was killed by Indra;

cf. Śik. 52:

–maṁtro hīnaḥ svarato varṇato vā mithyāprayukto na

tamarthamāha . sa vāgvajro yajamānaṁ hināsti yatheṁdraśatruḥ

svaratoparādhāt … –śalabhaḥ a kind of insect.

–saṁdhā connection or alliance with Indra.

–sārathiḥ. 1. N of Mātalī. –2. an epithet of Vāyu, driving in the

same carriage with Indra.

–sutaḥ, –sūnuḥ 1. N. of

(a) Jayanta;

(b) Arjuna;

(c) Vāli, the king of monkeys. –2. N. of the arjuna tree. –surasaḥ,

–surā a shrub the leaves of which are used in discutient applications

(nirguṁḍī). –senā Indra’s missile or host. –senānīḥ the leader of Indra’s

armies, epithet of Kārtikeya. –stut m., –stomaḥ 1. praise of Indra, N. of a

particular hymn addressed to Indra in certain ceremonies. –2. a sacrifice

in honour of Indra. –havaḥ invocation of Indra. –hastaḥ a kind of


उकनाह – ukanāha Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ukanāha m. a horse of a red and yellow or red and black colour, a bay or

chestnut horse

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

ukanāha m. “ein hell”- oder “dunkelbraunes Pferd” H. 1241. — Wohl ein


उकानहः – ukānahaḥ Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :1890

ukānahaḥ A horse of a red and yellow (or red and black) colour, a bay or

chesnut horse.

ऊर्ध्वपुण्ड्र – ūrdhvapuṇḍra Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ūrdhvapuṇḍra “ūrdhva-puṇḍra” n. = “-tilaka” above.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

ūrdhvapuṇḍra (ū- + pu-) m. “eine auf der Stirn eines Brahmanen mit

Sandel u.s.w. senkrecht gezogene Linie” BRAHMĀṆḌA-P. im ĀHNIKAT.

ŚKDR. -puṇḍraka dass. DHŪRTAS. 70, 11.

ūrdhvapuṇḍra Verz. d. Oxf. H. 13,b,46. 248,a,26. 258,b,9. 267,b,10. 19.

Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975

ūrdhvapuṇḍra A mark worn on the forehead with yellow ochre. This mark

should be made by earth or ochre, which should be taken from the top of

a mountain peak, banks of rivers, seashore, Śaivite temple serpent-hill or

from under a holy basil. The fruits of wearing the mark will vary according

to the colour of the ochre. Black ochre will afford peace, red soil will

procure docility, yellow soil will get prosperity, and white ochre will give

duty or righteousness. As the fruits vary according to the colour, so also

it will vary according to the finger used to put the sign. If the mark is

made with the thumb the man will become stout. If it is done with the

middle finger he will have long life. If it is done with the fourth finger

(anāmikā), he will get food and if it is made with the index finger (tarjanī)

he will get salvation. The form of the mark also could be changed. The

mark may be made in the form of a flame, the leaf of bamboo reed, a

lotus-bud, a fish, a turtle or a conch. If the mark is as large as ten

fingerbreadths it is superfine. If of nine finger-breadths, it is medium

super-fine; and if it is eight and a half fingerbreadths, it is lower

superfine. In the same way if the finger-breadth of the mark is seven, six

or five they will be super medium, medium medium and lower medium. If

it is four, three and two they will be of the low, medium low and lowest.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

ūrdhvapuṇḍra m. the perpendicular line on the forehead of a Brahman.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

ūrdhvapuṇḍra pu° ūrdhva ūrdhvamukhaḥ puṇḍraḥ ikṣuyaṣṭiriva .

lalāṭasthe ūrdhvamukhe puṇḍrekṣavat rekhātmake tilakabhede .

taddhāraṇe vidhiniṣedhādikaṁ nirūpyate . ūrdhapuṇḍraṁ mṛdā kṛryāt

tripuṇḍraṁ bhasmanā sadā . tilakaṁ vai dvijaḥ kuryāccandanena

yaddṛcchayā śrā° ta° pu° . ūrdhvapuṇḍraṁ dvijaḥ kuryāt kṣatriyastu

tripuṇḍrakam . ardhacandrantu vaiśyaśca vartulaṁ śudrayonijaḥ ā° ta°

brahmā° pu° . aśucirvāpya nācāro manasā pāpamācaran . śucireva

bhavennityamūrdhapuṇḍrāṅkitonaraḥ ūrdhapuṇḍradharo martyomriyate

yatra kutracit . śvapāko’pi vimānastho mama loke mahīyate iti brahmapu°

. taddhāraṇe vaidikadvijātiriktasyaivādhikāraḥ yathoktaṁ devībhāgavate

śrīnārāyaṇena ūrdhapuṇḍraṁ triśūlañca vartulaṁ caturasrakam .

ardhacandrādi vā liṅgaṁ vedaniṣṭho na dhārayet! janmanā labdhajātistu

vedapanthānamāśritaḥ . puṇḍrāntaraṁ bhramādvāpi lalāṭe naiva dhārayet

. khyātikāntyādisiddhyarthamapi viṣṇvāvagamādiṣu . sthitaṁ

puṇḍrāntaraṁ naiva ghārayedvaidikojanaḥ . ni° si° sūtasaṁ°

viṣṇvāgamāditantreṣu dīkṣitānāṁ vidhīyate .

śaṅkhacakragadāpadmairaṅkanaṁ nānyadehinām .

vedamārgaikaniṣṭhastu mohenāpyaṅkitoyadi . patatyeva na sandeha

stathā puṇḍrāntarādapi . śaṅkhacakrādyaṅkanaṁ ca gītanṛtyādikaṁ tathā

. ekajāterayaṁ gharmo naṁ jātu syāt dvijanmanaḥ . śaṅkhacakramṛdā

yastu kuryāt taptāyasena vā . sa śūdravadbahiḥ kāryaḥ

sarvasmāddvijacarmaṇaḥ yathā śmaśānajaṁ kāṣṭhamanarhaṁ

sarvakarmasu . dvijastu taptaśaṅkhādiliṅgāṅkitatanustathā . saṁbhāṣya

kauravaṁ yāti yāvadindrāścaturdaśa vṛhannā° . śivakeśavayoraṅkān

śūlacakrādikān dvijaḥ . na dhārayeta matimān vaidike vartmani sthitaḥ

tataśca tripuṇḍrādidhāraṇavidhāyakavākyaṁ vaidiketaradvijaviṣayam

śūdraviṣayañca . yadapi brāhmaṇasya taddhāraṇavidhānam agnihotraṁ

yathā nityaṁ vedasyādhyayanaṁ yathā . brāhmaṇasya tatheveha

taptamudrādidhāraṇam padmapu° . brāhmaṇaḥ kṣatriyo vaiśyaḥ śūdro vā

yadi vetaraḥ . śaṅkhacakrāṅkitatanustulasīmañjarīdharaḥ .

gopīcandanaliptāṅgodṛṣṭaścettadaghaṁ kutaḥ kāśī° . tadapi

vaidiketavavipraparam sarvasāmañjasyāt evaṁ śastrārthesthite’pi

kulācārāt tasyasarvaiḥ kartavyatā . tathaiva bhārataṭīkāyāṁ nīlakaṇṭhena

nirṇītam yathā śroṇāmeka udakaṁ gāmavājati māṁsamekaḥ piṁśati

sūnayā bhṛtam ā nimrucaḥ śakṛdeko apābharat kiṁ svit putrebhyaḥ

pitarāvupāvatuḥ śrutiḥ . asyārthaḥhe ṛbhavaḥ! bhavatāṁ madhve ekaḥ

śroṇāṁ ślakṣṇāṁ gāṁ mṛdaṁ gopīcandranādirūpāṁ tīrtha nikaṭasthāṁ

mukhyakarmabhūtāṁ prati udakaṁ jalaṁ gauṇakarma avājati

avagamayati antarbhāvitaṇyartho’jatiḥ . śrīṇāṁ gām udakena

miśrayatītyarthaḥ śroṇāṁ gāṁ raktacandanādirūpāṁ vā tathā . ekaḥ

sūnayā hiṁsayā tatkartrā ābhṛtaṁ āhṛtaṁ māṁsaṁ gorocanākhyaṁ

piṁśati pinaṣṭi udakena saha iti śeṣaḥ nimrucaḥ nitarāmastaṁ gacchato

dagdhendhanasyāgneḥ sambandhi śakṛt gomayaṁ śuṣkagomayotthaṁ

bhasmeti yāvat apābharat apāhṛtavān atrāpyudakena saheti śeṣaḥ

vyavahitāścetichandasi vyavahitenāpyupasargeṇa kriyāyāḥ sambandha .

hṛgraho rbhaśchandasīti hasyabha . etāni mantrapadāni

asaṁpūrṇārthatvāt svārthalābhāya brāhmaṇamapekṣante iṣe tvorje

tvetyādimantravat tatra yathā iṣe tveti śākhāṁ chinatti ūrje

tvetyanumārṣṭīti brāhmaṇānusārāt he śākhe tvā tvām iṣe annāya

chinadmīti ūrje paśubhyaḥ anumājrmīti vyākhyātam evamihāpi


ūrdhapuṇḍrārthaṁ ślakṣṇāṁ mṛdaṁ jalena miśrayediti vyākhyeyaṁ tathā


rāt tripuṇḍrakartuḥ nimrucaḥ śakṛdapābharaditi ca vyākhyeyam

evamitarasyāpi padasya brāhmaṇamantraliṅgādyupavṛṁhaṇe

smṛtibhyaścāṣṭakāprapā vidhivadanumeyaṁ tathāca śroṇāmiti padasya

raktāmiti vyākhyāne sauraśāktagāṇeśānāṁ raktameva pārthivaṁ dravya

puṇḍrārthe tattattantre vidhīyate vaiṣṇavānāṁ pītaṁ śaivānāṁ bhasmeti

anena tattatpuṇḍraviśeṣopalakṣitatattaddevatā bhajanenāpi

devatābhāvaṁ prāpnuvantīti vighīyate . kevalavaidikānāṁ tu śroṇāṁ

ślakṣṇāmiti vyākhyānena tritayasyāpi samuccayaḥ snātvā puṇḍraṁ mṛdā

kuryāt dhutvā caiba tu bhasmanā . devān viprān samabhyarcya

candanena samācarediti smṛtibhyaḥ atra gorocanāgrahaṇaṁ

candanādyaṣṭagandhopalakṣaṇārtham eteṣāṁ

vikalpasamuccayapakṣāṇāṁ pitṛpaitāha paraṁparākrameṇa

vyavasthāmāha kiṁ svit putrebhyaḥ pitarā vupāvaturiti putrahitārthe

yatkiñcidvrataṁ pitarau mātā pitarau pitṛpitāmahau vā upetya svīkṛtya

avatuḥ vrataṁ samyak paripālayāmāsatuḥ tadeva tasya śreyaḥ sādhanati

tyarthaḥ evaṁ sati tīrthāni yajñādayastantramārgeṇa

sūryādyanyatamopāstiḥ kevalavaidikatā ceti devatābhāvaprāptisādhanāni

ityantena . śrāddhakarmaṇi tu tripuṇḍrādau vidhiniṣedhayorvyavasthā ni°

si° uktā yathā . jape home tathā dāne svādhyāye pitṛkarmaṇi . tatsarvaṁ

naśyati kṣipramūrdhvapuṇḍrabinākṛtamiti hemādrāvukteḥ . yajñodānaṁ

japo homaḥ svādhyāyaḥ pitṛkarma ca . vṛthā bhavati viprendrā!

ūrdhvapuṇḍravinākṛtamiti vṛhannāradīyāt ūrdhvañca tilakaṁ kuryāddaive

pitnye ca karmaṇīti vṛddhaparāśarokteśca ūrdhapuṇḍradhāraṇaṁ paitre

vihitam . anye tu ūrdhvapuṇḍrodvijātīnāmagnihotrasamovidhiḥ .

śrāddhakāle ca saṁprāpte kartā bhoktā ca varjayediti vāmahaste ca ye

darbhā gṛhe raṅgabalintathā . lalāṭe tilakaṁ dṛṣṭvā nirāśāḥ pitaro gatāḥ

iti saṁgrahokteḥ ūrdhvapuṇḍraṁ tripuṇḍraṁvā candrākāramathāpi vā .

śrāddhakartā na kurvīta yāvat piṇḍānna nirvapet iti viśvaprakāśe

vacanācca na dhāryamityāhuḥ . atra kulācārādeva vyavasthā . ata eva

vṛhannāradoyeḥ ūrdhvapuṇḍrañca tulasīṁ śrāddhe necchanti kecana

ityatrṛkecanetyuktam ūrdhvapuṇḍravidhiḥ śrāddhabhoktṛparaḥ, niṣedhaḥ

kartṛparaḥ iti pṛthvīcandraḥ . yattu hemādrau devalaḥ lalāṭe puṇḍrakaṁ

vṛṣṭvā skandhe mālyaṁ tathaiva ca . nirāśā pitaro yānti dṛṣṭvā ca

vṛṣalīpatimiti . tadgandhatripuṇḍraviṣayam . prākipaṇḍadānāt

gandhādyairnālaṅkuryātsvavigraham ityāśvalāyanokteḥ puṇḍraṁ

vartulamityaparārke madanaratne ca . pṛthvīcandrastu puṇḍraṁ

tripuṇḍram ūrdhvañca tilakaṁ kuryānna kuryādvai tripuṇḍrakam . nirāśāḥ

pitaro yānti dṛṣṭvā caiva tripuṇḍrakamiti vṛddhaparāśarokteḥ .

bhoktustiryaglapo bhavatyeva . varjayettilakaṁ bhāle śrāddhakāle ca

sarvadā . ūrdhvapuṇḍraṁtripuṇḍraṁ vā dhārayettu prayatnataḥ iti

vyāsokterityāha . pṛthvīcandrodaye brāhme sahadarbheṇa hastena yaḥ

kuryāttilakaṁ budhaḥ . ācamya sa viśudhyeta darbhatyāgena caiva hi .

एण – eṇa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899eṇa mf (“ī”). a species of deer or antelope (described as being of a black

colour with beautiful eyes and short legs)

eṇa m. (in astron.) Capricorn.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

eṇa m. “eine Antilopenart” (schwarz und mit kurzen Beinen) AK. 2, 5, 10.

8. TRIK. 2, 5, 6. H. 1294. M. 3, 269. MBH. 1, 2835. SUŚR. 1, 46, 20. 73, 6.

228, 12. 2, 341, 11. 412, 3. 441, 13. RAGH. 9, 55. BHĀG. P. 9, 10, 10.

eṇakuṇaka 5, 8, 4. 5. eṇākṣī ŚĀNTIŚ. 4, 20. f. eṇī P. 4, 3, 159. AK. 2, 5, 8.

In der Astr. ist eṇa und eṇadṛś “der Steinbock” Ind. St. 2, 260. — Vgl. eta

und aiṇeya.

eṇa , eṇī VS. 24, 36. AV. 5, 14, 11.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

eṇa eṇa, m., f. ṇī, A kind of antelope, Man. 3, 269.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

eṇa m. eṇī f. a kind of black antelope.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

eṇa eṇa, m. kind of antelope: -jaṅgha, m. N. of a runner;

-netrā, -akṣī, f. gazelle-eyed woman..

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

eṇa puṁstrī i–ṇa tasya nattvam . kaṣṇavarṇe mṛge . striyām ṅīp yasya

stanapraṇayibhirmuhureṇaśāvaiḥ raghuḥ . aṣṭāveṇasya māṁsena

rauraveṇa navaiva tu manuḥ . tasya kṛṣṇatvamuktam chandoga°

anṛcomāṇavojñeya eṇaḥ kṛṣṇamṛgaḥ smṛtaḥ . rururgauramukhaḥ proktaḥ

śaṁvaraḥ śoṇa ucyate . taṁ tveṇakuṇakaṁ kṛpaṇaṁ

srotasānuhyamānam bhāga° 5, 8, 8 eṇakuṇakaṁ mṛgaśāvakam śrīdharaḥ

. egayā krītam eṇyā ḍhañ pā° ḍhañ . aiṇeya eṇīkrīte tri° . eṇena

krītamityatrāṇeva . aiṇa tatkrīte tri° . svārthe kan . eṇaka tatraiva

śabdaratnā° .

एलापुत्र – elāputra Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975elāputra A serpent born to Kaśyapa of his wife Kadrū. This serpent was

very intelligent. Once there arose a dispute between Vinatā and Kadrū

over the colour of the tail of the horse of Indra, Uccaiḥśravas. Kadrū

argued that there were black hairs in the tail while Vinatā held there

were none. Really there were no black hairs and Kadrū to win the

argument wanted her sons to go and hang on the hairs to create a black

colour. The serpents like Vāsuki and others refused to do so and Kadrū

then cursed them saying that they would all be burnt to death at the

Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. To take measures to get free from this curse a

meeting of the serpents under the leadership of Śeṣa and Vāsuki was

held and in that assembly Elāputra made a stirring speech. (Chapter 38,

Ādi Parva, M.B.).

कल्माष – kalmāṣa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kalmāṣa mf (“ī”) n. ( 4-1, 40 g. “gaurādi” variegated, spotted, speckled

with black

mf (“ī”) n. black

kalmāṣa m. a variegated colour (partly black, partly white)

kalmāṣa m. a Rakshas

kalmāṣa m. a species of fragrant rice

kalmāṣa m. N. of a Nāga

kalmāṣa m. a form of Agni

kalmāṣa m. N. of an attendant on the Sun (identified with Yama)

kalmāṣa m. a kind of deer

kalmāṣa m. N. of śākya-muni in a former birth

kalmāṣa mf (“ī”) n. (“ī”) f. the speckled cow (of Jamad-agni, granting all


kalmāṣa m. N. of a river (the Yamunā)

kalmāṣa n. a stain

kalmāṣa n. N. of a Sāman.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


kalmāṣa a. (ṣī f.)

(1) Variegated, spotted.

(2) Black and white. –ṣaḥ

(1) The variegated colour.

(2) A mixture of black and white.

(3) A demon, goblin.

(4) The black colour.

(5) A form of Agni.

(6) A kind of fragrant rice. –ṣī N. of the river Yamunā

(2) The spotted cow of Jamadagni. –ṣaṁ Stain.

— Comp.

–kaṁṭhaḥ an epithet of Śiva.

–pādaḥ N. of a king (saudāsa).

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

kalmāṣa 1) adj. f. kalmāṣī P. 4, 1, 40, Sch. gaṇa gaurādi zu 41. “bunt,

gesprenkelt” (als m. “die Farbe selbst”) AK. 1, 1, 4, 26. H. 1398. an. 3,

732. VS. 24, 7. 29, 58. 59. TS. 5, 6, 22, 1. ĀŚV. GṚHY. 4, 9. ŚAT. BR. 6, 3,

1, 32. KĀTY. ŚR. 16, 2, 5. purastādagneḥ kalmāṣaṁ daṇḍaṁ nihatya

KAUŚ. 10. kāṇḍa 86. tittirikalmāṣāḥ (aśvāḥ) MBH. 2, 1043. 1824. 2083. 3,

4015. kalmāṣagoyuga 13, 4389. -kuṇḍalāḥ (nāgāḥ) 1, 798. dhenuṁ

kalmāṣīm VIŚV. 2, 20. “schwarz” H. an. MED. sh. 33. “schwarz-weiss”

MED. — 2) m. a) “ein” Rakshas H. an. MED.; vgl. u. kalmāṣatā und

kalmāṣapāda. — b) “eine wohlriechende Reisart” (gandhaśāli) RĀJAN. im

ŚKDR. — c) N. pr. eines Nāga: kalmāṣaśavalau MBH. 1, 1552. — d) “eine

Form des Feuers” HARIV. 10465. — e) N. pr. eines Dieners der Sonne, der

mit Jama identificirt wird, VYĀḌI zu H. 103. — f) Śākyamuni in einer

früheren Geburt VYĀḌI zu H. 233. — 3) f. kalmāṣī a) “eine gesprenkelte

Kuh”: (śālām) citrāṁ puṣpopahāreṇa kalmāṣīmiva suprabhām R. 5, 13,

16. abhitaḥ so ‘tha kalmāṣīṁ gaṅgākūle paribhraman MBH. 1, 6360. — b)

N. pr. eines Flusses MBH. 2, 2575. — 4) n. “Fleck” ŚAT. BR. 6, 3, 1, 31. —

Vgl. akalmāṣa.

kalmāṣa 1) = kṛṣṇapāṇḍura HALĀY. 4, 51. = citra 56. — 5) n. N. eines

Sāman Ind. St.3,242,b. — Vgl. kulmāṣa.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

kalmāṣa kalmāṣa (cf. the last),

I. adj., f. ṣī, Of a mixed or variegated colour, spotted, MBh. 2, 1043; Rām.

1, 52, 20.

II. m. The name of a Nāga, MBh. 1, 1552.

III. f. ṣī,

1. A cow of variegated colour, Rām. 5, 13, 16.

2. The name of a river, MBh. 2, 2575.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

kalmāṣa f. ī black spotted. m. N. of a serpent demon; f. kalmāṣī a spotted

cow; n. spot, stain.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

kalmāṣa kalmāṣa, a. (ī) having black spots (-tā, f. abst. N.); m. N. of a

Nāga; n. spot.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

kalmāṣa pu° kalayati kala–kvip kal māṣayati hinasti anyavarṇam

svabhāsā cu° maṣa–hiṁsāyām ac karma° . 1 citravarṇe 2 tadvati tri°

amaraḥ aśvāṁstittirikalmāṣān bhā° ā° 9 a° . tittirivaccitravarṇān

ityarthaḥ . kalmāṣā āgnimārutāḥ yaju° 24, 7 . kalmāṣāḥ karvurāstrayaḥ

paśavaḥ āgnimārutāḥ ṣaṣṭhe yape vedadī° kalamāṣa aindrāgnyaḥ yaja°

29, 58 . mārutaḥ kal māṣa āgneyaḥ kṛṣṇa yaju° 29, 59 . 3 kṛṣṇavarṇe 4

kṛṣṇapāṇḍaravarṇe pu° 5 tadvati tri° . 6 rākṣase ca puṁstrī striyāṁ

jātitvāt ṅīṣ medi° . varṇavācitve gaurā° pāṭhāt striyāṁ ṅīṣ . 7

gandhaśālau pu° rājani° . 8 agnibhede bhāratam . agnīnāṁ vāsudevena

saṁsaktānāṁ mahāmṛdhe! . te jātavedasaḥ sarve kalmāṣaḥ

kusumastathā . dūhanaḥ śoṣaṇaścaiva tapanaśca mahālayaḥ harivaṁ°

180 a° . 9 nāgabhede nīlānīlau tathānāgau kalmāṣaśavalau tathā bhā° ā°

35 nāganāmoktau . 10 kṛṣṇavinda, cite ca . kalmāṣamityeke āśva° gṛ° 4,

9, 5 . kalmāṣo nāma kṛṣṇavinducitaḥ nārā° .

काकोल – kākola Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kākola m. a raven (cf. “kāka” and “kākāla”)

m. a boar

m. a snake

m. a potter (cf. “kulāla”)

m. the plant Kākolī

kākola mn. a kind of poison

kākola mn. a poisonous substance of a black colour or the colour of a

raven (perhaps the berry of the Cocculus indicus)

kākola n. a division of hell

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

kākola 1) m. “Rabe” AK. 2, 5, 21. TRIK. 3, 3, 384. H. 1323. an. 3, 634.

MED. l. 74. M. 5, 14. YĀJÑ. 1, 174. DRAUP. 8, 31. Vgl. kāka und kākāla. —

2) m. “eine Art Eber” (śūkarabheda). — 3) m. “Schlange” ŚABDAR. im

ŚKDR. — 4) m. “Töpfer” H. an. MED. Vgl. kulāla. — 5) “ein best. Gift”, m.

n. AK. 1, 2, 1, 10. MED. m. TRIK. H. 1196 (nach dem Sch. auch n.). H. an.

kākolamugratejaḥ syātkṛṣṇacchavi mahāviṣam VAIDY. im ŚKDR.

Vielleicht “die Beere des Cocculus indicus(!”) WILS. — 6) m. = kākolī

DHAR. im ŚKDR. — 7) n. “eine Art Hölle” MED. YĀJÑ. 3, 223.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

kākola kākola (cf. kāka),

I. m. A raven, Man. 5, 14.

II. n. A division of the infernal regions, or hell, Yājñ. 3, 223.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

kākola m. raven; n. a cert. poison or hell.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

kākola pu° kākayati lolayati kaka–laulye ṇicbā° ola kākena ullāya

adyate’tra ud + lāghañarthe ādhāre ka pṛṣo° vā . 1 narakabhede mahā

narakakākolam saṁjīvanamahāyasam narakabhedakīrtane manuḥ,

kākolaṁ yatra kākairbhakṣyate prā° vi° . kaṁ jalamākolati ā + kula–saṁ

styāne aṇ upa° sa° . 2 kumbhakāre tasya ghaṭanirmāṇena

jalasaṁstyānakaraṇāttathātvam . kaka–laulye svārthe ṇic bā° ola . 3

droṇakāke puṁstrī medi° striyāṁ jātitvāt ṅīṣ . vakañcaiva balākāñca

kākolaṁ khañjarīṭakam abhakṣyamāṁsoktau manuḥ . kalaviṅkaṁ

sakākolaṁ kuraraṁ rajjudānakam abhakṣyamāṁsoktau yājña° . īṣat

kolati kula–styāne karaṇe ghañ koḥ kādeśaḥ . kākolamugratejaḥ syāt

kṛṣṇacchavi mahāviṣam vaidyakoktalakṣaṇe 4 viṣabhede amaraḥ 5 sarpe

6 śūkarabhede puṁstrī śabdaratnā° striyāṁ jātitvāt ṅīṣ .

kākolīnāmoṣadhau pu° dharaṇī .

काल – kāla Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (fr. 3. “kal”?), black, of a dark colour, dark-blue &c.

kāla m. a black or dark-blue colour

kāla m. the black part of the eye

kāla m. the Indian cuckoo

kāla m. the poisonous serpent Coluber Nāga (= “kālasarpa”)

kāla m. the plant Cassia Sophora

kāla m. a red kind of Plumbago

kāla m. the resin of the plant Shorea robusta

kāla m. the planet Saturn

kāla m. N. of śiva

kāla m. of Rudra

kāla m. of a son of Hrada 189

kāla m. of the prince Kāla-yavana

kāla m. of a brother of king Prasena-jit

kāla m. of a future Buddha

kāla m. of an author of Mantras (= Aśva-ghosha)

kāla m. of a Nāga-rāja

kāla m. of a Rakshas

kāla m. of an enemy of śiva

kāla m. of a mountain

kāla m. of one of the nine treasures

kāla m. a mystical N. of the letter “m”

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ā”) f. N. of several plants (Indigofera tinctoria ; Piper

longum ; (perhaps) Ipomoea atropurpurea ; Nigella indica ; Rubia

Munjista ; Ruellia longifolia ; Physalis flexuosa ; Bignonia suaveolens

kāla m. the fruit of the Kālā g. “harītaky-ādi”

kāla m. N. of a “śakti”

kāla m. of a daughter of Daksha (the mother of the Kāleyas or

Kālakeyas, a family of Asuras)

kāla m. N. of Durgā

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. black colour, ink or blacking

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. abuse, censure, defamation

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. a row or succession of black clouds

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. night

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. a worm or animalcule generated in the acetous

fermentation of milk (= “kṣīra-kīṭa” or “kṣāra-kīṭa”)

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. the plant Kālāṇjanī

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. Ipomoea Turpethum

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. a kind of clay

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. Bignonia suaveolens

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. one of the seven tongues or flames of fire

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. a form of Durgā

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. one of the Mātṛis or divine mothers

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. N. of a female evil spirit (mother of the

Kālakeyas) 11552

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. one of the sixteen Vidyā-devīs

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. N. of Satyavatī, wife of king śāntanu and mother

of Vyāsa or Kṛiṣṇa-dvaipāyana (after her marriage she had a son Vicitra-

vīrya, whose widows were married by Kṛiṣṇa-dvaipāyana, and bore to him

Dhṛita-rāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu ; according to other legends Kālī is the wife of

Bhīmasena and mother of Sarvagata

kāla mf (“ī” ) n. (“ī”) f. (with or without “gaṅgā”) N. of a river

kāla n. a black kind of Agallochum

kāla n. a kind of perfume (“kakkolaka”)

kāla n. iron

kāla m. (3. “kal”, “to calculate or enumerate”), [ifc. f. “ā” , a fixed or

right point of time, a space of time, time (in general) &c.

m. the proper time or season for (gen. dat. loc., in comp., inf., or Pot.

with “yad” e.g. “kālaḥ prasthānasya” or “-nāya” or “-ne”, time for

departure; “kriyā-kāla”, time for action ; “nāyaṁ kālo vilambitum”, this is

not the time to delay ; “kālo yad bhuṇjīta bhavān”, it is time for you to

eat &c.

m. occasion, circumstance

m. season &c.

m. meal-time (twice a day, hence “ubhau kālau”, “in the morning and

in the evening” ; “ṣaṣṭhe kāle”, “in the evening of the third day” ;

“ṣaṣṭhānna-kāla”, “one who eats only at the sixth meal-time, i.e. who

passes five meals without eating and has no meal till the evening of the

third day” ; or without “anna” e.g. “caturtha-kālam”, “at the fourth meal-

time i.e. at the evening of the second day”

m. hour (hence “ṣaṣṭhe kāle ‘hnaḥ”, “at the sixth hour of the day, i.e.

at noon”

m. a period of time, time of the world (= “yuga”)

m. measure of time, prosody

m. a section, part

m. the end

m. death by age

m. time (as leading to events, the causes of which are imperceptible

to the mind of man), destiny, fate &c.

m. time (as destroying all things), death, time of death (often

personified and represented with the attributes of Yama, regent of the

dead, or even identified with him: hence “kālam-i” or “kālaṁ-kṛ”, “to die”

&c.; “kāla” in this sense is frequently connected with “antaka, mṛtyu” e.g.

“abhy-adhāvata prajāḥ kāla ivāntakaḥ”, “e attacked the people like Time

the destroyer” ; cf. “kālāntaka; kāla” personified is also a Devarshi in

Indra’s court, and a son of Dhruva

kāla m. (“am”) acc. ind. for a certain time (e.g. “mahāntaṁ kālam”, for a

long time

kāla m. “nitya-k-“, constantly, always

kāla m. “dīrgha-k-“, during a long time

kāla m. (“ena”) instr. ind. in the course of time &c.

m. with “gacchatā” id.

kāla m. “dīrgheṇa kālena”, during a long time

m. after a long time

kāla m. “kālena mahatā” or “bahunā” id.

kāla m. (“āt”) abl. ind. in the course of time

kāla m. “kālasya dīrghasya” or “mahataḥ” id. &c.

kāla m. “kasya-cit kālasya”, after some time

kāla m. (“e”) loc. ind. in time, seasonably (cf. “a-kāle”)

kāla m. “kāle gacchati”, in the course of time

kāla m. “kāle yāte”, after some time

kāla m. “kāle kāle”, always in time

kāla m. ([cf. [characters]; Lat. ‘calen-doe’: Hib. ‘ceal’, “death and

everything terrible.”])

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


kāla a. (lī f.)

(1) Black, of a dark or dark-blue colour.

(2) Injuring, hurting. –laḥ

(1) The black or dark-blue colour.

(2) Time (in general); vilaṁbitaphalaiḥ kālaṁ nināya sa manorathaiḥ

R. 1. 33; tasminkāle at that time; kāvyaśāstravinodena kālo gacchati

dhīmatāṁ H. 1.

(1) the wise pass their time &c.

(3) Fit or opportune time (to do a thing), proper time or occasion;

(with gen., loc., dat., or inf.); R. 3. 12, 4. 6, 12. 69; parjanyaḥ kālavarṣī

Mk. 10. 60.

(4) A period or portion of time (as the hours or watches of a day);

ṣaṣṭhe kāle divasasya V. 2. 1; Ms. 5. 153.

(5) The weather.

(6) Time considered as one of the nine dravyas by the Vaiśeṣikas.

(7) The Supreme spirit regarded as the destroyer of the universe,

being a personification of the destructive principle; kālaḥ kālyā

bhuvanaphalake kraḍiti prāṇiśāraiḥ Bh. 3. 39.


(a) Yama, the god of death; kaḥ kālasya na gocarāṁtaragataḥ Pt.

1. 146.

(b) Death, time of death.

(9) Fate, destiny. (10) The black part of the eye.

(11) The (Indian) cuckoo.

(12) The planet Saturn.

(13) N. of Śiva.

(14) A measure of time (in music or prosody).

(15) A person who distils and sells spirituous liquor.

(16) A section, or part

(17) A red kind of plumbago.

(18) Resin, pitch

(19) N. of an enemy of Śiva. (20) (with the Jainas) One of the nine


(21) A mystical name for the letter m. –lā

(1) N. of several plants.

(2) N. of a daughter of Daksha.

(3) An epithet of Durgā. –lī

(1) Blackness.

(2) Ink, black ink.

(3) An epithet of Pārvatī, Śiva’s wife.

(4) A row of black clouds.

(5) A woman with a dark complexion.

(6) N. of Satyavatī, mother of Vyāsa.

(7) Night.

(8) Censure, blame.

(9) One of the seven tongues of Fire. (10) A form of Durgā;

kālītanayaḥ a buffalo.

(11) One of the Mātṛs or divine mothers.

(12) N. of a wife of Bhīma.

(13) A sister of Yama.

(14) A kind of learning (mahāviḍyā).

(15) A small shrub used as a purgative. –laṁ

(1) Iron.

(2) A kind of perfume.

— Comp.

–ayasaṁ iron.

–akṣarikaḥ a scholar, one who can read and decipher.

–agaru n. a kind of sandal tree, black kind of aloe; Bv. 1. 70, R. 4.

81. (–n.) the wood of that tree; Rs. 4. 5; 5. 5.

–agniḥ, –analaḥ 1. the destructive fire at the end of the world. –2.

an epithet of Rudra. –3. a kind of bead (rudrākṣa). –aṁga a. having a

dark-blue body (as a sword with a dark-blue edge).

–ajinaṁ the hide of a black antelope.

–aṁjanaṁ a sort of collyrium; Ku. 7. 20, 82. (

–nī) a small shrub used as a purgative.

–aṁḍajaḥ the (Indian) cuckoo.

–atikramaḥ –maṇaṁ delay, being late; Pt. 1. 154.

–atipātaḥ, –atirekaḥ loss of time, delay; Māl 2.

–atīta a. elapsed, passed by.

–atyayaḥ 1. delay, lapse of time. –2. loss by lapse of time.

–adhyakṣaḥ 1. ‘presiding over time’, epithet of the sun. –2. the

Supreme soul.

–anunādin m. 1. a bee. –2. a sparrow. –3. the Chātaka bird.

–anusārakaḥ 1. Tagara tree. –2. yellow sandal.

–anusāriḥ, –anusārin, –anusārivā, –anusāryaḥ, –ryakaḥ benzoin.

–aṁtakaḥ time, regarded as the god of death, and the destroyer

of every thing.

–aṁtaraṁ 1. an interval. –2. a period of time. –3. another time or

opportunity. -āvṛta a. hidden or concealed in the womb of time. -kṣama a.

able to bear delay; akālakṣamā devyāḥ śarīrāvasthā K. 263; S. 4. -prekṣin

Pt. 3. 172. -viṣaḥ an animal venomous only when enraged, as a rat.

–abhraḥ a dark, watery cloud.

–avadhiḥ appointed time.

–avabodhaḥ knowledge of time and circumstances; Mal. 3. 11.

–aśuddhiḥ f.,

–aśaucaṁ period of mourning, ceremonial impurity caused by the

birth of a child or death of a relation in the family; see aśauca. –ākṛṣṭa a.

1. led to death. –2. produced or brought by time.

–ātmaka a. depending on time or destiny.

–ātman m. the Supreme spirit.

–āyasaṁ iron.

–upta a. sown in due season.

–kaṁjaṁ a blue lotus.

–kaṭaṁkaṭaḥ an epithet of Śiva.

–kaṁṭhaḥ 1. a peacock. –2. a sparrow. –3. a wagtail. –4. a

gallinule. –5. an epithet of Śiva; U. 6.

–kaṁṭhakaḥ –kaṁṭakaḥ a gallinule.

–kaṁḍakaḥ a water-snake.

–karaṇaṁ appointing or fixing time.

–karṇikā, –karṇī misfortune.

–karman n. death.

–kalāyaḥ dark pulse.

–kalpa a. fatal, deadly.

–kālaḥ Supreme being.

–kīlaḥ noise.

–kuṁṭhaḥ Yama.

–kuṣṭhaḥ a myrrh.

–kūṭaḥ, –ṭaṁ

(a) a deadly poison; S. 6.

(b) the poison churned out of the ocean and drunk by Śiva; adyāpi

nojjhati haraḥ kila kālakūṭaṁ Ch. P. 50. –kṛt m. 1. the sun. –2. a

peacock. –3. Supreme spirit. –kṛta 1. produced by time. –2. fixed,

appointed. –3. lent or deposited. –4. done for a long time. (–taḥ) the

sun. –kramaḥ lapse of time, course of time; kālakrameṇa in course or

process of time; Ku. 1. 19. –kriyā 1. fixing a time. –2. death. –kṣepaḥ 1.

delay, loss of time; Me. 22; maraṇe kālakṣepaṁ mākuru Pt. 1. –2.

passing the time. –khaṁjaṁ, –khaṁjanaṁ, –khaṁḍaṁ the liver. —

gaṁgā the river Yamunā. –grāṁthiḥ a year. –ghātin a. killing by degrees

or slowly (as a poison) –cakraṁ 1. the wheel of time (time being

represented as a wheel always moving). –2. a cycle. –3. (hence fig.) the

wheel of fortune, the vicissitudes of life. (–kraḥ) an epithet of the sun. —

cihnaṁ a symptom of approaching death. codita a. summoned by the

angel of death. –jyeṣṭha a. senior in years, grown up; U. 5. 12. –jña a.

knowing the proPer time or occasion (of any action); atyārūḍho hi

nārīṇāmakālajño manobhavaḥ R. 12. 33; Śi. 2. 83. (–jñaḥ) 1. an

astrologer. –2. a cock. –jñānin m. an epithet of Śiva. –trayaṁ the three

times; the past, the present, and the future; -darśī K. 46. –daṁḍaḥ

death. –damanī an epithet of Durgā. –dharmaḥ, –dharman m. 1. the line

of conduct suitable to any particular time. –2. the law or rule of time. –3.

effects proper to the time. –4. fated time, death; na punarjīvitaḥ

kaścitkāladharmamupāgataḥ Mb.; parītāḥ kāladharmaṇā &c. –dhāraṇā

prolongation of time. –naraḥ (in astrology) the figure of a man’s body. —

nāthaḥ, –nidhiḥ Śiva. –niyogaḥ decree of fate or destiny; laṁdhyatena

khalu kālaniyogaḥ Ki. 9. 13. –nirūpaṇaṁ determination of time,

chronology. –nemiḥ 1. the rim of the wheel of time. –2. N. of a demon,

uncle of Rāvaṇa, deputed by him to kill Hanūmat. –3. N. of a demon with

100 hands killed by Viṣṇu. -ariḥ, ripuḥ, haraḥ, han m. epithets of Kṛṣṇa.

–pakva a. ripened by time, i. e. spontaneously; Ms. 6. 17, 21; Y. 3. 49.

–parivāsaḥ standing for a time so as to become stale. –pāśaḥ the noose

of Yama or death. –pāśikaḥ a hangman. –pṛṣṭhaṁ 1. a species of

antelope. –2. a heron. (–kaṁ) 1. N. of the bow of Karṇa; Ve. 4. –2. a

bow in general. –prabhātaṁ autumn or Śarad; (the two months following

the rainy season considered as the best time). –bhakṣaḥ an epithet of

Śiva. –bhṛt m. the sun. –bhairavaḥ an epithet of Śiva. –mānaṁ a

measure of time. –mukhaḥ a species of ape. –meṣī f. the Mañjiṣṭha

plant. –yavanaḥ a king of Yavanas and enemy of Kṛṣṇa and an invincible

foe of the Yadavas. Kṛṣṇa, finding it impossible to vanquish him on the

field of battle, cunningly decoyed him to the cave where Muchakunda was

sleeping who burnt him down. –yāpaḥ, –yāpanaṁ procrastination, delay,

putting off. –yogaḥ fate, destiny. -taḥ according to the requirements of

the time; Pt. 1. 184. –yogin m. an epithet of Śiva. –rātriḥ, –rātrī f. 1. a

dark night. –2. a sister of Yama. –3. the Amāvasyā on which lamps are

lighted (in the Divālī holidays). –4. the night of destruction at the end of

the world (identified with Durgā). –5. a particular night in the life of man,

on the 7th day of the 7th month of the 77th year. –lohaṁ –lauhaṁ steel.

–viprakarṣaḥ prolongation of time. –vṛddhiḥ f. periodical interest

(payable monthly, quarterly, or at stated times); Ms. 8. 153. –velā the

time of Saturn, i. e. a particular time of the day (half a watch every day)

at which any religious act is improper. –saṁkarṣā a girl 9 years old

personating Durga at a festival. –saṁrodhaḥ 1. keeping back for a long

time; Ms. 8. 143. –2. lapse of a long period of time. –sadṛśa a.

opportune, timely. –saṁpanna a. dated, bearing a date. –sarpaḥ the

black and most poisonous variety of the snake. –sāraḥ the black

antelope. (–raṁ) a yellow sort of sandal wood. –sūtraṁ, –sūtrakaṁ 1.

thread of time or death. –2. N. of a particular hell; Y. 3. 222; Ms. 4. 88.

–skaṁdaḥ the Tamāla tree. –svarūpa a. terrible as death, (deathlike in

form). –haraḥ an epithet of Śiva. –haraṇaṁ loss of time, delay; S. 3; U.

5; Mv. 4. 41. –hāniḥ f. delay; R. 13. 16.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

kāla 1) adj. f. ī P. 4, 1, 42. “blauschwarz, schwarz”; als m. “die

blauschwarze Farbe, Schwärze” AK. 1, 1, 4, 23. TRIK. 3, 3, 382. H. 1397.

an. 2, 478. MED. l. 7. P. 5, 4, 33. (rathe) kālāśvayukte R. 6, 67, 2. kālāḥ

kāñcanasaṁnāhāstasmiṁstamasi rākṣasāḥ. samadṛśyanta 19, 5. kālāni

bhūtvā māṁsāni śīryante yasya dehinaḥ SUŚR. 1, 299, 19. kālajīmūta R.

3, 55, 13. kālamegha 4, 10, 26. 6, 79, 13. MBH. 1, 7184. VET. 4, 20.

kālabāla und kālabāla ŚĀNT. 4, 4. MBH. 1, 1236. tasyāḥ – dīrdhaveṇī –

dadṛśe svasitā snigdhā kālī vyālīva mūrdhani 3, 16191. kālī strī

pāṇḍurairdantaiḥ 16, 57. timirābhyāhatāṁ kālīmaprakāśāṁ niśāmiva R. 2,

114, 2. pramadā 5, 27, 17. — 2) m. a) “das Schwarze im Auge” SUŚR. 2,

336, 20. Vgl. kālaka. — b) “der indische Kuckuck” RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — c)

= kālasarpa VET. 16, 13. — d) “Cassia Sophora Lin.” (s. kāsamarda). — e)

“eine Art Plumbago” (raktacitraka). — f) “das Harz der Shorea robusta”

(rāla) RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — g) “der Planet Saturn” (vgl. nīlavāsas) DĪPIKĀ

im ŚKDR. — h) ein Bein. Śiva’s H. an. H. ś. 45. MED.; vgl. kālakaṇṭha,

mahākāla und kālī Durgā. = Rudra BHĀG. P. 3, 12, 12. — i) N. pr. eines

Sohnes von Hrada HARIV. 189. eines Fürsten (kālayavana) BHĀG. P. 3, 3,

10. eines Bruders des Königs Prasenajit BURN. Intr. 173. eines künftigen

Buddha Lot. de la b. l. 126. eines Nāgarāja VYUTP. 85. eines Rakshas R.

6, 69, 12. eines Feindes von Śiva (s. kālāsuhṛd). — k) N. pr. eines Berges

R. 4, 44, 21. — l) N. eines der 9 Schätze bei den Jaina H. 193, Sch. — m)

myst. Bez. des “Buchstabens m” Ind. St. 2, 316. — 3) f. kālā a) N.

verschiedener Pflanzen: “Indigofera tinctoria Lin.” AK. 2, 4, 3, 13. H. an.

MED.; “Piper longum Lin.” AK. 2, 4, 3, 15; eine der “Ipomoea Turpethum”

nahe verwandte Pflanze, viell. “Ipomoea atropurpurea Chois.” AK. 2, 4, 3,

27. H. an. MED. SUŚR. 1, 131, 19. 2, 106, 19. 528, 16; “Nigella indica

Roxb.” AK. 2, 9, 37; “Rubia Munjista” (mañjiṣṭhā, kālameṣikā) “Roxb.” H.

an. (lies jiṅgyām). MED.; “Ruellia longifolia” (kulika) RATNAM. im ŚKDR.;

“Physalis flexuosa Lin.” (aśvagandhā) RĀJAN. im ŚKDR.; “Bignonia

suaveolens Roxb.” (pāṭalā) BHĀVAPR. im ŚKDR. Nach dem gaṇa

harītakyādi zu P. 4, 3, 167 ist kālā auch “die Frucht der” Kālā. — b) N. pr.

einer Tochter des Daksha, der Mutter der Kāleya oder Kālakeya MBH. 1,

2520. 2542. HARIV. 11521. 11552. 12465. PADMA-P. in VP. 122, N. 19.

Vgl. kālakā. — c) ein Bein. der Durgā AK. 1, 1, 1, 32, Sch.; vgl. kālī. — 4) f.

kālī a) = kālikā “schwarze Farbe, Tinte” H. an. MED. — b)

“Anschwärzung, üble Nachrede” H. an. — c) “Nacht” RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. —

d) “eine schwarz aufziehende Wolkenmasse” H. an. HĀR. 71. — e) “ein

best. in Milch vorkommendes Thierchen”, = kṣīrakīṭa H. an. = kṣārakīṭa

(sic) MED. — f) N. verschiedener Pflanzen: a) = kālāñjanī; b) “Cajanus

indicus Spreng.” (tuvarī); g) “Ipomoea Turpethum” (trivṛt) RĀJAN. im

ŚKDR.; d) “Bignonia suaveolens Roxb.” AK. 2, 4, 2, 35, Sch. — g) N. einer

der sieben Zungen Agni’s JAṬĀDH. im ŚKDR. MUṆḌ. UP. 1, 2, 4.

GṚHYASAṁGR. 1, 14. — h) eine Form der Durgā AK. 1, 1, 1, 32. H. 203.

H. an. MED. MBH. 4, 195. HARIV. 10239. KUMĀRAS. 7, 39. DEV. 9, 27.

itthaṁ cemau rajanidivasau dolayandvāvivākṣau kālaḥ kālyā

bhuvanaphalake krīḍati prāṇiśāraiḥ BHARTṚ. 3, 43. Hier wie bei kāla als

Bein. von Śiva hat man mit dem Begriff “der Schwärze” wohl auch den

“der Alles zerstörenden Zeit” vor Augen gehabt. Vgl. Ind. St. 1, 286. 287.

mahākālī und bhadrakālī. — i) N. einer der göttlichen Mütter H. an. MED.

— k) N. pr. einer Unholdin (vgl. kālakā), der Mutter der Kālakeya, HARIV.

11552. — l) N. einer der 16 Vidyādevī H. 239. — m) Bein. der Satyavatī,

der Gemahlin Śāntanu’s und Mutter Kṛṣṇadvaipāyana’s TRIK. 2, 8, 10.

LIA. I, 629, N. 1. MBH. 1, 2209. 4244. BENF. Chr. 6, 1. Mutter

Vicitravīrya’s, mit dessen Gemahlin Kṛṣṇadvaipāyana die drei Kinder

Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Pāṇḍu und Vidura zeugt HARIV. 1825. fg. Gemahlin

Bhīmasena’s und Mutter Sarvagata’s BHĀG. P. 9, 22, 30. — n) mit oder

ohne Beis. von gaṅgā N. eines Flusses LIA. I, 50. 56. 441. fg. — 4) n. a)

“eine dunkle Art Sandelholz” (kālīyaka) ŚABDAC. im ŚKDR. — b) “ein

best. Parfum” (kakkolaka) RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — c) “Eisen” (vgl. kālāyasa)


kāla m. 1) “ein bestimmter” oder “richtiger Zeitpunkt; Zeit” überh. AK. 1,

1, 3, 1. 3, 4, 26, 196. TRIK. 1, 1, 103. H. 126. an. 2, 478. MED. l. 7. Im

ṚV. nur an einer Stelle: uta prahāmatidīvyā jayāti kṛtaṁ yacchvaghnī

vicinoti kāle 10, 42, 9. AV. 19, 53 und 54 sind Lieder, welche von Macht

und Wesen der Zeit handeln, deren Begriff an den der “Weltordnung” oder

des “Schicksals” streift (vgl. unter 2.). Einigermaassen gebräuchlich wird

das Wort (st. des alten ṛtu) erst in den BRĀHMAṆA: sa eṣa sviṣṭakṛtaḥ

kālaḥ ŚAT. BR. 1, 7, 3, 3. 3, 8, 3, 36. yadi kāle yadyanākāle ‘thaivāśnanti

2, 4, 2, 4. juhoti kāla eva 4, 5, 1, 16. KĀTY. ŚR. 10, 5, 14. 25, 7, 2.

ŚVETĀŚV. UP. 4, 15. M. 2, 80. 3, 105. 7, 164. 204. N. 2, 17. 25, 1. R. 1,

77, 13. 2, 40, 30. 3, 4, 7. SUŚR. 1, 124, 3. PAÑCAT. I, 253. 254. ŚĀK. 151.

RAGH. 3, 12. 12, 69. kāle kāle MBH. 1, 1680. RAGH. 4, 6. svakāle M. 4,

93. prāpte kāle 9, 307. kṣetre kālopapādite 36. kāloptāni vījāni 38.

kālayuktaṁ vacaḥ R. 5, 46, 2. parjanyaḥ kālavarṣī MṚCCH. 178, 10.

PAÑCAT. 149, 14. nainaṁ purā kālātprāṇo jahāti ŚAT. BR. 14, 5, 1, 11

(vgl. AIT. BR. 8, 25, wo āyuṣaḥ st. kālāt). kālameva pratīkṣeta M. 6, 45.

kālamanveṣayantau PAÑCAT. 182, 24. kālavid R. 4, 32, 13. kālaṁ

gacchati “er gelangt zum Endpunkt” (beim coitus) CHĀND. UP. 2, 13, 1.

“die zu Etwas bestimmte –, geeignete Zeit”; die Ergänz. im gen., dat.,

loc., im comp. vorang., im inf. oder im potent. mit yad (P. 3, 3, 167. 168):

saṁpratiṣṭhāmahe kālaḥ prasthānasya R. 2, 56, 2. tasya kālo ‘yamāgataḥ

“dazu ist jetzt die Zeit gekommen” VIŚV. 12, 9. eṣa dvaidhībhāvasya

kālaḥ PAÑCAT. 155, 9. 143, 12. VID. 241. nāyaṁ vaktavyasya kālaḥ

PAÑCAT. 194, 23. na rāma kālaḥ paridevanāya MBH. 3, 10259. na kālo ‘sti

vilambane R. 6, 8, 45. dakṣiṇākāla KĀTY. ŚR. 17, 2, 21 (vgl. dakṣiṇānāṁ

kāle ŚAT. BR. 7, 2, 2, 21). karmakāla R. 1, 65, 34. kriyākāla SUŚR. 1, 5,

13. paṇakālamamanyata N. 7, 8. VIKR. 32, 15. 64, 18. nāyaṁ kālo

vilambitum N. 20, 11. DRAUP. 3, 7. R. 6, 93, 23. kālo yadbhuñjīta bhavān

P. 3, 3, 168, Sch. — kālamāsādya “in Berücksichtigung der Zeitumstände”:

kālamāsādya kāryaṁ ca daṇḍaṁ rājā prakalpayet M. 8, 324. 9, 293.

skandhenāpi vahecchatruṁ kālamāsādya buddhimān PAÑCAT. III, 247.

kālamāsādya kaṁcana “nach einer Weile”: yathā kāṣṭhaṁ ca kāṣṭhaṁ ca

sameyātāṁ mahārṇave. sametya ca vyapeyātāṁ kālamāsādya kaṁcana..

R. 2, 105, 24. — kālasaṁkhyāṁ na vedmi PAÑCAT. 242, 19. kālaṁ

kālavibhaktīśca M. 1, 24. evaṁ sarvaṁ sa sṛṣṭvedaṁ māṁ

cācintyaparākramaḥ. ātmanyantardadhe bhūyaḥ kālaṁ kālena pīḍayan 51.

kālasyānavasthitatvāt KĀTY. ŚR. 18, 6, 31. kālāvasthā SUŚR. 1, 113, 14.

151, 21. aitasmātkālāt ŚAT. BR. 4, 2, 4, 5. ūrdhvaṁ tu kālādetasmāt M.

9, 90. etasminneva kāle N. 2, 12. anyeṣvapi tu kāleṣu M. 7, 183. sarveṣu

kāleṣu R. 1, 46, 11. viṣame kāle 2, 88, 15. kāle śubhe prāpte N. 5, 1.

tasminnatisukhe kāle DAŚ. 1, 19. deśakālau “der rechte Ort und die

rechte Zeit, Zeit und Ort” M. 3, 126. 7, 10. 16. 64. 8, 126. 156. 157. deśe

ca kāle ca 233. HIT. I, 14. deśakālajña N. 8, 12. kālaṁ kar “eine Zeit

festsetzen”: kālaśca kriyatāmasya svapne jāgaraṇe tathā R. 6, 38, 29.

Eine andere Bed. von kālaṁ kar wird u. 3 besprochen werden. trikālajña

R. 1, 1, 8. iṣṭapañcakālajña MBH. 12, 12797. agnau juhvadubhau

kālāvubhau kālāvupaspṛśan “bei Sonnenauf – und Niedergang” 1, 4623.

ṣaṣṭhe kāle ‘hnaḥ “zur 6ten Stunde am Tage” d. i. “um Mittagszeit” VIKR.

20. ṣaṣṭhānnakāla “der nur die sechste Esszeit hat” d. i. “der 5

Mahlzeiten vorübergehen lässt und erst am Abend des 3ten Tages seine

Mahlzeit hält”; davon nom. abstr. ṣaṣṭhānnakālatā M. 11, 200.

Gewöhnlich mit Weglassung von anna “Speise”: caturthakālam “zur

vierten Esszeit” d. i. “am Abend des zweiten Tages” 109. ṣaṣṭhe kāle “am

Abend des dritten Tages” MBH. 13, 5175. 14, 1663. 1665.

kadāciddvādaśe kāle kadācidapi ṣoḍaśe. āhāramakarodrājā mūlāni ca

phalāni ca.. 1, 8118. Vgl. caturthakālika und aṣṭamakālika adjj. “der erst

am Abend des zweiten” und “vierten Tages seine Mahlzeit hält” M. 6, 19.

ṛtukāla “die Zeit der monatlichen Reinigung” NIR. 1, 19. ŚĀÑKH. ŚR. 3,

13, 47. M. 5, 153. āpatkāle 2, 241. mantrakāle 7, 149. niśā- N. 15, 14.

pradoṣa- HIT. 22, 1. śīta-, uṣṇa- I, 186. śiśukāla “die Kinderjahre”

PAÑCAT. 192, 3. kiyānkālastavaivaṁ sthitasya saṁjātaḥ “wie viel Zeit ist

verflossen, seitdem du stehst?” 242, 14. evaṁ tasya tāṁ nityaṁ

sevamānasya kālo yāti 45, 10. kāvyaśāstravinodena kālo gacchati

dhīmatām HIT. Pr. 48. athaivaṁ gacchati kāle PAÑCAT. 34, 14. gacchatā

kālena “im Verlauf der Zeit, nach einiger Zeit” 47, 6. 76, 10. 224, 7. kāle

gacchati dass. VID. 61. evaṁ tena saha sakalāṁ rātriṁ

yāvadvigrahaparasya kālo vrajati PAÑCAT. 117, 9. 163, 22. tasya ca kṛṣiṁ

kurvatastadaiva niṣphalaḥ kālo ‘tivartate “die Zeit, welche er auf das

Bebauen des Ackers verwendet, geht ihm fruchtlos dahin” 174, 9.

tasyaivaṁ vartamānasya kālaḥ samabhivartsyati. agniṁ śuśrūṣamāṇasya

pitaraṁ ca yaśasvinam.. R. 1, 8, 10. sa ca vakabālakān – sadaiva

bhakṣayankālaṁ nayati PAÑCAT. 98, 10. sadaikasthānavihāriṇau kālaṁ

nayataḥ 43, 2. bhakṣaṇapānaviharaṇakriyābhiḥ kālo neyaḥ 25, 10. HIT.

37, 20. RAGH. 1, 33. kālaṁ yāpayati PAÑCAT. 183, 24. kva cāyaṁ

vihṛtastvayā. kālaḥ MBH. 1, 7. nityakālam “stets” M. 2, 58. 73.

dīrghakālam “eine lange Zeit hindurch” 8, 145. SUND. 1, 10. CĀT. 1.

mahāntaṁ kālam dass. PAÑCAT. 114, 24. dīrgheṇa kālena dass. SUND. 1,

8. “nach langer Zeit” R. 1, 45, 40. kālena mahatā dass. VIŚV. 10, 10.

kālena bahunā ŚṚÑGĀRAT. 8. kenacittvatha kālena “nach einiger Zeit”

VIŚV. 5, 13. kālena “im Verlauf der Zeit, mit der Zeit” M. 9, 246. MBH. 3,

8843. BHAG. 4, 38. R. 4, 15, 34. PAÑCAT. 32, 24. KATHĀS. 4, 20. 6, 21.

VID. 16. 184. 193. dīrghasya kālasya “nach langer Zeit” N. 18, 1. M. 8,

216. R. 3, 4, 37. 4, 8, 49. kālasya mahataḥ dass. 1, 17, 12.

kasyacitkālasya “nach einiger Zeit” ŚĀK. 110, 15. kasyacittvatha kālasya

MBH. 1, 5299. HARIV. 6386. R. 1, 26, 25. kālāt “im Verlauf der Zeit, mit

der Zeit” M. 8, 251. kālatas dass. KATHĀS. 6, 101. — 2) Ereignisse, deren

Ursachen sich dem Verstande entziehen, werden, da sie im Verlauf der

“Zeit” geschehen, als unmittelbare Wirkungen “der thätig gedachten Zeit”

aufgefasst. Schon oben u. 1. haben wir zweier Lieder des AV. gedacht, in

denen der Begriff der “Zeit” an den der “Weltordnung” oder des

“Schicksals” streift. na kartā kasyacitkaścinniyoge nāpi ceśvaraḥ.

svabhāve vartate kālaḥ kasya kālaḥ parāyaṇaḥ.. R. 4, 24, 5. fgg. SUŚR. 1,

18, 18. BHARTṚ. 3, 43. Verz. d. B. H. No. 948. sarve kālena sṛjyante

hriyante ca punaḥ punaḥ MBH. 13, 56. kālasyāhaṁ vaśānugaḥ 51. R. 6,

12, 1. pracodito ‘haṁ kālena pannaga tvāmacūcudam MBH. 13, 50. ayaṁ

rāmastvayaṁ rāma iti kālena coditāḥ. anyo ‘nyaṁ samare jaghnuḥ R. 3,

31, 47. kālacodita 1, 1, 50. 3, 8, 8. ARJ. 10, 31. DRAUP. 8, 4. — 3) “die

Alles zu Ende führende, vernichtende Zeit; Tod”, sowohl der, welcher nur

das einzelne Individuum trifft, als auch der, welcher am Ende der Welt

Alles zerstört. Nach SUŚR. 1, 122, 11 “der Tod der durch die Zeit, durch’s

Alter kommt”: tatraikaḥ kālasaṁjñastu śeṣāstvāgantavaḥ smṛtāḥ

(mṛtyavaḥ). Sehr häufig personificirt mit den Attributen Jama’s und mit

diesem bisweilen auch identificirt. AK. 1, 1, 1, 54. 3, 4, 26, 196. TRIK. 3,

3, 382. H. 323. 184. H. an. MED. kālameyivān “er starb” BHĀG. P. 9, 9, 2.

kālaṁ kar “sterben” MBH. 14, 1784. R. 2, 64, 52; vgl. kālakarman und

kālakriyā. kālasamāyukta “gestorben” 6, 93, 23. kālasya nayane yuktā

yamasya puruṣāśca ye MBH. 2, 343. so ‘yaṁ vyaktaṁ bhavatāṁ

kālahetuḥ 2096. sa hi meghācalaprakhyaḥ kālaḥ puruṣavigrahaḥ.

varāyudhadharaḥ śrīmānutpapāta vihāyasā.. R. 5, 89, 45. kālo hi

vyasanaprasāritabhujo gṛhṇāti dūrādapi PAÑCAT. II, 21. upetya muniveṣo

‘tha kālaḥ provāca rāghavam RAGH. 15, 92. pitṝṇāṁ (patiṁ)

sarvanidhanaṁ kālaṁ vaiśvānaraṁ prabhum HARIV. 12492. kālāyāḥ

kālakalpastu gaṇaḥ paramadāruṇaḥ 12465. prahrādastu – yuyudhe saha

kālena raṇe kāla iva sthitaḥ 13191. (nivātakavacāḥ) kālarūpāḥ MBH. 3,

12107. ARJ. 7, 5. svaṁ rūpaṁ kālarūpābhaṁ bheje vaiśravaṇānujaḥ R. 3,

55, 3. kālarūpin 4, 59, 20. kālopamau yuddhe 1, 22, 24. RĀJA-TAR. 1,

289. kālamivolvaṇam 5, 148. nidrayā kālarūpiṇyā HARIV. 3237.

śūnyamāsījjagatsarvaṁ kāleneva hataṁ tadā SUND. 2, 18.

saṁjihīrṣurdurādharṣaṁ kālo lokakṣaye yathā R. 6, 70, 35. kālasya

kālaśca bhavetsa rāmaḥ saṁkṣipya lokāṁśca sṛjedathānyān 3, 43, 42.

mṛtyurdaṇḍaṁ sapāśaṁ ca kālaḥ śaktimagṛhṇata HARIV. 12146.

khaḍgadaṇḍaṁ dhanuṣpāśaṁ śaraughajaṭharaṁ prabhum.

rāmakālamakālena na kālayitumarhasi.. R. 3, 41, 26. kālapāśa 1, 21, 13.

29, 9. 3, 31, 16. 35, 73. 45, 19. 5, 47, 35. VIŚV. 6, 8. 9, 18. MṚCCH. 163,

7. HIT. 21, 11. kāladaṇḍa MBH. 1, 984. R. 3, 35, 43. VIŚV. 6, 2. kālāstra

11. kālamudgara R. 3, 54, 10. kālajihva MBH. 1, 2932. kālaviṣa 3, 10884.

kālāgninā yathā pūrvaṁ trailokyaṁ dahyate ‘khilam VIŚV. 15, 16. 6, 19.

MBH. 3, 10393. kālāgnisadṛśaḥ krodhe R. 1, 1, 19. kālāgnimiva duḥsaham

74, 17. 4, 33, 32. 50, 9; vgl. kālānala. In Verbindung mit antaka (vgl.

kālāntaka) und mṛtyu “Tod”: antakaścābhaddogdhā kālo lokaprakālanaḥ

HARIV. 374. abhyadhāvata saṁkruddhaḥ prajāḥ kāla ivāntakaḥ R. 3, 7, 9.

mṛtyukālasama 4, 37, 20. kālamṛtyuyugāntābha 31, 17. yathā yamo yathā

mṛtyuryathā kālo yathā vidhiḥ hantāsmi rākṣasānadya 3, 69, 20. kāla und

mṛtyu in Jama’s sabhā MBH. 2, 340. Kāla (kann hier wie im Folgenden

auch als Personif. der “Zeit” oder des “Schicksals” aufgefasst werden) als

Devarshi in Indra’s sabhā 295. Kāla ein Sohn Dhruva’s, “des

Polarsterns”: dhruvasya putro bhagavānkālo lokaprakālanaḥ (vgl. oben

HARIV. 374) 1, 2585. HARIV. 154. VP. 120. kāla = māṭhara im Gefolge

des Sonnengottes VYĀḌI zu H. 103. — 4) “Zeitalter, Weltalter” (= yuga):

tūrye kāle RĀJA-TAR. 5, 73. — 5) “Zeit” so v. a. “Zeitmaass; Prosodie”:

ekādaśidvādaśinorlaghāvaṣṭamamakṣaram (plabate). udaye saṁhitākāle

ṚV. PRĀT. 8, 21. hrasvo dīrghaḥ pluta iti kālato niyamā ṛci ŚIKṢĀ 11. AV.

PRĀT. 2, 39. P. 1, 1, 70. 2, 27. — 6) “Abtheilung, Abschnitt” VS. PRĀT. 3,

4. 5. — Vgl. akāla, ākāla, ekakālam, yathākālam.

kāla 1) KATHĀS. 64, 118. — 2) i) ein Sohn Vasu’s (vgl. kālin) Verz. d. Oxf.

H. 80,b,40. Verfasser von Mantra 101,b,16. = aśvaghoṣa WASSILJEW 35.

45. 58. 75. 200. — 4) f) b) nicht “Cajanus indicus”, sondern “eine best.

Lehmart.” — h) N. der Dākṣāyaṇī auf dem Berge Kālañjara Verz. d. Oxf. H.

39,b,4. ein Aṁśa der Prakṛti 23,b,1. WILSON, Sel. Works 1,246.

kāla 1) yathaiva śṛṅgaṁ goḥ kāle vardhamānasya vardhate “mit der Zeit,

allmählich” Spr. 4802. paritoṣakālāḥ “Zeit” so v. a. “Gelegenheit” 3012.

brāhmaṇastriṣu kāleṣu śastraṁ gṛhṇanna duṣyati. ātmatrāṇe varṇadoṣe

durdamyaniyameṣu ca.. MBH. 12, 2950. — 3) mṛtyukālau R. 7, 22, 22. —

5) ṚV. PRĀT. 6, 9. 11. 11, 1. 16. varṇāpattīnāṁ trayaḥ kālā bhavanti

mātrārdhamātrāṇumātropalakṣitāḥ Schol. zu VS. PRĀT. 4, 146. — 7) in

den Verbindungen pada-, krama-, saṁhitā- so v. a. pāṭha Schol. zu AV.

PRĀT. 4, 123. fg.

kāla 1) kālena “von Zeit zu Zeit, dann und wann” (Gegens. pade pade)

Spr. (II) 6900. “zu spät” 6007.

Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975

kāla 1 (yama) I (YAMA)>span class=”red”>* The god of Death.

When the life span of each living being allotted by Brahmā is at an end

Yama sends his agents and takes the soul to Yamapurī (the city of

Yama). From there, the holy souls are sent to Vaikuṇṭha (Heaven, the

abode of Viṣṇu) and the sinful souls to Hell.

kāla 2 II A Maharṣi. Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 14,

refers to this sage as offering worship to Indra, in Indra’s assembly.

kāla See under the word Kālamāna.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

kāla 1. kāla, m.

1. Due season, Man. 2, 80; instr. kālena, In due season, Man. 9, 246.

2. Time, Man, 1, 24; 7, 183; instr. kālena, and abl. kālāt, In the long

run, Pañc. 32, 24; Man. 8, 251; gen. dīrghasya kālasya, After a long time,

Nal. 18, 1; kasya cit kālasya, After some time, Śāk. 110, 15.

3. Mealtime; there are two meal-times a day, therefore, ṣaṣṭha kāla,

The sixth meal-time = the evening of the third day, MBh. 13, 5175; Rām.

3, 31, 47.

4. A period, Rājat. 5, 73.

5. Death, Bhāg. P. 9, 9, 2.

6. Time personified, fate, MBh. 13, 56; Rām. 6, 70, 35; endowed with

the attributes of Yama, the regent of the dead, Rām. 1, 21, 13; 3, 35, 43,


— Comp. a-, m. unseasonableness, Sund. 2, 31; loc. le, unseasonably,

Man. 3, 105. ādi-, m. beginning of time, Rām. 3, 20, 6. ṛtu-, m. 1.

seasonable time, MBh. 3, 14763. 2. time approved for sexual intercourse,

Man. 3, 45. eka-kāla + m, adv. once, Man. 6, 55. kārya-, m. time of

action, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1809. kṛta-,

I. m. appointed time, Yājñ. 2, 184.

II. adj. having waited a certain time, MBh. 2, 1875. caturtha-kāla + m,

adv. at the fourth meal-time, i. e. on the evening of every second day,

Man. 11, 109. tad-kāla + m, adv. instantly, Pañc. 192, 6. tāvatkāla + m, i.

e. tāvant-, adv. such a long time, MBh. 3, 16889. tri-, n. 1. past, future,

and present time, Bhāg. P. 5, 23, 8. 2. morning, noon, and evening, MBh.

13, 6607. duṣkāla, i. e. dus-, m. the formidable, all-destroying, time, Rām.

2, 33, 21; a name of Śiva, MBh. 12, 10418. nitya-kāla + m, adv.

continually, Man. 2, 58. purva(n)-, m. the periodic change of the moon.

prāpta-kāla + m (vb. āp with pra), adv. in due season, Pañc. 16, 6. a-

prāpta-kāla + m, adv. Out of due season, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 173. yathā-kāla

+ m, adv. At the proper time, Man. 2, 39. sa-kāla + m, adv. Betimes,

early in the morning. sūrya-, m. day.

kāla 2. kāla (cf. kalaṅka),

I. adj., f. lī, Dark blue, black, Rām. 6, 67, 2; MBh. 16, 57.

II. m.

1. A black and poisonous snake, Coluber naga, Lass. 16, 13.

2. The black in the eye, Suśr. 2, 336, 20.

3. A name of Rudra, Bhāg. P. 3, 12, 12.

4. A proper name, Hariv. 189.

5. The name of a mountain, Rām. 4, 44, 21.

III. f. lā.

1. The name of several plants, Suśr. 1, 131, 19, etc.

2. A proper name, MBh. 1, 2520.

3. The name of a female demon, Hariv. 11552.

IV. f. lī.

1. A name of Durgā, MBh. 4, 195.

2. A surname of Satyāvatī, Chr. 6, 1.

— Comp. bhadra-kālī, f. 1. a name of Durgā. 2. a fragrant grass, Cyperus.


I. m. a name of Śiva.

II. f. lī, Durgā.

— Cf. [greek] etc., under kalaṅka.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

kāla f. ī1 dark-blue, black, m. the black part of the eye, E. of Rudra-Śiva;

N. of sev. kings etc., also = kālasarpa q.v.; f. ī E. of Durga etc.

kāla [2] m. time, esp. the right or proper time (w. gen., dat., loc., inf., or

–°); opportunity, case; season, mealtime (twice a day); the half of a day,

hour, age, era, measure of time, prosody; time as ruler or destroyer of

the world, i.e. destiny, fate; end; death or the god of death. –paraḥ kālaḥ

high time (w. inf.). kālaṁ kṛ appoint a time for (loc.). kālena in course of

time (also -gacchatā; kālāt or kālatas), at times; kālena dīrgheṇa bahunā,

or mahatā (also gen.) after a long time. kasya citkālasya after some time.

kāla & kāle in time, at the right or appointed time; (also kāle gacchati) in

course of time, little by little. kāle kāle always in time or at the right time.

kasmiṁścitkāle one day. — ubhau kālau morning and evening. ṣaṣṭhe kāle

on the sixth half-day i.e. after three days; pancaśate kāle after 250 days.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

kāla 1. kāla, a. (ī) dark blue, black; m. the black in the eye; ep. of Śiva.

kāla 2. kāla, m. due season, appointed or right time (for d., g., lc., inf., –

°); time; opportunity; season; meal-time (of which there are two day);

half a day; hour; age, era; measure, prosody; Time, fate; death, god of

death; -°, at the right time; in time, gradually;

paraḥ kālaḥ, high time (w. inf.);

kālaṁ kṛ, fix a time for (lc.);

kālam āsādya, according to circumstances; in. kālena, in due season;

in course of time: -gacchatā, as time goes on, in course of time;

dīrgheṇa-, mahatā -or bahunā-, after a long time;

kenacit-, after some time;

tena-, at that time; ab. kālāt, in the long run, in course of time;

kālatas, id.; with regard to time; g. dīrghasya or mahataḥ kālasya,

after a long time;

kasya -cit-, after some time; lc. kāle, at the right or appointed time,

opportunely; in time = gradually; — prāpte, when the time has come;

-gacchati, in course of time; -yāte, after the lapse of some time;

-kaśmiṁś cit-, one day;

kāle kāle, always at the right time;

ṣaṣṭhe –, at the end of the third day: –‘hnaḥ, at the sixth hour of the

day, i. e. at noon;

pañ- caśate-, = after 250 days;

ubhau kālau, morning and evening.

Rādhākāntadeva: Śabdakalpadruma (5 Vol). Third edition, reprint of the

1886 edition. Varanasi : 1967

kāla t ka kālopadeśe . iti karikalpadrumaḥ . (adantacurāṁ–paraṁ–

sakaṁ–seṭ .) yathā acakālat kālamiyattayā gaṇakaḥ . etāvatī veleti

kathitavānityarthaḥ . iti durgādāsaḥ ..

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

kāla kālopadeśe (iyattayā kālaniścayārthopradeśe) ada° cu° ubha° saka°

seṭ . kālayati te avakālat–ta, kalayām–babhūva–āsa–cakāra–cakre .


kāla pu° īṣadalati ala–ac koḥ kā° . 1 kṛṣṇabarṇe tasya varṇeṣu

īṣadbhūṣakatvāt tathātvam . astyarthe arśa ādyac . 2 tadvarṇayukte tri° .

3 lauhe na° vācaspatiḥ . dhātuṣu tasya kṛṣṇatvāt tathātvam . 4 kakkole

na° rājani° 5 kāloyake gandhadravyabhede na° śabdaca° .

tayaurgrandhadravyeṣu kṛṣṇatvāttathātvam . 6 kokile puṁstrī° rājani°

tasya pakṣiṣu kṛṣṇatvāttathātvam striyāṁ ṅīṣ . 7 rāle 8 raktacitrake 9 ka

samarde (kālaka sendā) vṛkṣe ca pu° rājani° . 10 śanigrahe medi°

kṛṣṇatvāttasya tathātvam . kalayatisarvaṁ cu° kala–ac

kālasamayavelāsviti pā° nirdeśāt ni° upadhārdardhaḥ . 11 yamarāje 12

mahākāle śive medi° . 13 parameśvare kālo’smi lokakṣayakṛtpravṛddhaḥ

kālaḥ kalayatāmaham iti ca gītā ṛtuḥ sudarśanaḥ kālaḥ parameṣṭhī

parigrahaḥ viṣṇusa° . trayīmayo’yaṁ bhagavāna kālātmā kālakṛdvibhuḥ

sū° si° . svanāmakhyāte paratvāparatvadhīhetau nyāyādimatasiddhe 1 4

dravyabhede . tannirūpaṇaṁ kaṇādasūtre upaskaravṛttau ca yathā

aparasminnaparaṁ yugapat ciraṁ kṣipramiti kālaliṅgāni ka° sū° .

itiśabdo jñānaprakāraparaḥ pratyekamabhimambadhyate

tathācāparamiti pratyayo yugapaditipratyayaḥ ciramitipratyayaḥ

kṣipramitipatyayaḥ kālaliṅgānītyarthaḥ aparasminnaparamityanena

parasmit paramityapi draṣṭavyaṁ, tenāyamarthaḥ–

bahutaratapanaparispandāntaritajanmani sthāpire yuvānamavadhiṁ kṛtvā

‘paratvamutpadyate taccāparatvamasamavāyikāraṇasāpekṣam, na ca

rūpādyasamavāyikāraṇaṁ vyabhicārāt trayāṇāṁ gandhādīnāṁ vāyau

paratvādyanutpādakatvāt sparśasyāpyuṣṇādibhedena bhinnasya

pratyekaṁ vyabhicārāt na cāvacchinnaparimāṇaṁ tathā tasya

vijātīyānārambhakatvāt tapanaparispandānāñca vyadhikaraṇatvāt

tadaṣacchinnadravyasaṁyoga evāsamavāyikāraṇaṁ pariśiṣyate tacca

dravya piṇḍamārtaṇḍobhayasaṁyuktaṁ vibhu syāt ākāśasya

tatsvābhāvyakalpane kvacidapi bheryabhidhātāt sarvabherīṣu

śabdotpattiprasaṅgaḥ . tathāca kālasyaiva mārtaṇḍasaṁyuktasya piṇḍena

saṁyogo’paratvāsamavāyikāraṇaṁ kāla eva mārtaṇḍakriyopanāyakaḥ

ātmanaśca dravyāntaradharmeṣu dravyāntarāvacchedāya

svapratyāsattyatiriktasannikarṣāpekṣatvāt anyathā vārāṇasīsthena

mahārajanāruṇimnā pāṭaliputre’pi sphaṭikamaṇerāruṇyaprasaṅgāt .

kālasya tu tatsvabhāvatayaiva kalpanādayamadoṣaḥ . kālenāpi

rāgasaṁkramaḥ kathaṁ na iti cet niyatakriyopanāyakatvenaiva

tatsiddheḥ evaṁ sthaviramavadhiṁ kṛtvā yūni paratotpattirnirūpaṇīyā .

yugapaditi yugapajjāyante yugapattiṣṭhanti yugavat kurvanti ityādi–

pratyayānāñca ekasmin kāle ekasyāṁ sūryagatau ekasmin

sūryagatvavacchinnakāle ityarthaḥ, na cāprāptā e sūryagatayo

viśeṣaṇatāmanubhavanti . na ca svarūpapratyayāsannāeva tāḥ

tasmādetāvṛśaviśiṣṭapratyayānyathānupapattyā viśeṣaṇa prāpakaṁ yad

dravyaṁ sa kālaḥ upaskaravṛttiḥ .

nanu sidhyatu kālaḥ, sa tu nityo dravyaṁ veti na pramāṇamata āha .

dravyatvamityatve vāyunā vyākhyāte ka° sū° .

yathā vāyuparamāṇorguṇavattvāddravyatvam adravyadravyatvācca

nityatvaṁ tathā kālasyāpītyarthaḥ upa° .

tathāpi santu bahavaḥ kālā ityata āha .

tattvambhāvena ka° sū° .

vyākhyātamiti bipariṇatenānvayaḥ . cirādiprayayānāṁ kālaliṅgānāṁ

sarvatrāviśeṣādanekatve’pyāratmanāmiva viśeṣaliṅgābhāvāt

sattāvadekatvaṁ kālasyetyarthaḥ .


tsarādibhedena bhūyāṁsaḥ kālāstat kathamekaḥ iti cenna

bhedabhānasya upādhinibandhanatvāt yathā eka eva

sphaṭikamaṇirjavātāpiñjādyupādhyaparāgeṇa bhinna iva bhāsate tathaika

eva kālaḥ

sūryaspandādyavacchedabhedenatattatkāryāvacchedakabhedena ca

bhinna iva bhāsat ityayupagamāt tathāca kālopādhyavyāpakaḥ

kālopādhiḥ, svādheyakādācitkābhāvapratiyogyanādhāraḥ kālo vā kṣaṇaḥ

pratikṣaṇaṁ kasyacidutpatteḥ kasyacidvināśādetadadhyavaseyam .

kṣaṇadvayañca lavaṁ ityādyāgamaprasiddham . nanu

tathāpyatītānāgatavartamānabhedena kālatrayastu, śradhūyate hi

trekālyamupāvartate traikālyāsiddhiḥ ityādīti cenna traikālyavyavahārāt

yena hi vastunā yaḥ kālo’vacchidyate sa tasya vartamānaḥ

yatprāgabhāvena yaḥ kālo’vacchidyate sa tasya bhaviṣyatkālaḥ

yatpradhvaṁ sena yaḥ kālo’vacchidyate sa tasyātītakālaḥ

tathācāvacchedakatritvādhīnaḥ kālatritvavyavahāraḥ upaskaravṛttiḥ!

idānīṁ sarvotpattimatāṁ kālaḥ kāraṇamityāha .

nityaṣvabhāvādanityeṣu bhāvāt kāraṇe kālākhyeti ka° sū° . itiśabdo

hetau itihetoḥ kāraṇe–sarvotpattimatkāraṇe kālaḥ ityākhyā . hetumāha

nityeṣvabhāvāt anityeṣu bhāvāditi nityeṣu ākāśādiṣu yugapajjātaḥ

ciraṁjātaḥ kṣipraṁ jātaḥ idānīṁ jātaḥ divā jātaḥ rātrau jāta

ityādipratyayasyābhāvāt anityeṣu ghaṭapaṭādiṣu

yaugapadyādipratyayānāṁ bhāvāt anvayavyatirekābhyāṁ kāraṇaṁ kāla

ityathaḥ . na kevalaṁ yaugapadyādipratyayabalāt kālasya

sarvotpattimannimittakāraṇatvam api tu puṣpaphalādīnāṁ

haimantikavāsantikaprāvṛṣeṇyādisajñābalādeva tadadhyavaseyam upa° .

bhāṣāmuktāvalyośca saṅkṣepeṇa tannirṇayo yathā

janyānāṁ janakaḥ kālojagatāmāśrayomataḥ .

parāparatvadhīhetuḥ kṣaṇādiḥ syādupādhitaḥ bhāṣā .

kālaṁ nirūpayati janyānāmiti tatra pramāṇaṁ darśayitumāha

jagatāmiti tathāhi idānīṁ ghaṭaityādipratītiḥ sūryaparispandādikaṁ yadi

viṣayīkaroti tadā sūryaparispandādinā ghaṭādeḥ sambandhovācyaḥ sa ca

saṁyogādirna sambhavatīti kālaeva tatsambandhaghaṭakaḥ kalpyate

itthañca tasyāśrayatvamapi samyak . pramāṇāntaraṁ darśayati

parāparatveti paratvāparatvabuddherasādhāraṇaṁ nimittaṁ ka laeva


kalpyataiti bhāvaḥ . nanvekatya kālasya siddhau

kṣaṇadinamāsavarṣādisamayabhedona syādataāha kṣaṇādiriti

kālastveko’pi upādhibhedāt kṣaṇādivyāhāraviṣayaḥ . upādhistu

svajanyavibhāgaprāgabhāvāvacchinnaṁ kamma,


pūrbasaṁyogāvacchinnauttarasaṁyogaprāgabhāvo vā

uttarasaṁyāgāvacchinnaṁ karma vā . nacottarasaṁyogānantaraṁ

kṣaṇavyavahārī na syāditi vācyaṁ karmāntarasattvāditi . mahāpralaye

kṣaṇādivyavahāroyadyapi, tadā’nāyattyā dhvaṁ senopapādanāyaḥ .

dinādivyavahārastu tattatkṣaṇakūṭaireveti muktābalī .

tārkikaśiromaṇinā raghunāthaśiromaṇinā ca

padārthanirūpaṇaprakaraṇe tatra dikkālau neśvarādatiricyete iti vadatā

vibhurūpasyaikasya kālasya khaṇḍanaṁ kṛvam .

raghudevarāmabhadrābhyāṁ tadvivṛtaṁ tataḥ saṁkṣipya

padārthatattvasāre ca jayanārāyaṇatarkapañcānanena darśitaṁ yathā

dikkālau neśvarādatiriktau prācyāṁ ghaṭa idānīṁ ghaṭaḥ

ityādivyavahārasya īśvarātmakavibhuviṣayakatvenaivograpatteḥ, naca

tayorbhinnaviṣayakatvamanubhavasiddhamiti vācyaṁ tathā sati prācyāṁ

ghaṭaḥ pratīcyāṁ ghaṭaḥ idānīṁ ghaṭaḥ tadānīṁ ghaṭa ityāderapi

bhinnabhinnaviṣayakatvānubhavāt kāladiśorapi bahutvāṅgokāraprasaṅgāt,

tathā ca upādhibhedādekayā diśā ekena kālena ca yathā bhavatāṁ

bahūnāṁ vyavahārāṇa apaprattistathā’smākamapi

ekeneśvareṇāgamānumānāpyāṁ siddhena sarveṣāmeva

tādṛśavyavahāṇāsupadhibhedāduṣapatti sambhavati, suryakriyādau

svasaṁyukteśvarasaṁyogitapanāśritatvādisambandhena ghaṭādeḥ

sattvasambhavena tatsambandhaghaṭakatayā’pyati raktakālādyasiddheḥ .

ayavā kṣaṇā evātiriktāḥ idānāmityādivyavahāraviṣayāḥ,

vibhāgaprāgabhāvāvacchinnakarmaṇaḥ kṣaṇatvāsambhavāt

bhābikarmāntarajanyavibhāgāntaraprāgabhāvāvacchinnasya karmaṇaḥ

kṣaṇacatu yādisthāyitvena tādṛśasyopā dhitvāmambhavāt naca vibhāge

svajanyatvaṁ viśeṣaṇīyam, svavānanugamādanangaptāpatteḥ,

vibhāgajananādidaśāyāmupādhyantarasya vācyatayā

tāvatāpyananugamācca, evañcopādhīnāmatiriktānāṁ

kṣaṇikapadārpamvarūpāṇāṁ kṣaṇānāmavaśyābhyupeyatayā tere .

tādṛśāḥ sarve vyavahārā upapādanīyāḥ kimatiriktena kāleveti .

sāṁkhyamate tasya kāśalarbhāvaḥ na pṛthakatattvāntaratvaṁ


khaṇḍadikkālayoḥ sṛṣṭimāha bhā° .

dikkālābākāśādibhyaḥ sāṁ° sū° .

nityau yau dikkālautāvākāśaprakṛtibhūtau pakṛterguṇaviśeṣaveva . ato

dikkālayorvibhatvopapattiḥ . ākāśavat savagataśca nitya itya

diśrutyaktaṁ vibhutvaṁ cākāśasyopapannam . yau tu khaṇḍadikkālau tau

tu tacadupādhisayogādākāśādatpadyete ityathaḥ

ādaśabdenopādhigrahaṇāditi . yadyapi tattadupādhiviśiṣṭākāśameba

khaṇḍadikka lau tathāpi ṣiśiṣṭasyātiriktatābhyupagamavādena

vaiśeṣikanaye śrotrasya kāryatāvat tatkābhāpamatroktam pra° bhā° .

atapadaṁ darśayiṣyamāṇamādhavagranthe ca vācaspatimatena

kālakhaṇḍanaṁ tu nityapibhukālakhaṇḍanaparaṁ tathāhi upādhibhidyate

na tu tadvāniti sā° sū° upādhibhedeca dharmibhedāsambhavasya

vyāsthāpanāt dharmiṇaḥ kālasya ekatvena upādhinā bhedāsambhavāt

upādhinā nā’nāgatādi bhedavyavahārasambhavaḥ tathā ca kriyādereva

upādhibhūtasyānāgatādivyavahāropapādakatayā tasyaiva kālatvam .

ataeva kriyaiva kāla ityabhiyuktoktiḥ . kālamādhavīye ca mādhavena

śaṅkāpūrvakaṁ kālaścetthaṁ nyarūpi

nanu nāyamudyamaḥ saphalaḥ kālasya gaganakusumāyamānatvāta

tadetatparamarahasyamabhijānānaḥ kapilamahāmunistattvāni

nirvivektukāmaḥ kālamupekṣyānyānyeva pañcaviṁśatitattvāni viveca

mūlaprakṛtiravikṛtirmahadādyāḥ prakṛtivichatayaḥ sapta . ṣāḍaśakastu

vikārā na prakṛtina vikṛtiḥ puruṣaḥ iti . na caiteṣveva

tattveṣakālamyāntarbhāvo muninā vivajita iti śaṅūnīyam

tvadabhimatamya kālamya pañcaviṁśatitattvānāṁ cānyādṛśāni lakṣaṇāni

. satvarajastamoguṇānāṁ sāmyāvasthā

malaprakṛtirmadahaṅkārapañcataktātrākhyānāṁ svaptānāṁ

prakṛtivikṛtīnām madhyetdhyavasāyaheturmattattvava

abhimānaheturahaṅkāraḥ . śabdasparśaruparasagandhātmakāni

pañcatanyātrāṇi pṛthivyādipañcamahābhūtānāṁmekādaśendiyāṇāñca

ṣoḍaśavikārāṇāṁ lakṣaṇāni prasiddhāni . apra kṛtiravikṛtiḥ

puruṣaścidātmakaḥ . na hyevaṁlakṣaṇakeṣ tattveṣu kālamyāntarbhāvaḥ

sambha vyate nāpi ṣaḍvaṁśaṁ tattvāntaraṁ muniranubhanyate . kathaṁ

tarhi munipraṇītāni tattvāni āryābhiḥ saṁgṛhṇāna īśvarakṛṣṇau

bahiḥkaraṇāntaḥkarane vicinvan kālaṁ vyājahāra? sāṁpratakālaṁ bāhya

trikālamābhyantara karaṇamiti . paraprasiddhyāparo bodhanīya iti

nyāyenāyaṁ vyavahāro na tu sasiddhāntābhipāyeṇeti vadāmaḥ . ata

evaitadvaco vyācakṣāṇā vācaspatimiśrāstattvakaumuhyāmevamāhuḥ

kālastu vaiśeṣikābhibhata eko nānāgatātītādi bhedaṁ pravartayitumarhati

. tasmādayaṁ yairupādhibhedairatītānāgatādibhedabhāvaṁ pratipadyate

santu taevopādhayo vyavahārahetavaḥ kṛtamantargaḍunā kāleneti

sāṁkhyācaryāḥ . tasvānna kālarūpatattvāntarābhyupagama iti .

athocyeta–bhūtakālo vartamānakāloṁ bhaviṣyatkāla iti evaṁ triṣvapi

bhūtādiṣvanugataḥ kālapratyaya ekamanugataṁ

kālatvamantareṇānupapanna iti tanna padārthapratyayavadupapatteḥ

yathā bhavanmate dravyapadārtho guṇapadārtha iti ṣaṭsu bhāveṣu

caturṣvabhāveṣvanugataḥ padārthapratyaya ekamanugata

padārthaśabdavācyaṁ tattvāntaramantareṇāpyupapannaḥ . tathā

kālaprayogo’pi kuto nopapadyeta! . tasmānnistattvaṁ kāla nirṇetuṁ

mahānayamudyamaḥ prekṣāvacchiromaṇermādhavācāryasya na

kathañcidapyapapanna ityevaṁ prāpte brūmaḥ āyuṣmataśce tasyevaṁ

nirūḍhakālatattve yaḥ pradvaṣaḥ sa kasya hetoḥ? itivaktavyam . ki

kapilamahāmuninā nirākṛtatvāt? 1 kiṁvā

sāṁkhyaśāstrapraṇoteṣutattveṣu asaṁgṛhītatvāt? 2 uta lakṣaṇābhāvāt? 3

āhosvitpramāṇā bhāvān? 4 athavā prayojanāmāvāt? 5, athavā

tattvagatapañcaviṁśatisaṁ khyābhyāsapāṭavenābhyasitāt

śraddhājāḍyāt? 6, na prathamaḥ kālanirākaraṇasūtrasya muninā

praṇītasyānupalambhāt . na dvitīyaḥ atiprasaṅgāt ṛgvedaproktānā


trasvarādīnāṁ māsaṁgṛhītatvena teṣvapi bhāvataḥ pradveṣaḥ phana

vāryeta? . aya teṣāṁ viṣaśaṣyā’maṁgrahe’pi

sukhaduḥkhamohātmakatvena guṇatrayāntargatatvādastyevārthāt

saṁgrahaiyacyate tarhi kālasyāpyasau na daṇḍavārita iti buddhiṁ

samādhatasva . kālasya guṇavayapariṇāmatve sāvayavatvama nityatā ca

ghaṭāderiva prasajyeteti cet? nityaniraptayava kālatattvābhiniveśavato

vaiśeṣikādeḥ patatvayaṁ vajraprahāraḥ śirasi . vedavādināṁ tu na kāpi

kṣatiḥ . kālasyotapattisāvayatvayoḥ pratyakṣaśrutāvapalabhyamānatvāta

. taittiroyaśa khāyāṁ nārāyaṇīye kālotpattirāmnāyate sarve nimeṣajijñire

vidytaḥ puruṣādadhi kalāmuhūrtā kāṣṭhāścāhorātrāśca sarvaśaḥ .

ardhasāmā māmā ṛtavaḥ saṁvatsaraśca kalpattāmiti tamyāmeva

śāsvayāmāruṇakrtukacayana brāhmaṇe māvayavatvaṁ śrūyate uktoveṣo

vāsāṁsi ca ka lābayavānāmitaḥ pratīcyeṣiti . itosmādanuvākātpranocyeṣ

adhastaneṣu anuvākeṣa kālāvayavānāmṛtnāṁ dhyātavyo beṣa uktaḥ

vastrāṇi coktānītyathaḥ . nityatvaniravayavatvābhidhāyino

vaiśeṣikādiśāstrasya amṛtā devatā iti


saṁṛrśayogyāvayavaśvanyatāthā ca tātparye varṇanīyam .

atha manyase mahatā tapasā śivamārādhya tatprasāda

labbasarvajñatvapadaḥ kaṇādamunirvedavātparyaṁ mamyagvettīti ved

syaiva mandamatipratītādarthādarthāntaraṁ netavyasiti . evamapi yasya

prasādādayaṁ sarvaṁjñatāmalabhata saeva śivo mukhyaḥ sarvajña iti

tanmatānusāreṇa kaṇādamatasyaivātyathānayanamatyantamucitam .

śivo hi śaiveṣu āgameṣu ṣaṭatriṁ śattattvāni nirūpayat

kālavattvasyotpattimaṅgīncakāra . nikhilaśaivāgamasāramāryābhiḥ

saṁgṛhṇāno bhojarājaḥ śuddhāni pañca tattvaḥni

śivaśaktisadāśiveśvaravidyākhyāni nirdiśyetarāṇi

nirdiśanmāyākāryatvoktipūrvakameva kālaṁ niradikṣat puṁso jagataḥ

kṛtaye māyātastattva pañcakaṁ bhavati . kālo niyatiśca tathā kalā ca

vidyā ca rāgaśca iti tāni māyāsahitānyekādaśa tattvāni

sāṁkhyaprasiddhapañcaviṁśatitattvāni coddiśya vivṛṇvannidamāha

nānāvidhaśaktimayī sā janayati kālatattvamevādau . bhāvi

bhavadbhūtamayaṁ kalayati jagadeṣa kālo’taḥ iti . taṭṭīkākāra itthaṁ

vyācakhyau . nanveṣa kālo naiyāyikādibhinityo’bhyapagataḥ ata āha

māvibhavadbhūtamayamiti . bhūtādi rūpeṇa trividhatvāt

acetanatvenāsyānityataṁ siddhamiti bhāvaḥ . kena ka ryeṇāsya

siddharataāha kalayavi jagadeṣa kālo’taḥ iti .

cirakṣiprādipratyayopādhidvāreṇa kalayatyākṣipatatyartha’iti . ittha

pratyakṣaśrutisahakṛtaśaitāptamaiḥ kaṇādaśāstrasya bādhe sati


tasya ca nyāyasya saṁgrāhakau ślokau sāṁkhyasmṛtyaḥsti saṅkoco na

vā yedasamanvaye . dharme vedaḥ sāvakāśaḥ saṅkocyo’navakāśayā .

pratyakṣaśrutimūlābhirmanvādismṛtibhi smṛtiḥ amūlākāpilo bādhyā na

saṅkoca’nayā tataḥ iti . ayamarthaḥ . ṛgvedadi bharagnihotrādidharmo

brahmaṇo jagatkartṛtvaṁ ca prati pādyate . sāṁkhyasmṛtyādistu

padhānasya jagatkāraṇatva pratipāṭayati tatra tayā smṛtyā vedasya

saṅkoco’sti . veti saṁśaye smṛterjagatkāraṇatvamantareṇānavakāśatvāt

prābalya vedasya tu dharme’pi caritārthacāddaurbalyam . tataḥ

smṛtyanusāreṇa vedaḥ samkucita iti pūrvaḥ pakṣaḥ .

pratyakṣaśrutibhirbahva bhiranugṛhītābahvyo manvādimṛtayo

brahmakāraṇatāmācakṣate sāṁkhyasmṛtistvekā mūlahīnā ceti

durbalatvāt saiva bādhyā ato nāsti vedasya saṅkoca iti siddhānta iti . atha

tārkikatvābhimānagrahagṛhītaḥ sana paravaśa evaṁ brūṣe

bhūtādonāmaupādhikānāṁ kālaviśeṣāṇāmevotpattirna tu nirupādhikasya

mukhyasya kālasyeti tarhi kapardikānveṣaṇāya


proktasyābhāṇakamya tvameva viṣayo’bhūḥ . yataḥ

sādharyavaidharmyajñānāya dravya dīnyanviṣyan

parabrahmatattvamavāgamaḥ . vyavahārahetūnāṁ

bhūtādikālaviśeṣāṇāmādhāraḥ svayaṁ vyāhārātīto nityo niracayavo

mukhyoyaḥ kālaḥ sa paramātmaiva . tathāca śvetāśvatarā āmananti . yaḥ

kālakālo guṇī sarvavidya iti . āstāṁ nityatvānityatvasāvayavatvacintā .

sarvathāpyasti sāṁkhyatattveṣu ārthikaḥ kālasargrahaḥ

sākṣātsaṁgrahābhāvastu jyotiṣṭomādivat

prakṛtipuruṣavivekānupayogādityavagantavyam . tṛtīyacaturthapakṣau tu

bhavato vaiśeṣikaparicayagandho’pi nāstīti prakaṭayataḥ . vaiśeṣika

grantheṣu sarveṣvapi kālaprakaraṇeṣu tallakṣaṇasya

tatsādhakānumānasya ca papañcitvāt pramāṇāntarāṇi tu kālasādhakāni

śrutyaivopanyastāni tathā ca taittirīyā āruṇaketuke mantramāmananti

smṛtiḥ pratyakṣamaitihyam anumānaścatuṣṭayam . etairādityamaṇḍalai

sarvaireva vidhāsyate iti . tatra smṛti anumeyaśrutimūlaṁ

manvādiśāstraṁ prayakṣaṁ śrotragrāhyo ‘kṛtrimo vedākhyo’kṣararāśiḥ,

yogipratyakṣamaupaniṣadābhimataṁ sākṣipratyakṣaṁ vā .

aitihyamitihāsapurāṇādike jyotiḥśāstrasyāpyatrāntarbhāvo draṣṭavyaḥ .

anumīyate svamūlabhūtaṁ smṛtivākyamanenetyenumānaḥ

śiṣṭācārastasya ca smṛtyanumāpakatvaṁ .

bhaṭṭācāryarvispaṣṭamabhihitam . ācā rācca smṛtiṁ jñātvā smṛteśca

śrutikalpanamiti, tadevaṁ smṛtyādīnāṁ catuṣṭayaṁ saphalam,

etaiścaturbhiḥ sarvairapyādityamaṇḍalaṁ pramīyata iti mantrasyārthaḥ .

nanu smṛtyādīni maṇḍalasādhakatvenātropanyastāni na tu

kālasādhakatveneti cet maivaṁ maṇḍalasya

sārvajanīnapratyakṣasiddhatvena tatra smṛtyādyanupayogāt,

kālavivakṣayevātra kālanirvāhakamaṇḍale tānyupanyastāni, tathā ca

maṇḍaladvārā kālaḥ pramīyate . kālavivakṣā cottaramantreṣvatisphuṭā

tatrānantaro mantraevamāmnāyate, sūryo marīcimādatte

sarvasmādbhuvanādadhi, tasyāḥ pākaviśeṣeṇa smṛtaṁ kālaviśeṣaṇamiti

tasyāyamarthaḥ . bhuvanagataṁ


marīciṁ sūryaṁ svīkaroti tatkṛtena bhūtapākabhedena nimeṣādiḥ

parārdhaparyantaḥ kālavibhedo’smābhiravagato bhavatīti . kālaprati

pādakāni ca smṛtyādītyudāharāmaḥ . tatra manuḥ kālaṁ kālavibhaktiñceti

sṛṣṭiprakaraṇe kālaṁ vyavajahāra . yājñavalkyo’pi, śrāddhakālaḥ

prakīrtitaḥ iti . evamanyāsvapi smṛtiṣūdāhāryam . śrutiṣvapi kṛtaṁ svapne

vicinoti kālaḥ iti bahvṛcāḥ . ahameva kālonāhaṁ kālasyeti taittirīyāḥ . kā

ca sandhyā kaśca sandhyāyāḥ kāla iti sāmagāḥ . yogaśāstre’pi


pratyakṣataḥ paśyantīti abhihitam tathā ca pātañjalabhūtram

pariṇāmatrayasaṁyamādatītānāgatādijñānamiti . sāṁkṣipratakṣamapi,

ahamasminakāle nivasāmi, ityanubhavastāvatsārvajanīnaḥ . na cāsau

bāhyendriyakṛtaḥ kālasya rūpādihīnatvāt . nāpi

mānasastārkikaistadanaṅgīkārāt . nāpyanumānādijanyaḥ

aparokṣapratyayatvāt . ataḥ


anyante . itihāse’pi mahābhārate praharau ghaṭikānyūnau praharau

ghaṭikādhikau . sa kālaḥ kutapojñeya pitṝṇāṁ, dattamakṣayamiti .

purāṇe’pi anādireṣa bhagavānkālo’santā’jaraḥ paraḥ iti śiṣṭāśca

paurṇamāsyākhyakāle svasvakalocitān devaviśeṣebhyaḥ

kṣīradadhyādisamarpyaṇādikāndharmaviśeṣānbhānuvārādikālaviśeṣe ca

samācaranti . tadevamanekapramāṇapramite kāle

pramāṇābhāvarūpaścaturthaḥ pakṣaḥ kathamāśaṅkyeta? . nāpi

prayojanābhāvāditi pañcamaḥ pakṣo yujyate . tārkikaistāṣat

sarvotpattinimittakāraṇatvamuddhoṣitam . loke

kṛṣyādyupayogaḥḥkālaviśeṣya kṛṣīvalādibhirvyavahriyate .

gṛhapraveśaprayāṇādyupayogo jyotiḥśāstraprasiddhaḥ .

śrautasmārtakarnopayogastu pradarśayiṣyate . tasmāt

sāṁkhyaśraddhājāḍyakṛtasrava pradveṣa ityayaṁ ṣaṣṭaḥ pakṣaḥ

pariśipyate . tathāca pāpā tmanaḥ svasya budbyaparādhaṁ puṇyātmani

mādhavācārye samāro payan kayā vā śikṣayā na daṇḍyo’si . tadevaṁ

kālasyapratyā khyātumaśakyatvānnirṇayodyamaḥ saphala iti sthitam .

nanu katarakālo’tra nirṇīyate . kiṁ kevalaḥ kālaḥ kiṁ vā kālakālaḥ . nanu

kimityaprasiddhabhāṣayā bhīṣayasi, na bhīṣayāmyahaṁ kiñcāstyeva

kalayitavyabhedātkāladvaividhyam . yena

prāṇidehādayo’tītavartamānādirūpeṇa kalayitavyāḥ sa kevalaḥ kālaḥ . sa

ca tattvaprakāśavacanena pūrvam udāhṛtaḥ kalayati jagadeṣa kālo’taḥ iti

. tādṛśo’pi kāryotpattisthitivināśakāriṇā yena kalayitavyaḥ sa kālakāla iti .

sa ca vāsiṣṭharāmāyaṇedaśitaḥ kāle pi kalyte yeneti śrutiśca bhavati sa

viśvakṛdviśvavidātma yonirjñaḥ kālakālo guṇī sarvavidyaḥ

pradhānakṣatrajñaḥ iti guṇī sasāramokṣasthitibandhaheturiti ca

kūrmapurāṇe’pi anādireṣa bhagavān kālo’nanto’jaraḥ paraḥ . sarvagatvāt

svatantratvāt sarvātmatvānmaheśvaraḥ . brahmāṇo bahavo rudrā anye

nārāyaṇādayaḥ . ekohi bhagavānīśaḥ kālaḥ kaviriti smṛtaḥ .

brahmanārāyaṇeśānāṁ trayāṇāṁ prākṛtolayaḥ . procyate kālayogena

punareva ca sambhavaḥ . paraṁ brahma ca bhūtāni vāsudevo’pi śaṅkaraḥ

. kālenaiva ca sṛjyante saeva grasate punaḥ . tasmāt kālatmakaṁ viśvaṁ

sa eva parameśvaraḥ iti . viṣṇudharmottare’pi . anādinidhanaḥ kālo

rudraḥ saṅkarṣaṇaḥ smṛtaṁ . kalanātsarvabhutānāṁ sa kālaḥ parikīrtitaḥ

. karṣaṇāt sarvabhūtānāṁ sa tu saṅkaṣaṇaḥ smṛtaḥ .

sarvabhūtaśamitvācca sa rudraḥ parikīrtitaḥ anādinidhanatvana sa mahān

parameśvara iti jyotiḥśa stre’pi bhūtānāmantakṛtkālaḥ kālo’nyaḥ

kalanātmakā iti . tatraivaṁ sati dvayormadhye kālakālotra na nirṇetaka

tasya dharmānuṣṭhāneṣvahetutvema heyatvādanupādeyatvācca .

yastvitaro māsapakṣatithyādirūpaḥ so’pi jyotiḥśāstre samyaṅnirṇīta iti

kṛtamanayā kālanirṇayapravṛttyeti prāpte brūmaḥ umayamapyatra

nirṇetavyaṁ kālakālasya jagadīśvarasya sarveṣu karmārambheṣu

anusmartavyatvāt ataeva śiṣṭāḥ puṇyāhavācanādāvīśvaramanusmaranti .

sarveṣu kāleṣu samasta deśeṣvaśeṣakāryeṣu tayeśvareśvaraḥ .

sarvaiḥsvarūpairbhagavānanādimānmamāstu māṅgalyavivṛddhaye hariḥ .

yasya smṛtyā ca nāmoktyā tapoyajñakriyādiṣu . nyūnaṁ saṁpūrṇatāṁ

yāti sadyovande tamacyutamiti . māsādirūpabhedasya tu svarūpeṇa

jyotiṣe nirṇītatve’pi śrautasmārtakarmaviśeṣeṇa saha kālasyāṅgāṅgibhāvī

nirṇetavyaḥ . yadyapyasau hemādiprabhṛtiṣu grantheṣu

nirṇītastathāpyanekatra viprakīrṇasyaikatra saṁgrahārthamatra yatnaḥ

kriyate . tadevaṁ cikīrṣitasya granyasya kālarūpo viṣayaḥ

saṁgraharūpaṁ prayojanaṁ cāstīti ayaṁ grantha ārabhyate . nityo

janyaśca kālau dvau tayorādyaḥ pareśvaraḥ . so’vāṅamanasagamyo’pi

dehī bhaktānukampayā nityakālasya parameśvaratve pramāṇaṁ

pūrvamevopanyastam . parameśvarasya cāvāṅmanasagocaratve sarve

vedāntāstadanusārismṛtipurāṇāni tattvavidanubhavaśca pramāṇam .

bhaktānugrāhimūrtisvīkāraśca ta lavakārākhye sāmavedaśākhāviśeṣe

kasyāṁ cidākhyāyikāyāmāmnāyate tasyāṁ hyāstyāyikāyāmevamuktam–

agnivāyvi ndrādayo devā īśvarānugṛhītāḥ sarvatra vijayamānāḥ

svakīyameva tatsāmarthyamityamimanyante sma . tān

bodhāyitumavāṅmanasagamyaṁ parameva brahma pūjyāṁ

cakṣurgamyāṁ kāñcinmūrtiṁ dhārayitvā prādurbabhūva . tayā saha

vādaṁ kṛtvāpi rājasacittāvagnivāyū tadbrahmatattvaṁ naiva bubudhāte

indrastu sātvika cittobubudhe iti . vāsiṣṭharāmāyaṇe’pi śukropākhyāne

śukraṁ mṛtamavalokya tatpitā bhṛguḥ kruddho mārayitāraṁ kālaṁ

śapnumudyata tadānīṁ kālo’nugrahītumīdṛśena rūpeṇāvirbabhūveti

paṭhyate athākalitarūpo’sau kālaḥ kavalitaprajaḥ . ādhibhautikamāsthāya

vapurmunimupāyayau . bahupāśadharaḥ śrīmān kuṇḍalī kavacānvitaḥ .

ṛtuṣaṭkamayodāravaktraṣaṭkasamanvitaḥ .

māsadvādaśakoddāsabhujadvādaśakodbhaṭaḥ . svākārasamayā bahvyā

vṛtaḥ kiṅkarasenaya . sa upetya praṇamyādau kupitaṁ taṁ mahāmunim .

kalpakṣubdhāvdhigambhīraṁ sāntvapūrvamuvāca h . tvamatyantatapā

vipra! vayaṁ niyatiprālakā tena saṁpūjyase pūjya . sādho! netaravīkṣayā

. mā tapaḥ kṣapayā’buddha! kalpakālamahānalaiḥ . yo na dagdho’smi me

tasya kiṁ tvaṁ śapena dhakṣyasi? . saṁsārāvalayo grastā

nigīrṇārudrakoṭayaḥ . bhuktāni viṣṇuvṛndāni kena śaptā vayaṁ mune! .

bhoktāro hivayaṁ brahman bhojanaṁ yuṣmadādayaḥ . svayaṁ niyatireṣā

hi nāvayoretadokṣitamiti . na ca bhaktānujighṛkṣayā svekṛtā

mūrtirīdṛśyeveti kaścinniyamosti sarvātmakasya parameśvarasya

bhaktacittapriyāyāḥ sarvasyā api mūrte svakīyatvāt ataeva

bhagavadgītāyām yo yo yāṁ yāṁ tanu bhaktaḥ śraddhayārcitumicchati .

tasya tasyācalāṁ śraddhāṁ tāmeva vidadhāmyaham . sa tayā śraddhayā

yuktastasyā rādhanamīhate . labhate ca tataḥ kāmān mayaiva vihitān

hitāniti . viṣṇurudrādivat acetanamūrtayo’pi

tattatphalaviśaṣārthibhirośvaratvenopāsyāḥ . tadetadṛgvede

samāmnāyate . etaṁ hyeva bahvyaca mahatyukthe mīmāṁsa

ntaetamagnāvadhvaryava, etaṁ mahāvratecchandogā, etamasyām

(pṛthivyām) etaṁ divyetaṁ vāyāvetamākāśa etamoṣadhīṣvetaṁ

vanaspatiṣvetaṁ chandasyetaṁ nakṣatreṣvetaṁ sarveṣu bhūteṣviti

vājasaneyino’pi maṇḍalabrāhmaṇe tametamagnimadhvaryava upāsata

ityāramya paṭhanti viṣamiti sarpāḥ, sarpa iti sarpavidaḥ, urgiti devaḥ,

rayiriti manuṣyāḥ, māyetyamurāḥ, svadheti pitaro, devajana iti

devajanavido rūpamiti gandharvā, gandhaityapsarasastaṁ

yathāyathopāsate tadeva bhavatīti . taittirīyāśca paṭhanti kṣema iti vāci,

yogakṣemam iti prāṇāpānayorityādi . parabrahmaṇyāropitaṁ

yadyāvajjagadrūpam asti tena sarveṇaḥpyupāsanayā parameśvaro

rūpavānbhavatītihiraṇmayādhikaraṇatejomayādhikaraṇayoḥ prapañcitam .

evaṁ ca sati yo yadā yatkarmārabhate sa tadā tatkarmopayuktāṁ

kālātmakasyeścarasya mūrtimiṣṭadevaṁtārūpeṇānusmaret . ata eva

mantraśāstreṣu nānāvidhāni dhyānānyupadiṣṭāni .

loke’pyāvidvadāgopālāṅganaṁ sarvo’pi jana ekaikāṁ devatāṁ svecchayā

pūjayati tadetadbhagavānāha yajante sātvikādevān yakṣarakṣāṁsi

rājasāḥ pretān bhūtagaṇāṁścānthe yajante tāmasā janāḥ iti tasma

dārabhyamāṇakarmaphalapradonijeṣṭadevatārūponityaḥ kālaḥ

karmārambheṣu anusmartavya iti siddham .

atha janyaṁ kālaṁ nirūpayāmaḥ . nanu kālasya janyatve sati kathaṁ

pralaye kālavyavahāraḥ . pralayatvasya janyānadhikaraṇatvarūpatvāt .

pralayo’tītaḥ pralayobhāvīti kālanityatvavādinastavāpi samodoṣaḥ .

nityasya kālasya tapanaparisyandādyupādhibhiḥ paricchede satyetāvān

kāla iti kāleyattā varṇayitavyā . na ca pralaye tadupādhayaḥ santi .

atastava kathaṁ pralayakāle iyattānirṇayaḥ . atha

satkāryavādābhyupagamenopādhayo’pi vāsanā rūpeṇa santi tarhi kāle’pi

tatsamānaṁ, na caitāvatā nityatāprāptiḥ upādhiṣu tadanaṅgīkarāt . atha

manyase iyattārahite’pi pralayakāle sṛṣṭikāleyattāvāsanāvaśādiyattā

vyavahriyate . tatropādhyāyatvādirdṛṣṭāntaḥ . yathā kaścinmāṇavakaḥ


saṁvatsaramadhītyāsmadupādhyāya ekatriṁśadvarṣavayaska

ityadhyayanarahite’pyatote vayasyvapādhyāyatvaṁ vyavaharati .

tadvadiyattāvyavahāraḥ . evaṁ tarhyanena nyāyena kālarahitapralaye

kālavyavahāraḥ kiṁ na syāt? . kālarahitaṁ ca pralayādikaṁ vastvastoti

māṇḍūkyādiśrutayo’bhyupra gacchanti . tathā ca śrūyate,

yaccānyattrikālātītaṁ tadapyoṅkāra eveti . prābhākarāścāpūrvasya

kālatrayāsaṁsṛṣṭāṅkāñcidavasthābhāhuḥ . tasmātkālaḥ sukhena

janyatāṁ sa ca sāmānyaviśeṣābhyāndvividhaḥ . tasya

cobhayavidhasyeśvarākhyānnityātkālādutpattiṁ manurāha kālaṁ

kālavibhaktiñca nakṣatrāṇi grahāṁstathā . sṛṣṭiṁ sasarja caivemāṁ

sraṣṭumicchannimāḥ prajāḥ iti . tatra yaḥ sāmānyakālaḥ sa

viśeṣānugatatvāttadapekṣayā nityograhagatyādibhiranumeyo

bhūtotpattinimittakāraṇamiti tārkikajyautiṣikādayaḥ pratipedire . tatra

jyautiṣikā evamāhuḥ prabhavaviratibhadhyajñānabandhyā nitāntaṁ

viditaparamatattvā yatra te yogino’pi . tamahamiha nimittaṁ

viśvajanmātyayānāmanumitamabhivande bhagrahaiḥ kālamīśam .

yugavarṣamāsadivasāḥ samaṁ pravṛttāstu caitraśuklādeḥ .

kālo’yamanādyanto graharbharanumīyate kṣetra iti kālaviśeṣeṣu ca

saṁvatsaraḥ prādhānabhūtaḥ . anye sarve guṇabhūtāḥ .

tathācāruṇaketuke samāmnāyate nada va prabhavā kācidakṣayyā

syandate yathā . tāṁ nadyobhisamāyanti saha, sā na nivartate . evaṁ

nānāsamutthānāḥ kālāḥ saṁvatsaraṁ śritāḥ . aṇuśaśca

mahāntaścasarvesamavayanti tam . sa taiḥ sarvaiḥ samāviṣṭa ūhaḥ

sanna nivartate iti . ayamarthaḥ . bhāgīrathīgodāvaryādikā nadīva kālaḥ

kutaścidutpattisthānādutpadyate . taccotpattisthānaṁ sāṁkhyoktaṁ

prakṛtiḥ śivāgamoktamāyā vā śrutismṛtyuditā nityakālātmaka īśvaro vā

bhaviṣyati . yathā tāṁ gaṅgādikāṁ mahānadī manyāṁ

svalpanadyo’bhitaḥ praviśanti sā ca praviṣṭairnadyantaraiḥ saha vistīrṇā

pravahatpravāhā satī na kadācit śuṣyati . evaṁ nānāvidharūpaiḥ

samutpannāḥ kālabhedāḥ saṁvatsarākhyaṁ pradhānaṁ kālamāśritāḥ .

tatra nimeṣādyā ayanaparyantāḥ kālabhedāḥ saṁsatsarādaṇavo,

yugādyāḥ parārdhaparyantāḥ saṁvatsarānmahāntaste sarve taṁ

saṁvatsaraṁ samyak praviśanti . aṇū nāmavayavatvena praveśaḥ .

mahatāntu saṁvatsarāvṛttiniṣpādyānāmadhyakṣaḥ saṁvatsaraiti tatra

praveśo’bhidhīyate . tathāca yedāṅgajyotiṣagranthe paṭhyate

pañcasaṁyatsaramayaṁ yugādhyakṣaṁ prajāpatim .

dinartvayanamāsāṅga praṇamya śirasā sthita iti . sa ca

saṁvatsarasteraṇubhirmahadbhiśca sarvaiḥ samāviṣṭo’tidīrghaḥ

sannasmin jagati ta cchidyata iti . nanvaṇutvaṁ nimeṣe paryavasitaṁ

mahattvotu parārdhe tathā ca tayoranyatarasya prādhānyamucitam .

tatra kathaṁ saṁvatsarasya prādhānyam? iti cet īśvareṇa prathamaṁ

sṛṣṭatvāditi brūmaḥ . tathā ca vājasaneyinaḥ samāmananti so’kāmayata

dvitīyoma ātmājāyeteti sa manasā vācā mithunaṁ samabhavadyattadreta

āsīt sa saṁvatsaro’bhavaditi . tasmātsaṁvatsaraḥ pradhānam, ataeva

vayaṁ saṁvatsarabhāramya kālaviśeṣaṁ nirṇayāmaḥ . tatra

saṁvatsaro’yanamṛturmāsaḥ pakṣaḥ tithirnakṣatraṁ yoga ityevaṁ vidhāḥ

karmakālāḥ . yadyapi purāṇaṣu mṛtyumārkaṇḍeyādīnāṁ

yugādikalpādiparimitaṁ tapaḥ smaryate tathāpi śatasaṁvatsarāyuṣo

manuṣyānadhikṛtya dharmaśāstrapravṛtteḥ yugādinirṇayonoyayuktaḥ .

śāstrāṇāṁ manuṣyādhikāratvaṁ cāsmābhiḥ pārāśarasmṛtivyākhyāne

manuṣyāṇāṁ hitaṁ dharmam ityasminvacane prapañcitam . yetu kalau

pañca vivarjayet ityādayomanuṣyadharmāsteṣvapi na yugādikaṁ

nirṇetavya saṁdehābhāvāt . na ca śatāyuṣāmadhikāre kathaṁ

sahasrasaṁvatsarasatraśrutiriti śaṅkanīyam tatra

saṁvatsaraśabdodivasapara iti ṣaṣṭhādhyāye sapnamapādenirṇītatvāt .

ye’pi caturdaśasavatsarāvṛttisādhyā anantavratādayasteṣvapi na

saṁvatsarādhikaḥ kaścitkālo nirṇetavyo’sti . ataḥ

saṁvatsaramārabhyāvāṁñca eva nirṇetavyāḥ karmāṅakālāḥ . na ca

kālasya karmāṅgatve vivaditavyam sāyaṁ buhoti prātarjahotītiḥ śruteḥ

tattatkarmaṇastāvadapūrvaviṣayatvāt (apūrvajanakatvāt,

prādhānyamabhyugamya tathā ca kālasya guṇatvenānvayaḥ pariśiṣyate

ataeva gargaḥ tithinakṣatravārādi sādhanaṁ puṇyapāpayoḥ .

pradhānaguṇabhāvena svātasthyeṇa na te kṣamāḥ iti .

tasmādaṅgabhūteṣa nirṇeyeṣa kāleṣvavayavitvena

saṁvatsarasyābhyarhitatvādalpavaktavyatayā sūcīkaṭāhanyāyānusāreṇa

ca saeva ādau nirṇīyataitisthitam . sū° si° raṅga° kālavibhāgaścetthaṁ


lokānāmamakṛtkālaḥ kālo’nyaḥ kalanātmakaḥ . sa dvidhā

sthūlasūkṣmatvānmūrtaścāmūrta ucyate sū° si° . kālo dvidhā tatraikaḥ

kālo’khaṇḍadaṇḍāyamānaḥ śāstrāntarapramāṇasiddhaḥ . lokānāṁ

jīvānāmupalakṣaṇādacetanānāmapi . antakṛdvināśakaḥ . yadyapi

kālasteṣāmutpattisthitikārakastathāpi vināśasyānantatvāt

kālatvapratipādanāya cāntakṛdityuktam .

antakṛdityanenaivotpattisthitikṛdityaktamanyathā nāśakatvāsambhavāt .

ataeva kālaḥ sṛjati bhūtāni kālaḥ saṁharati prajāḥ ityādyuktaṁ

granthāntare . anyo dvitīyaḥ kālaḥ khaṇḍakālaḥ . kalanātmako

jñānaviṣayasvarūpaḥ . jñātuṁśakyaityarthaḥ . sa dvitīyaḥ kalanātmakaḥ

kālo’pi dvidhā bhedadvayātmakaḥ . tadāha sthūlasūkṣmatvāditi

mahattvāṇutvābhyām . mūrtaḥ–iyattāvacchinnaparimāṇaḥ .

amūrtastadbhinnaḥ kālatattva vidbhiḥ kathyate . cakāro hetukrameṇa

mūrtāmūrtakramārthakaḥ . tena mahān mūrtakālo’ṇṛramūrtaḥ kāla

ityarthaḥ . athoktaṁ bhedadvayaṁ svarūpeṇa pradarśayan

prathamabhedaṁ pratipipādayiṣustadavāntarabhedeṣu bhedadvayamāha

raṅganāthaḥ . prāṇādiḥ kathito mūrtastruṭyādyo’mūrtasañjñakaḥ .

ṣaḍabhiḥ prāṇairvināḍī syāt tatṣaṣṭhyā nāḍikā smṛtā sū° si° .

prāṇaḥ svasthasukhāsīnasya śvāsocchāsāntarvartī kālo

daśagurvakṣaroccāryamāṇa ādiryasyaitādṛśaḥ prāṇanāntargato mūrtaḥ

kāla uktaḥ . truṭirādyā yasyaitādṛśaḥ kāla eva

prāṇāntargatastraṭitatparādiko’mūrtasañjñaḥ . athāmūrtasya

mūrtādibhūtasya vyadhahārāyogyatvenāpradhānatayānantaroddiṣṭasya

bheda pratipādanamupekṣya mūrtakālasya vyavahārayogyatvena

pradhānatayā prathamoddiṣṭabhedān vivakṣuḥ prathamaṁ

palaghaṭyāvāha . ṣaḍbhiriti . ṣaḍabhiḥprāṇairasubhiḥ pānīyapalaṁ bhavati

palānāṁ ṣaṣṭhyā caṭikoktā kālatattvajñaiḥ . atha dinamāsādikamāha

raṅga° .

nāḍīṣaṣṭyā tu nākṣatramahorātraṁ prakīrtitam . tattriṁśatā

bhavenmāsaḥ sāvano’rkodayaignathā .

aindavastithibhistadvat saṅkrāntyā saura ucyate .

māsairdvādaśabhirvarṣaṁ divyaṁ tadaharucyate .

surāsurāṇāmanyo’nyamahorātraṁ viparyavāt . tatṣaṣṭiḥ ṣaḍguṇā 360

divyaṁ varṣamāsurameśa ca .

taddvādaśa sahasrāṇi caturyugamudāhṛttam . sūryābdasaṅkhyayā

dvitrisāgarairayutāhataiḥ 4320000 .

sandhyāsandhyāṁśasahitaṁ vijñeyaṁ taccaturyugam . kṛtādīnāṁ

vyavastheyaṁ dharmapādavyavasthāyā . yugasya daśamo

bhāgaścatustridvyekasaṅguṇaḥ . kramāt kṛtayugādīnāṁ, ṣaṣṭhāṁśāḥ

sandhayaḥ svakāḥ .

yugānāṁ saptatiḥ saikā manvantaramihocyate . kṛtābdasaṅkhya

1728000 stasthānte sandhiḥ proktojalaplavaḥ .

sasandhayaste manavaḥ kalpe jñenyāścaturdaśa . kṛtapramāṇaḥ

kalpādau sandhiḥ pañcadaśaḥ smṛtaḥ .

ityaṁ yugasahasreṇa bhūtasahārakārakaḥ . kalpo brāhmamahaḥ

proktaṁ śarvarī tasya tāvatī .

paramāyuḥ śataṁ tasya tayā’horātnasaṅkhyayā . āyuṣordhamitaṁ

tasya śeṣe kalpoyamādimaḥ sū° si° . aharādikālabhedāḥ (ahan) śabde

uktāḥ .

si° śi° tu nimeṣatatparatruṭirūpāḥ sūkṣmāḥ kālāvayavāḥ darśitāḥ

tasya vākyaṁ 1788 pṛ° darśitam . sa ca kālastrividhaḥ

vartamānabhūtabhaviṣyadbhedāt tatra bhūtabhaviṣyat kālāvapi

pratyekaṁ dvidhā adyatanānadyatanabhedāt tadbhedenaiva

lakāraviśeṣaṁ pāṇiniranuśaśāsa .

so’yaṁ kālaḥ ṣaḍindriyavedyaḥ iti mīmāṁsakā manyante na so’sti

pratyayoloke yatra kālo na bhāsate iti teṣāmukteḥ . vedāntinastu tasya

sākṣipratyayabhāsyatvamaṅgīcakruḥ tatra pramāṇaṁ kālamā°

anupadameva darśitam . so’yaṁ kālaḥ

deśavṛttaravyāpyavṛttitāniyāmakaḥ . tathāhi yaḥ padārthaḥ

svādhikaraṇavṛttyabhāvapratiyogī so’vyāpyavṛttiriti bhaṇyate

tattānirvāhakaśca kālodeśaśca . kvaciddeśe sthitasya tādṛśapadārthasya

kālabhedena tatraivādhikaraṇe’bhāvastiṣṭhati yathā jñānāśraye ātmani

suṣuptikāle icchādiviśeṣaguṇāntarakāle ca jñānābhāvaḥ . yathā vā

guṇavati janyadravye utpattikāle guṇābhāvaḥ śyāmale apakve ghaṭe

raktatvābhāvaḥ raktatvasya pākīttaraṁ jāyamānatvāt . kālasattva ca

deśo’pi tathā . yathā ātmani jñānakāle śarārāvacchedena jñānaṁ,

ghaṭādyavacchedena tadabhāvaḥ . tathā vṛrkṣa kapisaṁyogakāle’pi mūle

tadabhāvaḥ . kālena kṛtasambandhaśca kālikasambandhaḥ tena

sambandhena sarveṣu janyabhāveṣu janyabhāvānāṁ vṛttimattā nityeṣu

gu kālikasambandhena na kasyāpi sattvam

nityānuyogikakālikatambanyānupagamāt iti naiyāyikāḥ . tasya ca

pauruṣaṁ daivasampāyā kāle phalati pārthiva! . trayametanmanuvyasya

piṇḍitaṁ syāt phalāvaham ityukteḥ kāryamātre nimittakāraṇatā . yadyapi

kṛṣervṛṣṭisamāyoge dṛśyante phalasiddhayaḥ . tāstu kāle pradṛśyante

naivākāle kathañcaneti śāstrāntareṇa tattatkālānāmeva

yattatkāryotpattau hetutā ‘dhigatā tathāpi yadviśeṣayoḥ

kāryakāraṇabhāvastatsāmānyayorapīti nyāyāt sāmānyataḥ kāryamātraṁ

prati kālasāmānyasya hetutvam . kālaḥ krīḍati gacchatyāyustadapi na

muñcatyāśāvāyuḥ mohamu° . kāle bhavaḥ ṭhañ . kālika kālabhave tri°

samāsapratyayabidhau pratiṣedho vaktavyaḥ bā° ukteḥ

tadantavidhiparibhāṣāyāḥ apravṛtteḥ kālāntaśabdānnāsya pravṛttiḥ tena

tadanta śabdāt khaeva sādhuḥ samānakānīnaḥ prākkālīna ityādi

bhūriprayogāt . si° kau°

samānakālonaprākkālonaśabdayoraprāmāṇikatoktiḥ prauḍhoktireva

udāhṛtavārtikasya jāgarūkatvāt iti gauḍāāhuḥ . pratīcyāstu

kaumudīkāraśraddhāvaśāt ṭhañvidhāyakasūte

kālasāmānyatadviśeṣaparyāyāṇāṁ grahaṇāt samānakālaprākkālayorapi

kālaviśeṣatvena tataḥ ṭhañeva pravṛttirna khasyeti bhāṣyādiprayogastu

ārṣatvāt samādheyaḥ iti manyante . kālena nirvṛttaḥ ṭhañ kālika

kālasādhye tri° striyāṁ ṅīp . kartustātkālikī śuddhiriti smṛtiḥ tatra

tatkālaśabdasyaiva ṭhañaḥ prakṛtitvāt tena na pūrvoktavārtikasaṅkocaḥ

ataeva tatra tacchabdasyaivādyacovṛddhiḥ tena nivṛttamityadhikārāt

prakṛtimātrasyaiva grahaṇāt na kālatvena tatraprakṛtitā . kāle sādhuḥ

puṣyan pacyamāno vā aṇ . kāla–kāle sādhau kāle yikaśa māne kāle

pacyamāne ca tri° . atra sūtre kālaviśeṣasyaiva grahaṇaṁ na svarūpasya

tena na tato’ṇ ityanye . kālaḥ prāpto’sya yat . kālya prāptakāle śītādau

tri° kālodevatā’sya kālebhyobhavavat pā° ṭhañ . kālika kāla devatāke

havirādau striyāṁ ṅīp . 15 tattatkarmocitakāle varamekāhutiḥ kāle nākāle

lakṣakoṭayaḥ tri° ta° . akāle’pyatha vā kāle gaṅgāṁ prāpya saridvarām

prā° ta° . kāle kālakṛto naśyet phalabhogyo na naśyati yā° smṛ° .

ardhayāmaśabde 376 pṛ° darśite ravyādivāreṣu kālavelākhye 16

divāniśorardhayāmabhede yātrāyāṁ maraṇaṁ kāle vaidhavyaṁ

pāṇipīḍane . brate brahmabadhaḥ proktaḥ sarvaṁ karma tatastajet jyo°

ta° tasya sarvakarmasu varjyatāmāha 17 sāṁkhyīkte meghāsvye

vivekasākṣātakārāntarāye tuṣṭibhede yathā ādhyātmikyaścatasraḥ

prakṛtyupādānakālabhāgyākhyāḥ . bāhyāviṣayoparamāt pañca, nava

tuṣṭayobhavanti sā° kā0

yā tu pravrajyāpi na sadyonirvāṇadeti saiva kālaparipākamapekṣya

siddhinte vidhāsyati alamuttaptatayā tavetyapadeśe yā tuṣṭiḥ sā kālākhyā

megha (1) ucyate kau° . vivṛtañjaitadasmābhiḥ . pravrajyāmātrasya

vivekakhyātihetutve prabrajyāgrahaṇamātreṇa vivekakhyātyāpattirūpam

upadeśe asattavaprayojakaṁ dūṣaṇam sahakāryantarāpekṣākalpanāt

pariharannupadeśāntaraṁ darśayati na sadyo nirvāṇadeti . sadyaḥ,

grahaṇamātrāt na tu kālarūpasahakāryantarāpekṣaṇāta na nirvāṇadā

vivekakhyātijananadvārā na muktidetyarthaḥ . tathā ca

kṛṣervṛṣṭisamāyoge vṛśyante phalasiddhayaḥ . tāstu kāle pradṛśyante

naivākāle kathañcana iti śāstreṇa kāryamātraṁ prati kālasya sahakāritāyā

anvayavyatirekābhyāṁ ca prasiddhatvāt kālasyaiva taddhetutvamastu

kṛtaṁ dhyānābhyasādineti samuditārthaḥ .

kālasyasādhanatāsādhakaśāstreṇa kṛṣyādeḥ pradhāna phalahetutvaṁ

tatra kālasya sahakāritāmātraṁ pratipāditaṁ na tu tanmātrasya

hetutvamevañca kālasya sādhāraṇakāraṇatvam asādhāraṇakāraṇatvantu

kṛṣyādereva evañca prakṛte’pi vivekakhyātiṁ prati

dhyānābhyāsāderevārādpakārakatvāt asādhāraṇahetutvaṁ, kālasya

sādhāraṇahetutvamityasyāsadudhadeśatva miti bodhyam iti .

varsavācikālaśabdasya striyāṁ janapadā° ni° ṅīṣ . kālī kākālī

kāmadhurā kāśītalavāhino gaṅgā . bidagdha mu° samānapraśnottaram .

18 hiṁsake tri° tataḥ striyāṁ na ṅīṣ . kālāt vaṇṇaścet vārtikokteḥ .

kālānyā si° kau° . kālasyeyam aṇ ṅīp kālasya patnī ṅīṣ vā . kālī kālaśaktau

śivakāntāyāñca strī . adhikaṁ kālīśabde vakṣyate . 19 mṛtyau medi°

sarvasyāgrahaṇānāttasya tathātvam . aśumāṁśca tapastepe

gaṅgānayanakāmyayā . kālaṁ mahāntaṁ nāśaknīt tataḥ kālena

saṁsthitaḥ . dilīpastatsutastadbadaśaktaḥ kālameyikān bhāga° 9 9 2 3 1

kālaṁ mṛtyum śrīdharaḥ .

varṇavācakāt tasya bhāva ityarthe imanic kāliman pu° tal kālatā strī,

tva kālatva na° . kṛṣṇavarṇe . tatra yame upetya muniveśo’tha kālaḥ

provāca rāghavam raghuḥ . yamaparatve 20 dvitvasaṁkhyāyāṁ 21

tatsaṁkhyānvite ca bharaṇyāyamadaivatatvāt tasyāśca

aśvinyādinakṣatracakre dvitīyatvāt lakṣitalakṣaṇayā tatparatvam .

śivaparatve 22 ṣaṭsaṁkhyāyāṁ 23 tadanvate ca śivadaivatārdrāyā

aśvinyādiṣu ṣaṣṭhatvāduktarītyā tathātvam . ṛṇidhanicakraśabde 1428 pṛ°

darśitaṁ ṣaṭkālakāletyādi vākyam udā° kālasya velā ravitaḥ

śarākṣikālānalāgāmbudhayo gajendū jyo° ta° .

candrādigrahāṇāṁ dṛṣṭiyogyatāprāpakakālātmake 24 aṁśabhede ca .

sa ca si° śi° darśito yathā

dasrendavaḥ 12 śaulabhuvaśca 17 śakrā 14 rudrāḥ 11 khacandrā 10

stithayaḥ 15 krameṇa . candrāditaḥ kālalavā niruktāḥ

jñaśukrayorvakragayordvihīnāḥ si° śi° .

candrādīnāmene 12 . 17 . 14 . 11 10 . 15 . kālāṁśā jñeyāḥ .

budhaśukrayostu vakragatayordvihīnā 12 . 8 dvivarjitā jñeyāḥ .

atropapattiḥ . kālāṁśā iti kālātmakā aṁśāḥ ṣaḍbhira śairekā ghaṭikā .

ekasyāṁśasya daśa pānīyapalāni . atraitaduktaṁ bhavati . candrasya kila

dvādaśa 12 kālāṁśāḥ . arkasyāstamayādudayādvā

ghaṭikādvayādhike’ntare candro dṛṣṭiyogyo bhavati . tadūne

tatprabhācchāditatvādadṛśyaḥ . atastasya dvādaśa kālāṁśāḥ . evaṁ

bhaumasya saptadaśa 17 ṣaḍaṁśonāstisro ghaṭikāḥ 2 . 50 ityarthaḥ .

ebamanyeṣāṁ yathāpaṭhitāsteṣāṁ vimbasya sthūlasūkṣmatāvaśāt

nyūnādhikatā . ata eva budhaśukrayorvakragatayorvimbasya

sthūlatvāddvihīnāḥ . atropalabdhireva vāsanā prami0

yatrodayo vāstamayo’vagamyastaddigbhavo dṛkkhacaro raviśca .

astodayāsannadine kadācit sādhyastu paścāt taraṇiḥ saṣaḍbhaḥ si° śi° .

iha kendrabhāgairgrahasyodayo’stamayo vā yasmin dina

āyātastasyāsanne kasmiṁściddine taṁ grahaṁ raviṁ ca sphuṭaṁ kṛtvā

yasyāṁ diśi grahodayo’stamayo vā taddigbhavo dṛggrahaḥ kāryaḥ . yadi

prācyāṁ tadaudayikaṁ grahaṁ kṛtvodayalagnaṁ sādhyam . yadi ca

pratīcyāṁ tadāstamayikaṁ grahaṁ kṛtvāstalagnaṁ sādhyamityarthaḥ .

yadā pratīcyāṁ, tadāraviḥ saṣaḍbhaśca kāryaḥ .

idānīmiṣṭakālāṁśānayanamāha prami° .

dṛkkhecarārkāntarajātanāḍyo rasāhatāḥ kālalavāḥ syuriṣṭāḥ si° śi° .

dṛggrahārkayorantaraghaṭikāḥ sādhyāstā rasa 6 hatā iṣṭāḥ kālāṁśā

bhavanti . atha tairudayāstayorgataiṣyāḥ nāḍyaḥ prami° .

uktebhya ūnābhyadhikā yadīṣṭāḥ kheṭodayo gamyagatastadā syāt .

ato’nyathā vā’stamayo’vagamyaḥ prokteṣṭakālāṁśaviyogaliptāḥ .

khābhrāṣṭabhū 1800 ghnādyucarodayāptāḥ

kheṭārkabhukyantarabhājitāśca . vakre tu bhuktyaikyahṛtā

avāptāstadantarāle divasā gataiṣyāḥ . tātkālikābhyāṁ ravidṛggrahābhyāṁ

muhuḥ kṛtāste sphuṭatāṁ prayānti si° śi° .

evaṁ ya iṣṭakālāṁśā ānītāste proktebhyo yadi svalpā bhavanti tadā

grahasyodayo gamyaḥ . yadyadhikāstadā gata iti veditavyam .

ato’nyathāstamaya iti . atha proktāuktebhyoyadīṣṭāḥ svalpāstadā

grahasyāstamayogatoyadyadhikastadā gamya iti . atha

proktānāmiṣṭakālāṁśānāṁ ca yā antare kalāstā aṣṭādaśaśatai 1800

rguṇyā dṛggrahākrāntasya rāśeḥ svadeśodayāsubhirbhājyāḥ .

phalakalānāṁ grahārkabhuktyantareṇa vakrage grahe bhuktiyogena

bhāge gṛhīte yallabdhaṁ te gatā eṣyā vādivasā bhavantyudaye

vāstamaye vā . tairdivasaistātkālikau dṛggrahārkau

kṛtvaivamasakṛtkarmaṇā samyak tatkālajñānaṁ bhavati .

atropapattiḥ . iṣṭakālāṁśasādhane lagnavāsanaiva . proktānāṁ

kālāṁśānāmanantarvartī graho dṛśyo bhavati . ato yāvadiṣṭā

nyūnāstāvadadṛśyaḥ . udaye vilokyamāne udeṣyati . aste

bilokyamāne’staṁ gata ityarthājjñāyate . iṣṭā yadyadhikāstadā

proktebhyo vilokyamāne’staṁgate bahirbhūtādgraho’dṛśya udaye

vilokyamāna uditaḥ astaṁ yāsyatītyarthājjñāyate . atha teṣāṁ

prokteṣṭānāṁ kālāṁśānāṁ ca yā antare kalāstāsāṁ kṣetraliptīnāṁ

karaṇāyānupātaḥ . yāvatyaḥ kālakalāstāvanta evāsavo bhavanti . atha

yadi dṛggrahodayāsubhiraṣṭādaśaśatāni 1800 kṣetraliptā labhyante tadā

tadantarakalāsubhiḥ kimiti . phalaṁ kṣaitraliptāḥ . tā

grahārkabhuktyantareṇa bhājyāḥ . bhuktyantaraṁ hi

kṣetraliptāntarātmakamataḥ sajātīyakaraṇāya kṣetraliptīkaraṇam .

bhuktyantareṇaiko divaso labhyata iti yuktamuktam . vakre tu bhuktiyoga

eva bhuktyantaram . dūrāntare sthūlakālo bhavatītyasakṛtkarma

sūkṣmārtham . atra viśeṣamāha . prami0

prāgdṛggarhaścedadhiko raveḥ syādūno’tha vā paścimadṛggrahaśca .

prokteṣṭakālāṁśayuteḥ kalābhiḥ sādhyastadānīṁ divasāgataiṣyāḥ . tathā

yadīṣṭakālāṁśāḥ proktebhyo’bhyadhikāstadā . vyatyayaścagataiṣyatve

jñeyo’hnāṁ sudhiyā khalu si° śi0

yadi prāgdṛggraho raveradhiko bhavati . atha vā paścimadṛggraho

nyūno bhavati tadāye iṣṭakālāṁśā ānītāsteṣāṁ proktānāṁ ca

yogakalābhirdivasāḥ sādhyāḥ . nāntarakalābhiḥ tathā

prāgdṛggrahe’rkādadhike sati paścāddṛggrahe vā nyūne ya iṣṭakālāṁśā

āgatāste ca yadi proktebhyo’dhikāntarāḥ tadā prokteṣṭakālāṁśayuteḥ

kalābhirye divasāḥ sādhitāsteṣāṁ divasānāṁ gataiṣyatve viparyayojñeyaḥ


atropapattiḥ . yo grahaḥprācyāmudeti pratitiṣṭhati vā asau raverūnaḥ

san praścimāyām adhikaḥ san prācyāṁ diśi proktakālāṁśairūnaḥ san

dṛśyatāmeti . tāvadbhireva paścimā yāmadhikaḥsan . ato raveḥ pṛṣṭhataḥ

prācyāṁ proktakālāṁśāḥ pratīcyāmagrataḥ . prācyāmūne grahe ya

iṣṭakālāṁśāḥ sādhyante te raveḥ pṛṣṭhataḥ . ataḥ pṛṣṭhagataireva

proktakālāṁśaisteṣāmantaraṁ kartuṁ yujyate . atha prācyāṁ

raveradhike dṛggrahe ya iṣṭakālāṁśāḥ sādhyante te raveragrato bhavanti

. ato’gragatānāṁ pṛṣṭhagatānāñca kālāṁśānāṁ yoge kṛtesatyantaraṁ

kṛtaṁ bhavati tathā uktebhya ūnābhyadhikā yadīṣṭā iti

yadgatagamyalakṣaṇamuktaṁ tat sajātīyānāmeva . yadā punareke

pṛṣṭhagatā eke’gragatāstadā tadgatagamyalakṣaṇaṁ vyatyayena bhavati

. ata uktaṁ vyatyayaśca gataiṣyatva ityādi . atra sudhiyeti

viśeṣaṇādubuddhimataidadanuktamapi jñāyate prami° . vyavahāre

vādiprativādinoḥ pratijñātārthasāghanāya rājñādeye 25 avasararūpe

samayabhede ca tatkālaviśeṣaḥ smṛtau darśito yathā pratyarthī labhate

kālaṁ tryahaṁ saptāhameva ca . arthī tu prārthayan kālaṁ tatkṣaṇādeva

hīyate . pratyarthino’pi kvacidviṣayena kālo deyaḥ

kvaciccārthipratyarthinoricchayā kālodeyaḥ yathāha yājña°

sāhasasteyapāruṣyago’bhiśāpātyaye striyām . vivādayet sadyaeva

kālo’nyatrecchayā smṛtaḥ .

samayarūpakālasya vaiśeṣikamate

saṁyogavibhāgapṛthaktvasaṁkhyāparimāṇarūpā pañca guṇāḥ . bhīmo

bhīmasenavat uttarapadalopaḥ . kāladaṇḍarūpe 26 yoge kāladaṇḍaśabde

udā° . vāraviśeṣe digbhedena jyotiṣokte yātrādau niṣiddhe 27 yogabhede

. sa ca yogaḥ mu° ci° uktaḥ . kauverīto vaiparītyena kālo’rkādye vāre

sammukhe tasya pāśaḥ . rātrāvetau vaiparītyena gamyau yātrā yuddhe

saṁmukhau varjanīyau . ayamaryaḥ . ravāvuttarasyāṁ kālaḥ, some

vāyavyāṁ, bhaume paścimāyām, budhe nairṛtyām, gurau dakṣiṇasyām,

śukre āgneyyāṁ, śanau pūrvasyām . ravāvuttarataḥ kālaḥ some

vāyavyabhāgake . bhaume tu paścime bhāge budhe nairṛtabhāgake . jīve

ca yāmyadigbhāge śukre cāgneyakoṇake . śanau tu pūrvadigbhāge

kālacakraṁ prakīrtitam . svarodaye yatrasthastatrakālaḥ syāt pāśastasya

tu sammukhaḥ . dakṣiṇasthaḥ śubhaḥ kālaḥ pāśo vāmadigāśrayaḥ .

yātrāyāṁ samare śreṣṭhastato’nyatra na śobhavaḥ . rātrau ca

vaiparītyena yathā ravau rātrau dakṣiṇasyāṁ kālaḥ uttarasyāṁ pāśa

ityādikrameṇetyūhyam . 28 kalāye (maṭara) śimbībhede, vaija° .

vikasatkalāyakusumam māghavyā° kālakusumamiti malli°

dhruvanāmakavasoḥ 29 putrabhede pu° . dhruvasya putro bhagavān kālo

lokaprakālanaḥ harivaṁ° 3 a° .

कालक – kālaka Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kālaka mfn. ( 5-4, 33) dark-blue, black

mfn. freckled (? or “dark”, as with anger)

kālaka m. a freckle (? “black colour”)

kālaka m. the black part of the eye

kālaka m. a water-snake

kālaka m. a kind of grain

kālaka m. (in alg.) the second unknown quantity, Bījag.

kālaka m. N. of a Rakshas

kālaka m. of an Asura

kālaka m. pl. N. of a people

kālaka m. of a dynasty

kālaka mfn. (“kālakā”) f. a kind of bird

kālaka m. (g. “sthūlādi”) N. of a female evil spirit (mother of the

Kālakeyas; daughter of Daksha ; also of Vaiśvānara & &c.

kālaka mfn. (“kālikā”) f. blackness or black colour

kālaka m. ink or blacking

kālaka m. a dark spot, rust

kālaka m. a fault or flaw in gold

kālaka m. change of complexion

kālaka m. the liver on

kālaka m. a particular blood-vessel in the ear

kālaka m. the line of hair extending from the pudenda to the navel

kālaka m. a multitude of clouds

kālaka m. snow

kālaka m. fog

kālaka m. the female of the bird Aṅgāraka

kālaka m. a female crow

kālaka m. the female of the bird Turdus macrourus (commonly “śyāmā”)

kālaka m. a scorpion

kālaka m. a small worm or animalcule formed by the fermentation of milk

kālaka m. N. of several plants (Vṛiścika-pattra, Valeriana Jaṭāmāṁsī, a

kind of Terminalia, a branch of Trichosanthes dioeca)

kālaka m. a kind of fragrant earth

kālaka m. a N. or form of Durgā

kālaka m. a girl of four years old who personates the goddess Durgā at a

festival held in honour of that deity

kālaka m. a kind of female genius 9532

kālaka m. one of the mothers in Skanda’s retinue

kālaka m. N. of a Vidyādharī cviii, 177

kālaka m. of a Kiṁnarī

kālaka m. of a Yoginī

kālaka m. of an attendant of the fourth Arhat

kālaka m. of a river

kālaka n. a worm-hole (in wood)

kālaka n. the liver

kālaka n. N. of a pot-herb

kālaka mf (“ikā”) n. to be paid monthly (as interest, “vṛddhi”).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


kālaka a. Black, dark-blue. –kaḥ

(1) A mole, freckle, mark.

(2) A water-snake.

(3) The black part of the eye.

(4) A kind of grain. –kā Ved.

(1) A kind of bird.

(2) A daughter of Daksha. –kaṁ

(1) The liver.

(2) An unknown quantity (in alg.).

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

kālaka (von 1. kāla) 1) adj. “dunkelblau” (wenn die Farbe vorübergehend

ist, nicht constant am Gegenstande haftet), “dunkelblau gefärbt” P. 5, 4,

33. kālakaṁ mukhaṁ kopena, kālakaḥ paṭaḥ Sch. Neben nīlaka COLEBR.

Alg. 228. — 2) m. a) “Leberfleck am Körper, Sommersprosse” AK. 2, 6, 1,

49. H. 618. — b) “das Schwarze im Auge” SUŚR. 2, 304, 2. — c)

“Wasserschlange” (alagarda) ŚABDAR. im ŚKDR. — d) “eine Getraideart”

SUŚR. 1, 73, 5. — e) N. pr. eines Rakshas R. 3, 29, 30 (kālakākhya,

welches auch ungetrennt als N. pr. gefasst werden könnte). eines Asura

HARIV. 2286. 14289. pl. N. eines Dānava-Geschlechts (s. kālakañja,

kālakeya) VP. 148, N. 9 (kūlaka, im Index aber kālaka). — f) N. pr. eines

Gebirges (?) VARĀH. BṚH. S. 14, 19 in Verz. d. B. H. 241. — 3) f. kālakā

a) “ein best. Vogel” VS. 24, 35. — b) N. pr. einer Unholdin (vgl. kālā,

kālikā), der Mutter der Kālakeya, gaṇa sthūlādi zu P. 5, 4, 3. MBH. 3,

12203. einer Tochter Daksha’s R. 3, 20, 12. 14. 17. Vaiśvānara’s ( = kāla

HARIV. 12492) HARIV. 208. BHĀG. P. 6, 6, 33. — 4) n. a) “Leber” H. 604.

— b) Name einer Pflanze (s. kālaśāka) BHĀVAPR. im ŚKDR. — Vgl.


kālaka 4) c) “Wurmstich im Holze” VARĀH. BṚH. S. 79, 32. 35. 37.

kālaka 2) a) hierher wohl das erste kālaka in kālakā yeṣāṁ te kālakāḥ

PAT. a. a. O.6,58,b. — e) N. pr. eines Volkes MĀRK. P. 58, 32.

Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975

kālaka An Asura born to Kālikā by Kaśyapa. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya

Kāṇḍa, Chapter 14).

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

kālaka kāla + ka,

I. m.

1. The black in the eye, Suśr. 2, 304, 2.

2. A sort of grain, Suśr. 1, 73, 5.

3. The name of a Rākṣasa, or demon, Rām. 3, 29, 30; of an Asura,

Hariv. 2286.

II. f. kā, The name of a female demon, MBh. 3, 12203.

— Comp. tila-, m. a mole, a dark spot on the body, Suśr. 1, 31, 18.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

kālaka [1] a. dark-blue, black. m. mole, freckle, a sort of grain. f. kālakā a

kind of bird; kālikā black spot, E. of Durgā.

kālaka [2] (f. kālikā) monthly.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

kālaka kāla-ka, a. dark blue, black;

-kañja, m. pl. N. of a tribe of Asuras;

-kaṇṭhaka, m. sparrow;

-karman, n. death;

-kāṅkṣin, a. waiting or impatient for the right moment;

-kārita, pp. temporary;

-kūṭa, m. kind of poison (esp. that produced at the churning of the


-kṛta, pp. produced by time; temporary;

-krama, m. course of time: in., ab. in course of time;

-kṣepa, m. waste of time, delay; d. to gain time;

-ṁkṛ, waste time (w. lc.);

-gaṇḍikā, f. N. of a river;

-gupta, (pp.) m. N. of a Vaisya.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

kālaka na° kāla–svārthe ka kalayati raktatāṁ kala–nodane ṇvul vā . 1

kālaśāke bhāvapra° tasya kṛṣṇavarṇatvāt tathātvam . 2 yakṛti hemaca° .

nikhiladeharaktaprerakatvāt tasya tathātvam . yathoktaṁ bhāvapra° .

yadā raso yakṛt yāti tatra rañjakapittataḥ . rāgaṁ pākaṁca saṁprāpya sa

bhavedraktasaṁjñakaḥ . yakṛt plīhā ca raktasya mukhyasthānaṁ tayoḥ

sthitam . anyatra saṁsthitavatāṁ raktānāṁ poṣakaṁ bhavet iti ca .

dehasthe kṛṣṇavarṇe (jaḍula) 3 cihnabhede jatuke pu° amaraḥ 4

alagardhe jalavyāle (kālaḍhoḍā) sarpe pu° strī śabdara° . anitye varṇe

tena rakte cārthe kālācca pa° kan . kālaka kālavarṇena rakte 5 paṭādau

tri° tasya varṇasyānityatvāt rāgeṇa raktatayā’nityatvācca tathātvam .

striyāṁ ṭāp . kālikā śāṭī si° kau° . vījagaṇitokte 6 avyaktarāśisaṁ

jñābhede pu° avyaktaśabde 467 pṛ° vivṛtiḥ .

किंकिरः – kiṁkiraḥ Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :1890


(1) A horse.

(2) The(Indian) cuckoo.

(3) A large black bee.

(4) N. of Cupid, the god of love.

(5) The red colour. –raṁ The frontal sinus of an elephant. –rā Blood.

कुलाह – kulāha Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kulāha m. a horse of a light-brown colour with black knees

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

kulāha m. “ein gelbliches Pferd mit schwarzen Knien” H. 1241. — Wohl ein


Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

kulāha puṁstrī° kulamāhanti ā + hana–ḍa . īṣatpītavarṇe kṛṣṇajānau

aśve hemaca° tataḥ saṁjñāyāṁ kan . 2 kṛkalāse, (rāṅgākulekhāḍā) iti

khyāte 3 śākabhede śabdamālā . āmavātaraktavātaroganāśī kulālakaḥ


कृष्ण – kṛṣṇa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṛṣṇa mf (“ā”) n. black, dark, dark-blue (opposed to “śveta, śukla,

rohita”, and “aruṇa”) &c.

mf (“ā”) n. wicked, evil

kṛṣṇa m. (with or without “pakṣa”) the dark half of the lunar month from

full to new moon

kṛṣṇa m. the fourth or Kali-yuga

kṛṣṇa mf (“ā”) n. (“kṛṣṇas”) m. black (the colour) or dark-blue (which is

often confounded with black by the Hindūs)

kṛṣṇa m. the antelope

kṛṣṇa m. a kind of animal feeding on carrion (“kṛṣṇa”)

kṛṣṇa m. the Indian cuckoo or Kokila (cf.

kṛṣṇa m. a crow

kṛṣṇa m. Carissa Carandas

kṛṣṇa m. N. of one of the poets of the (descended from Aṅgiras)

kṛṣṇa m. (a son of Devakī and pupil of Ghora āṅgirasa)

kṛṣṇa m. N. of a celebrated Avatār of the god Viṣṇu, or sometimes

identified with Viṣṇu himself ([ v, 2563; xiv, 1589 ff. 2359 &c.]) as

distinct from his ten Avatārs or incarnations (in the earlier legends he

appears as a great hero and teacher [; in the more recent he is deified,

and is often represented as a young and amorous shepherd with flowing

hair and a flute in his hand; the following are a few particulars of his birth

and history as related in 3304 ff. and in the Purāṇas &c.: Vasu-deva, who

was a descendant of Yadu and Yayāti, had two wives, Rohiṇī and Devakī;

the latter had eight sons of whom the eighth was Kṛiṣṇa; Kaṁsa, king of

Mathurā and cousin of Devakī, was informed by a prediction that one of

these sons would kill him; he therefore kept Vasu-deva and his wife in

confinement, and slew their first six children; the seventh was Balarāma

who was saved by being abstracted from the womb of Devakī and

transferred to that of Rohiṇī; the eighth was Kṛiṣṇa who was born with

black skin and a peculiar mark on his breast; his father Vasu-deva

managed to escape from Mathurā with the child, and favoured by the

gods found a herdsman named Nanda whose wife Yaśo-dā had just been

delivered of a son which Vasu-deva conveyed to Devakī after substituting

his own in its place. Nanda with his wife Yaśo-dā took the infant Kṛiṣṇa

and settled first in Gokula or Vraja, and afterwards in Vṛindāvana, where

Kṛiṣṇa and Bala-rāma grew up together, roaming in the woods and joining

in the sports of the herdsmen’s sons; Kṛiṣṇa as a youth contested the

sovereignty of Indra, and was victorious over that god, who descended

from heaven to praise Kṛiṣṇa, and made him lord over the cattle [ 3787

ff.; 7456 ff. ; Kṛiṣṇa is described as sporting constantly with the Gopīs or

shepherdesses [ 4078 ff.; 8301 ff. of whom a thousand became his

wives, though only eight are specified, Rādhā being the favourite [ 6694

ff.; 9177 ff. ; Kṛiṣṇa built and fortified a city called Dvārakā in Gujarāt,

and thither transported the inhabitants of Mathurā after killing Kaṁsa;

Kṛiṣṇa had various wives besides the Gopīs, and by Rukmiṇī had a son

Pradyumna who is usually identified with Kāma-deva; with Jains, Kṛiṣṇa is

one of the nine black Vasu-devas; with Buddhists he is the chief of the

black demons, who are the enemies of Buddha and the white demons)

kṛṣṇa m. N. of an attendant in Skanda’s retinue

kṛṣṇa m. of an Asura 12936 on

kṛṣṇa m. of a king of the Nāgas

kṛṣṇa m. of Arjuna (the most renowned of the Pāṇḍu princes, so named

apparently from his colour as a child)

kṛṣṇa m. of Vyāsa 11089

kṛṣṇa m. of Hārita see “-hārita”

kṛṣṇa m. of a son of śuka by Pīvarī (teacher of the Yoga) 980 ff.

kṛṣṇa m. of a pupil of Bharad-vāja

kṛṣṇa m. of Havir-dhāna 83

kṛṣṇa m. of a son of Arjuna 1892

kṛṣṇa m. of an adopted son of A-samaṇjas, 2039

kṛṣṇa m. of a chief of the Andhras

kṛṣṇa m. of the author of a on the

kṛṣṇa m. of a poet

kṛṣṇa m. of the author of a on the Dayā-bhāga

kṛṣṇa m. of the son of Keśavārka and grandson of Jayāditya

kṛṣṇa m. of the father of Tāna-bhaṭṭa and uncle of Raṅga-nātha

kṛṣṇa m. of the father of Dāmodara and uncle of Malhaṇa

kṛṣṇa m. of the father of Prabhūjika and uncle of Vidyā-dhara

kṛṣṇa m. of the father of Madana

kṛṣṇa m. of the grammarian Rāma-candra

kṛṣṇa m. of the son of Vāruṇendra and father of Lakṣmaṇa

kṛṣṇa m. of the father of Hīra-bhaṭṭa (author of the called Carakabhāṣya,

and of the work Sāhitya-sudhā-samudra)

kṛṣṇa m. N. of a hell

kṛṣṇa mf (“ā”) n. (“au”) m. du. Kṛiṣṇa and Arjuna

kṛṣṇa m. pl. N. of the śūdras in śālmala-dvīpa

kṛṣṇa mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. a kind of leech

kṛṣṇa m. a kind of venomous insect

kṛṣṇa m. N. of several plants (Piper longum ; the Indigo plant ; a grape ;

a Punar-navā with dark blossoms ; Gmelina arborea ; Nigella indica ;

Sinapis ramosa ; Vernonia anthelminthica ; = “kākolī” ; a sort of Sārivā

kṛṣṇa m. a kind of perfume (= “parpaṭī”)

kṛṣṇa m. N. of Draupadī

kṛṣṇa m. of Durgā

kṛṣṇa m. of one of the seven tongues of fire

kṛṣṇa m. of one of the mothers in Skanda’s retinue

kṛṣṇa m. of a Yoginī

kṛṣṇa m. (with or without “gaṅgā”) N. of the river Kistna

kṛṣṇa mf (“ā”) n. (“ī”) f. night

kṛṣṇa mf (“ā”) n. (“am”) n. blackness, darkness, i, 123, 1 and 9

kṛṣṇa m. the black part of the eye

kṛṣṇa m. the black spots in the moon

kṛṣṇa m. a kind of demon or spirit of darkness

kṛṣṇa m. black pepper

kṛṣṇa m. black Agallochum

kṛṣṇa m. iron

kṛṣṇa m. lead

kṛṣṇa m. antimony

kṛṣṇa m. blue vitriol

kṛṣṇa m. ([cf. “kārṣṇa”, &c.; cf. also Russ. ‘cernyi’, “black.”])

kṛṣṇa Nom. P. “-ṣṇati”, to behave or act like Kṛiṣṇa

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


kṛṣṇa a. [kṛṣ-nak]

(1) Black, dark, dark-blue.

(2) Wicked, evil. –ṣṇaḥ

(1) The black colour.

(2) The black antelope.

(3) A crow.

(4) The (Indian) cuckoo.

(5) The dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon).

(6) The Kali age.

(7) Viṣṇu in his eighth incarnation, born as the son of Vasudeva and

Devakī. [Kṛṣṇa is the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the

most popular of all the deities. Though the real son of Vasudeva and

Devakī and thus a cousin of Kamsa, he was, for all practical purposes, the

son of Nanda and Yaśodā by whom he was brought up and in whose

house he spent his childhood. It was here that his divine character began

to be gradually discovered, when he easily crushed the most redoubtable

demons, such as Baka, Pūtanā &c., that were sent to kill him by Kamsa,

and performed many other feats of surprising strength. The chief

companions of his youth were the Gopis or wives of the cowherds of

Gokula, among whom Rādhā was his special favourite; (cf. Jayadeva’s

Gitagovinda). He killed Kamsa, Naraka, Keśin, Ariṣṭa and a host of other

powerful demons. He was a particular friend of Arjuna, to whom he acted

as charioteer in the great war, and his staunch support of the cause of

the Pāṇḍavas was the main cause of the overthrow of the Kauravas. On

several critical occasions, it was Kṛṣṇa’s assistance and inventive mind

that stood the Pāṇḍavas in good stead. After the general destruction of

the Yādavas at Prabhāsa, he was killed unintentionally by a hunter named

Jaras who shot him with an arrow mistaking him at a distance for a deer.

He had more than 16000 wives, but Rukmiṇi and Satyabhāma, (as also

Rādhā) were his favourites. He is said to have been of dark-blue or

cloud-like colour; cf. bahiriva malinataraṁ tava kṛṣṇa manopi bhaviṣyati

nūna Gīt. 8. His son was Pradyumna].

(8) N. of Vyāsa, the reputed author of the Mahābhārata.

(9) N. of Arjuna. (10) Aloe wood.

(11) The Supreme spirit.

(12) Black pepper.

(13) Iron. –ṣṇā

(1) N. of Draupadī, wife of the Pāṇḍavas; Ki. 1. 26.

(2) N. of a river in the Deccan that joins the sea at Masulipattam.

(3) A kind of poisonous insect.

(4) N. of several plants.

(5) A grape.

(6) A kind of perfume.

(7) An epithet of Durgā.

(8) One of the 7 tongues of fire. –ṣṇī A dark night. –ṣṇaṁ

(1) Blackness, darkness (moral also).

(2) Iron.

(3) Antimony.

(4) The black part of the eye.

(5) Black pepper.

(6) Lead.

(7) An inauspicious act.

(8) Money acquired by gambling.

— Comp.

–aguru n. a kind of sandal-wood.

–acalaḥ an epithet of the mountain Raivataka.

–ajinaṁ the skin of the black antelope.

–adhvan, –arcis m. an epithet of fire; cf. kṛṣṇavartman. –ayas n.,

–ayasaṁ, –āmiṣaṁ iron, crude or black iron.

–aṣṭamī, janmāṣṭamī the 8th day of the dark half of Śrāvaṇa when

Kṛṣṇa was born; also called gokulāṣṭamī. –āvāsaḥ the holy fig-tree.

–udaraḥ a kind of snake.

–kaṁdaṁ a red lotus.

–karman a. of black deeds, criminal, wicked, depraved, guilty,


–kākaḥ a raven.

–kāyaḥ a buffalo.

–kāṣṭhaṁ a kind of sandal-wood, agallochum.

–kohalaḥ a gambler.

–gaṁgā the river kṛṣṇaveṇī. –gati fire: āyodhate kṛṣṇagatiṁ

sahāyaṁ R. 6. 42.

–garbhāḥ (f. pl.) 1. the pregnant wives of the demon Kṛṣṇa. –2.

waters in the interiors of the clouds.

–godhā a kind of poisonous insect.

–grīvaḥ N. of Śiva.

–caṁcukaḥ a kind of pea.

–caṁdraḥ N. of Vasndeva.

–cara a. what formerly belonged to Kṛṣṇa.

–cūrṇaṁ rust of iron.

–tāmraṁ a kind of sandal wood.

–tāraḥ 1. a species of antelope. –2. an antelope (in general).

–dehaḥ a bee.

–dhanaṁ money got by foul means.

–dvaipāyanaḥ N. of Vyāsa: tamahamarāgamakṛṣṇa

kṛṣṇadvaipāyanaṁ vaṁde Ve. 1. 4.

–pakṣaḥ the dark half of a lunar month. –2. an epithet of Arjuna.

–padī a female with black feet.

–paviḥ an epithet of Agni.

–piṁgala a. dark-brown. (

–lā) N. of Durgā.

–mṛgaḥ the black antelope; śṛṁge kṛṣṇamṛgasya vāmanayanaṁ

kaṁḍūyamānāṁ mṛgīṁ S. 6. 16.

–mukhaḥ, –vaktraḥ, –vadanaḥ the blackfaced monkey.

–yajurvedaḥ the Taittirīya or black Yajurveda.

–yāmaḥ an epithet of Agni.

–raktaḥ dark-red colour.

–rūpya= -cara q. v.

–lavaṇaṁ 1. a kind of black salt. –2. a factitious salt.

–lohaḥ the loadstone.

–varṇaḥ 1. black colour. –2. N. of Rahu. –3. a Śūdra.

–vartman m. 1. fire; R. 11. 42; Ms. 2. 94. –2. N. of Rāhu. –3. a

low man, profligate, black-guard.

–viṣāṇā Ved. the horns of the black antelope.

–veṇī N. of a river.

–śakuniḥ a crow.

–śāraḥ, –sāraḥ, –sāraṁgaḥ the spotted antelope; kṛṣṇasāre

dadaccakṣustvayi cādhijyakārmuke S. 1. 6, V. 4. 31.

–śṛṁgaḥ a buffalo.

–sakhaḥ, –sārathiḥ an epithet of Arjuna. (

–khī) cummin seed.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

kṛṣṇa 1) adj. f. ā oxyt. Uṇ. 3, 4. ŚĀNT. 1, 12. “schwarz, dunkel” (Gegens.

śveta, śukla; rohita, aruṇa) AK. 1, 1, 4, 23. TRIK. 3, 3, 123. H. 1397. 17.

an. 2, 136. MED. ṇ. 8. nabhaḥ ṚV. 8, 85, 14. tamaḥ AV. 5, 3, 11. rātriḥ

13, 3, 26. rajaḥ ṚV. 1, 35, 2. 4. 9. ema 58, 4. tvak 130, 8. 9, 41, 1.

abhvam 1, 140, 5. 92, 5. lomāni ŚAT. BR. 1, 1, 4, 2. śakuna 14, 1, 1, 31.

ṚV. 10, 16, 6. AV. 7, 64, 1. Kuh ŚAT. BR. 2, 2, 4, 15. 9, 2, 3, 30. Pferd

LĀṬY. 3, 1. Kleid ŚAT. BR. 5, 2, 5, 17. Schuhe KĀTY. ŚR. 22, 4, 21.

anyadrocate kṛṣṇamanyat ṚV. 3, 55, 11. (oṣadhe) rāme kṛṣṇe asikni ca

AV. 1, 23, 1. 8, 7, 1. ṚV. 8, 41, 10. 82, 13. VS. 24, 1. 10. 40. AV. 5, 23, 4.

TS. 5, 2, 4, 2. 3, 1, 4. 4, 9, 3. kṛṣṇā asedhadapa sadmano jāḥ ṚV. 6, 47,

21. 8, 62, 18. yasyāṁ kṛṣṇamaruṇaṁ ca saṁhite ahorātre vihite

bhūmyāmadhi AV. 12, 1, 52. kṛṣṇaṁ ca varṇamaruṇaṁ ca saṁ dhuḥ ṚV.

1, 73, 7. KĀTY. ŚR. 7, 3, 23. puruṣaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ piṅgākṣaḥ ŚAT. BR. 11, 6, 1,

7. 13. (ṛtvik) anatikṛṣṇo ‘natiśvetaḥ (Sch.: = nātibālo nātivṛddhaḥ) LĀṬY.

in Ind. St. 1, 51. lohitakṛṣṇavarṇā (v. l. lohitaśuklakṛṣṇā) ŚVETĀŚV. UP. 4,

5. tila SUŚR. 1, 377, 13. asau sukṛṣṇo vihagaḥ kokilaḥ R. 2, 52, 2. VET. 4,

8. H. 49. kṛṣṇanetra “schwarzäugig”, ein Beiw. Śiva’s MBH. 14, 200.

kṛṣṇavāsa 13,882. kṛṣṇavāsas R. 2, 69, 14. kṛṣṇa mit und ohne pakṣa

“die dunkle Monatshälfte, die Zeit vom Vollmond bis zum Neumond” AK.

1, 1, 3, 12. M. 1, 66. 6, 20. 11, 216. YĀJÑ. 3, 324. BHAG. 8, 25. SUŚR. 1,

19, 6. kṛṣṇacaturdaśī “der 14te Tag der dunklen Monatshälfte” TRIK. 1, 1,

107. KATHĀS. 25, 180. VET. 3, 15. “schwarz” in moralischem Sinne so v.

a. “böse” (s. kṛṣṇakarman). kṛṣṇīkaroti, kṛṣṇībhavati, kṛṣṇīsyāt VOP. 7,

82. — 2) m. a) “die schwarze Farbe” AK. TRIK. H. H. an. — b) parox. “die

schwarze Antilope” (in einigen Veda – Stellen ist ein anderes,

aasfressendes Thier gemeint): kṛṣṇo mṛgasaṁyoge (ādyudātto bhavati)

VS. PRĀT. 2, 25. ŚĀNT. 1, 12. ākhare kṛṣṇā iṣirā anartiṣuḥ ṚV. 10, 94, 5.

VS. 2, 1. 24, 36. TS. 5, 2, 6, 5. 6, 1, 3, 1. śune kroṣṭre mā śarīrāṇi

kartamaliklavebhyo gṛdhrebhyo ye ca kṛṣṇā (die Betonung wird wohl zu

ändern sein) aviṣyavaḥ AV. 11, 2, 2. ŚAT. BR. 1, 1, 4, 1. 3, 2, 1, 28.

BHĀG. P. 3, 10, 20. 8, 2, 20. Vgl. kṛṣṇamṛga, kṛṣṇaviṣāṇā, kṛṣṇājina. — c)

“Krähe” H. an. MED. — d) “der indische Kuckuck” H. an. VIŚVA im ŚKDR.

Vgl. R. 2, 52, 2. — e) N. eines Strauchs, “Carissa Carandas Lin.”

(karamardaka), ŚABDAR. im ŚKDR. — f) “die dunkle Monatshälfte” (s. u.

1.) am Ende. — g) “das vierte” Juga (kali) H. an. — h) N. pr. oxyt. oder

parox. ŚĀNT. 2, 13. parox. ṚV. 8, 74, 3. 4 (nach der ANUKR. ein

Āñgirasa). KAUṢ. BR. 30, 9 in Ind. St. 1, 190. 3, 214 (Kāṇva und

Āñgirasa). kṛṣṇo devakīputraḥ ein Schüler des ghora āṅgirasaḥ CHĀND.

UP. 3, 17, 6. Der im MBH. verherrlichte Held und treue Bundesgenosse

der Pāṇḍava, der Yādava Kṛṣṇa, ist gleichfalls ein Sohn der Devakī von

Vasudeva. Er verbringt seine Jugend, um den Nachstellungen Kaṁsa’s zu

entgehen, beim Hirten Nanda und dessen Frau Yaśodā und gilt für deren

Sohn. Hieraus hat man schliessen wollen, dass Kṛṣṇa in der älteren Sage

der wirkliche Sohn des Kuhhirten und seiner Frau gewesen sei, wogegen

aber zu bemerken ist, dass eine spätere Anknüpfung an die in einer

älteren Schrift auftretende Devakī Kṛṣṇa keinen besondern Glanz

verliehen hätte, und dass hierdurch die natürliche Verbindung mit dem in

der CHĀND. UP. erwähnten Lehrer Kṛṣṇa ohne Noth zerrissen würde.

Kṛṣṇa ist in der älteren Sage ein vergötterter Held und Lehrer (vgl. die

BHAGAVADGĪTĀ), in der jüngeren tritt neben dem siegreichen Helden

auch der dem Liebesgenuss überaus ergebene junge Hirt hervor. Schon

im MBH. wird Kṛṣṇa als Gottheit betrachtet und mit Viṣṇu identificirt, so

z. B. 14, 1589. 1591. kṛṣirbhūvācakaḥ śabdo ṇaśca nirvṛttivācakaḥ.

viṣṇustadbhāvayogācca kṛṣṇo bhavati sāttvataḥ.. 5, 2563. HARIV. 2359.

fgg. Vgl. hierüber LIA. I, 488. Seine Geburt wird erzählt HARIV. 3304. fgg.

VP. 502. fgg. hat Tausende von Frauen, unter denen acht besonders

hervorgehoben werden, HARIV. 6694. fgg. 9177. fgg. VP. 427. fg. 573. fg.

578. 590. seine Liebesspiele mit den Hirtinnen HARIV. 4078. fgg. 8301.

fgg. VP. 531. GĪT. sein Kampf mit Indra HARIV. 3787. fgg. 7456. fgg. VP.

522. fgg. 584. fgg. Indra von Kṛṣṇa besiegt, weiht seinen Nebenbuhler

zum König der Kühe: ahaṁ kilendro devānāṁ tvaṁ gavāmindratāṁ

gataḥ.. govinda iti lokāstvāṁ stoṣyanti bhuvi śāśvatam. mamopari

yathendrastvaṁ sthāpito gobhirīśvaraḥ.. upendra iti kṛṣṇa tvāṁ gāsyanti

divi devatāḥ. HARIV. 4004. fgg. Kṛṣṇa ist der Vater Pradjumna’s oder des

Liebesgottes; dieser heisst daher: kṛṣṇaja 9322. kṛṣṇanandana 9331.

kṛṣṇasūnu 9324. WEBER hat die Ansicht ausgesprochen, dass eine

Bekanntschaft mit Christus und dem Christenthum stark auf die

Entwickelung der Sage von Kṛṣṇa eingewirkt habe, eine Ansicht, die an

LASSEN einen entschiedenen Gegner gefunden hat. Ind. St. 1, 400. 2,

398. fgg. 409. fg. ZdmG.VI, 92. fgg. LIA. II, 1106. fgg. Die Lexicographen

führen kṛṣṇa als Beinamen von viṣṇu auf, AK. 1, 1, 1, 13. TRIK. 1, 1, 31.

3, 3, 123. H. 215. H. an. MED. Im System der Jaina ist Kṛṣṇa einer der

neun “schwarzen” Vāsudeva H. 697. Bei den Buddhisten erscheint Kṛṣṇa

als Haupt der “schwarzen” Dämonen, welche als Gegner von Buddha und

der “weissen” Dämonen auftreten, LALIT. 147. 287. 289. 325. Einen

andern Charakter trägt Kṛṣṇa ebend. 127. 166. — Den Namen Kṛṣṇa

führen ferner: ein König der Nāga MBH. 2, 360. BURN. Intr. 269. — ein

Asura HARIV. 12936. SĀY. zu ṚV. 1, 101, 1. — Arjuna, der Sohn Pāṇḍu’s,

H. an. MED. kṛṣṇa ityeva daśamaṁ nāma cakre pitā mama.

kṛṣṇāvadātasya sataḥ priyatvādbālakasya vai.. MBH. 4, 1389. Der du.

kṛṣṇau bezeichnet den Gott Kṛṣṇa und Arjuna 1, 8287. 3, 8279. — Vyāsa

TRIK. 3, 3, 123. H. an. MED. MBH. 1, 60. dvaipāyanena kṛṣṇena (vgl.

kṛṣṇadvaiyāyana) 2, 2573. yo vyasya vedāṁścaturo bhagavānṛṣiḥ. loke

vyāsatvamāpede kārṣṇyātkṛṣṇatvameva ca.. 1, 4236. HARIV. 11089. —

Kṛṣṇa Hārīta Ind. St. 1, 391, N. — ein Sohn Śuka’s von der Pīvarī, ein

Lehrer des Joga, HARIV. 980. fg. — ein Schüler Bharadvāja’s KATHĀS. 7,

15. — Kṛṣṇa Dāśārha LIA. I, Anh. XXVIII. — ein Sohn Havirdhāna’s HARIV.

83. VP. 106. BHĀG. P. 4, 24, 8. — ein Sohn Arjuna’s HARIV. 1892. — ein

Adoptivsohn von Asamañjas 2039. — ein Fürst der Andhra VP. 472. —

verschiedene Autoren, namentlich Scholiasten COLEBR. Misc. Ess. II,

452. fg. Verz. d. B. H. No. 109 u.s.w. — śrīkṛṣṇa ebend. No. 739 u.s.w. —

i) Name einer Hölle VP. 207. 209. — 3) f. kṛṣṇā a) (sc. śatapadī) “ein

best. giftiges Insect” SUŚR. 2, 290, 3. — b) N. verschiedener Pflanzen:

“Piper longum Lin.” AK. 2, 4, 3, 15. TRIK. 3, 3, 124. H. 421. H. an. MED.

HĀR. 261 (masc.); “die Indigopflanze; der Weinstock mit dunklen

Trauben” H. an. MED. = nīlapunarnavā; gambhārī; kṛṣṇajīraka;

sārivāviśeṣa; rājasarṣapa RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. = somarājī; kākolī JAṬĀDH.

im ŚKDR. – SUŚR. 1, 162, 16. 2, 88, 1. 206, 5. 222, 12. 322, 12. 439, 19.

504, 5. 506, 7. kṛṣṇāvījam 330, 16. — c) “ein best. Parfum” (s. parpaṭī)

BHĀVAPR. im ŚKDR. — d) ein Bein. der Draupadi TRIK. 2, 8, 18. 3, 3,

124. H. 710. H. an. MED. MBH. 3, 10. DRAUP. 3, 5. ARJ. 3, 1. LIA. I, 641.

fg. — e) ein Bein. der Durgā H. ś. 47. MBH. 4, 184. Vgl. kālī. — f) N. einer

der sieben Zungen des Feuers H. 1099, Sch. Vgl. kālī. — g) N. pr. eines

Flusses, = kṛṣṇasamudbhavā, kṛṣṇagaṅgā, kṛṣṇaveṇyā RĀJAN. im ŚKDR.

VP. 184. kṛṣṇā gaṅgā MBH. 13, 4888. Vgl. LIA. I, 167 und kṛṣṇagaṅgā. —

4) f. kṛṣṇī “die Nacht”: riṇakti kṛṣṇīraruṣāya panthām ṚV. 7, 71, 1. — 5) n.

a) “Schwärze, Dunkelheit”: śukrā kṛṣṇādajaniṣṭa ṚV. 1, 123, 9. 1. 10,

127, 7. — b) “das Schwarze im Auge” ŚAT. BR. 10, 5, 2, 7. 12, 8, 2, 26.

13, 4, 2, 3. 14, 5, 2, 3. SUŚR. 1, 10, 18. 2, 303, 13. 311, 12. — c)

“Dunkelwesen” (von Dämonen): pañcāśatkṛṣṇā ni vapaḥ sahasrā ṚV. 4,

16, 13. — d) “schwarzer Pfeffer” AK. 2, 9, 36. TRIK. H. 419. H. an. MED.

— e) “schwarzes Aloeholz” RATNAM. im ŚKDR. — f) “Eisen” TRIK. H. an.

MED. — g) “Blei” H. ś. 159. — h) “Spiessglanz” H. 1051. — i) “blauer

Vitriol” RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — Vgl. kārṣṇa, kārṣṇāyana, kārṣṇi, kārṣṇya.

kṛṣṇa 2) h) N. pr. eines Wesens im Gefolge Skanda’s MBH. 9, 2559. — 3)

f) HALĀY. 1, 68. — g) Verz. d. Oxf. H. 10,a, N. 1. 16,b,16. 102,a, No. 158.

-revāsaṁgama 65,b,42. HALL 75. — h) N. pr. einer der Mütter im Gefolge

Skanda’s MBH. 9, 2640. — 5) b) “das Schwarze im Monde” TBR. 1, 2, 1, 2.

Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975

kṛṣṇa (ŚRĪ KṚṢṆA). Born in the Yādava dynasty as the son of Vasudeva

and Devakī, Śrī Kṛṣṇa was the ninth of the ten incarnations of Mahāviṣṇu.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa, i. e. kṛṣ + na (the origin of the signification is dubious).

I. adj., f. ṇā.

1. Black, or dark blue, Rām. 3, 55, 5.

2. With or without pakṣa, m. The dark half of a month, from the full

moon to that of the new moon, Man. 1, 66; 6, 20.

II. m.

1. kṛṣṇa, The most celebrated incarnation of Viṣṇu, MBh. 14, 1589.

2. The black antelope, Bhāg. P. 3, 10, 20.

III. f. ṇā.

1. A name of Durgā, MBh. 4, 184.

2. The name of several plants, Suśr. 1, 162, 16.

— Comp. ati-, adj. very black, Pañc. 104, 15.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

kṛṣṇa a. black, dark. –m. (±pakṣa) the dark half month, the black

antelope (mostly kṛṣṇa); N. of an ancient hero and teacher, later as the

god Kṛṣṇa identified with Viṣṇu; du. kṛṣṇau = Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. f. kṛṣṇā

a. black kind of leech. N. of sev. plants, E. of Durgā and Draupadī; f. kṛṣṇī

night. n. blackness, darkness.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

kṛṣṇa kṛṣ-ṇa, n. black; dark; w. pakṣa, dark half of the month (from full

new moon); m. (kṛṣṇa) black antelope; N. of a god (incarnation of Viṣṇu):

du. Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna;

ā, f. kind of leech; N. of several plants; ep. of Draupadī, and of Durgā;

n. blackness, darkness.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

kṛṣṇa pu° kṛṣa–nak . bhagavato’vatārabhede vāsudeve 1 devakīnandane .

kṛṣirbhūvācakaḥ śabdaḥ ṇaśca nirvṛtivācakaḥ . tayoraikyaṁ paraṁ

brahma kṛṣṇaityabhidhīyate ityukte 2 parabrahmaṇi, 3 vedavyāse, 4

arjune madhyamapāṇḍave ca . kṛṣṇavarṇatvāt 5 kokile, viśvaḥ 6 kāke,

medi° karamardake (karamacā) 7 vṛkṣe, śabdara° 8 nīle, varṇe 9 tadvati

tri° amaraḥ 10 kālāguruṇi rājani° . 11 aśubhakarmaṇi ca na° . kṛṣṇakarmā

amaraḥ 12 draupadyāṁ, 13 nīlīvṛkṣe, 14 pippalyāṁ, 15 drākṣāyāṁ, strī

medi° 16 nīlapunarnavāyām, 17 kṛṣṇajīrake, 18 gāmmāryā 19 kaṭukāyām,

20 sāvirābhede 21 rājasarṣape, rājani° 22 parpaṭyāṁ, bhāvapra° . 23

kākolyāṁ, 24 somarājyāñca strī ṭāp jaṭā° kṛṣṇavarṇatvācca tāsāṁ

tathātvam 25 dhanamede na° kṛṣṇadhanaśabdī vivṛtiḥ . 26 nīlāñjane, 27

lauhe, 28 marice ca pu° jaṭādharaḥ . tatra bhagavadavatāraviśeṣaḥ atha

bhādrapade māsi kṛṣṇāṣṭamyāṁ kalau yuge . aṣṭāviṁśatime jātaḥ

kṛṣṇo’sau devakīsutaḥ brahmapu° . vasudevadevakyau ca kaśyapāditī .

tau ca varuṇasya goharaṇāt brahmaṇaḥ śāpena gopālatvamāpatuḥ .

yathāha harivaṁ° 56 a° ityambupatinā prokto varuṇenāhamacyuta! .

gavāṁ kāraṇatattvajñaḥ kaśyape śāpamutsṛjam . yenāṁśena hṛtā gāvaḥ

kaśyapena mahātmanā . sa tenāṁśena jagatīṁ gatvā gopatvameṣyati .

yā ca sā surabhirnāma aditiśca surāraṇī . ubhe te tasya vai bhārye saha

tenaiva yāsyataḥ . tābhyāṁ saha sa gopatve kaśyapo bhuvi raṁsyate .

tadasya kaśyapasyāṁśastejasā kaśyapopamaḥ vasudeva iti khyāto goṣu

tiṣṭhati bhūtale . girirgovardhano nāma mathurāyāstvadūrataḥ . tatrāsau

goṣvabhirataḥ kaṁsasya karadāyakaḥ . tasyabhāryādvayañcaiva aditiḥ

surabhistathā . devakī rohiṇī caiva vasudevasya dhīmataḥ . tatrāvatara

lokānāṁ bhavāya madhusūdana! . jayāśīrvacanaistvete vardhayanti

divaukasaḥ . ātmānamātmanā hi tvamavatārya mahītale . devakīṁ

rohiṇīñcaiva garbhābhyāṁ paritoṣaya . tatratvaṁ śiśurevādau

gopālakṛtalakṣaṇaḥ . vardhayasva mahābāho! purā traivikrame yathā ..

chādayitvātmanātmānaṁ māyayā goparūpayā . gopakanyāsahasrāṇi

ramayaṁścara medinīm . gāśca te rakṣitā viṣṇo! vanāni paridhāvataḥ .

vanamālāparikṣiptaṁ dhanyā drakṣyanti te vapuḥ . viṣṇo!

padmapalāśākṣa! gopālavasatiṅgate . bāle tvayi mahābāho . loko

bālatvameṣyati . tvadbhaktāḥ puṇḍarīkākṣa! tava cittavaśānugāḥ . goṣu

gopā bhaviṣyanti sahāyāḥ satatantava . vane cārayato gāstu goṣṭheṣu

paridhāvataḥ . majjato yamunāyāntu ratimāpsyanti te bhṛśam . jīvitaṁ

vasudevasya bhaviṣyati sujīvitam . yastvayā tāta ityuktaḥ sa putra iti

vakṣyati . atha vā kasyaṁ putratvaṁ gacchethāḥ kaśyapādṛte . kā vā

dhārayituṁ śaktā viṣṇo! tvāmaditiṁ vinā . yogenātmasamutthena

gacchatva vijayāya vai iti viṣṇuṁ prati brahmoktiḥ . tābhyāṁ

tasyotpattikathā ca tatra 60 a° yathā yadarthaṁ sapta te garbhāḥ

kaṁsena vinipātitāḥ . tantu garbhaṁ prayatnena rarakṣustasya rakṣiṇaḥ .

sa tatra garbhavasatau vasatyātmecchayā hariḥ . samadhatta yaśodā’pi

garbhaṁ tadahareva tu . viṣṇoḥ śarīrajāṁ nidrāṁ viṣṇornirdeśakāriṇīm

garbhakāle tvasaṁpūrṇe aṣṭame māsi te striyau . devakī ca yaśodā ca

suṣuvāte samaṁ tadā . yāmeva rajanīṁ viṣṇurjajñe vṛṣṇikulaṁ prabhuḥ .

tāmeva rajanīṁ kanyā yaśodāto vyajāyata . nandagopasya bhāryaikā

vasudevasya cāparā . tulyakālaṁ hi garbhiṇyau yaśodā devakī tathā .

devakyajanayadviṣṇuṁ yaśodā tāntu kanyakām . muhūrte’bhijite prāpte

sārdharātre vibhūṣite . sāgarāḥ samakampanta celuśca dharaṇīdharāḥ .

jajvaluścāgnayaḥ śāntā jāyamāne janārdane . śivāḥ saṁpravavurvātāḥ

praśāntamabhavadrajaḥ . jyotīṁṣi vyatyakāśanta jāyamāne janārdane .

abhijinnāma nakṣatraṁ jayantī nāma śarvarī . muhūrto vijayo nāma yatra

jāto janārdanaḥ . avyaktaḥ śāśvataḥ kṛṣṇo harirnārāyaṇaḥ prabhuḥ .

jāyate bhagavāṁstatra nayanairmohayan jagat . tato’natidūre

vasudevastu taṁ rātrau jātaṁ puttramadhokṣajam . śrīvatsalakṣaṇaṁ

dṛṣṭvā yutaṁ divyaiśca lakṣaṇaiḥ . uvāca vasudevastaṁ rūpaṁ saṁhara

vai prabho! . bhīto’haṁ deva! kaṁsasya tasmādevaṁ vadāmyaham .

mama puttrā hatāstena tava jyeṣṭhā’mbujekṣaṇa! . vaiśampāyana upāca

. vasudevavacaḥ śrutvā rūpaṁ saṁharadacyutaḥ . anujñāpya pitṛtvena

nandagopagṛhaṁ naya . vasudevastu saṁgṛhya dārakaṁ kṣiprameva ca .

yaśodāyā gṛhaṁ rātrau viveśa sutavatsalaḥ . yaśodāyāstvavijñātastatra

nikṣipya dārakam . gṛhītvā dārikāṁ tāñca devakīśayane nyasat . parivarte

kṛte tābhyāṁ garbhābhyāṁ bhayaviklavaḥ . vasudevaḥ kṛtārtho vai

nirjagāma niveśanāt . yathā rūpeṇa tasyāvirbhāvastathā rūpaṁ bhāga°

103 a° vaṇṇitam

devakyāṁ devarūpiṇyāṁ viṣṇuḥ sarvaguhāśayaḥ . āvirāsīdyathā

prācyāṁ diśīnduriva puṣkalaḥ . tamadbhutaṁ bālakamambujekṣaṇaṁ

caturbhujaṁ śaṅkhagadādyudāyudham .

śrīvatsalakṣmaṁgalaśobhikaustubhaṁ pītāmbaraṁ

sāndrapayodasaubhagam . mahārghavaidūryakirīṭakuṇḍalatviṣā

pariṣvaktasahasrakuntalam .

uhṛāmakāñcyaṅgadakaṅkaṇādibhirvirocamānaṁ vasudeva aikṣata .

savismayītphullavilocano hariṁ sutaṁ vilokyānakadundubhistadā .

kṛṣṇāvatārotsavasambhramo’spṛśanmudā dvijebhyo’yutamāplutogavām .

ityāvirbhārva varṇayitvā

janma te mayyasau pāpomā vidyānmadhusūdana! . samudvije

bhavaddhetoḥ kaṁsādahamadhīradhīḥ . upasaṁhara viśvātma

nnadorūpamalaukikam . śaṅkhacakragadāpadmaśriyā juṣṭaṁ caturbhujam

. viśvaṁ yadetat svatanau niśānte yathāvakāśaṁ puruṣaḥ paro bhavān .

vibharti, so’yaṁ mama garbhajo’bhū daho nṛlokasya viḍambanaṁ tat .

itthaṁ devakyāḥ prārthane tāṁ sāntvayitvā tasya prākṛtarūpadhāraṇaṁ

tatraivoktaṁ yathā ityuktvā tāṁ haristūṣṇṇīṁ bhagavānātmamāyayā .

pitroḥ saṁpaśyatoreva babhūva prākṛtaḥ śiśuḥ . evañca

caturbhujarūpeṇotpattāvapi prākṛtarūpatvoktyā tasmādanantaraṁ

dvibhujatvamiti vaiṣṇavā manyante . gītāyāntu tenaiva rūpeṇa

caturbhujena sahasrabāho! bhava viśvamūrte! iti bhāratayuddhakāle

tasya caturbhujatvakīrtanāt caturbhujatva mevāsīt

śaṅkhacakrādyāyudhaśūnyatvena prākṛtatvamiti tu yuktamutpaśyāmaḥ .

tasyedānīṁ janmasamayonirūpyate prāguktabrahmapu° kalau

jātatvābhidhānāt kaliyugaevāsya prādurbhāvaḥ . yadi ca

ekaikamanvantare bahavaḥ kalayaḥ sambhavanti tathāpi

vartamānavaivasvatamanvantare aṣṭāviṁśatime mahāyuge yaḥ

kalistatraivābhirmūtaḥ . tatrāpi jyotirnibandhe uccasthāḥ

śaśibhaumacāndriśanayo lagnaṁ vṛṣolābhago jīvaḥ siṁhatulāliṣu

kramavaśāt pūṣośanorāhavaḥ . naiśīthaḥ samayā’ṣṭamī budhadinaṁ

bāhmarkṣamatra kṣaṇe śrīkṛṣṇābhidhamambujekṣaṇamabhūdāviḥ paraṁ

brahma tat grahāṇāṁ viśeṣarāśyavasthānakāle tasyāvirbhāvokteḥ

tādṛśasamayasya ca kaleḥ 647 varṣeṣu gataṣu sambhavaḥ kalau tataḥ

pūrvaṁ tādṛśasamayāsambhavāt . rājataraṁṅgiṇyāṁ ca śateṣu ṣaṭsu

sārdheṣu tryadhikeṣu ca bhūtale . kalergateṣu varṣāṇāma bhayan

kurupāṇḍavāḥ ityanena kaleḥ 653 varṣeṣu gateṣu tatsamakālīnayoḥ

kurupāṇḍavayorutpattiruktā atastasyāpi tatkālotpattikatvam .

tadavatāracaritaṁ ca harivaṁ° 42 a° varṇitaṁ yathā

aparaḥ keśavasyāyaṁ prādurbhāvo mahātmanaḥ . vikhyāto māthure

kalpe sarvalokahitāya vai . yatra śālvañca maindañca kaṁsaṁ

dvividameva ca . ariṣṭaṁ vṛṣabhaṁ keśiṁ pūtanāṁ daityadārikām .

nāgaṁ kubalayāpīḍaṁ cānūraṁ muṣṭikaṁ tathā .

daityānmānuṣadehasthān sūdayāmāma vīryavān . chinnaṁ

bāhusahasrañca vāṇasyādbhutakarmaṇaḥ . narakaśca hataḥ saṅkhye

yavanaśca sahābalaḥ . hṛtāni ca mahīpānāṁ sarvaratnāni tejasā .

durāccārāśca nihatāḥ pārthivā ye mahītale . tasya ca kṛṣṇanāmatā

gargeṇa tathā nāmakaraṇāt yathāha bhāga° 10 . 8 . 9 āsan

vaṇṇāstrayohyasya grahṇato’nuyugaṁ tanūḥ . śukloraktastathā’pīta

idānīṁ kṛṣṇatāṁ gataḥ iti apītaḥ śyāma ityarthaḥ bhāga° 11 a°

yugāvatāre dvāpare śyāmamūrtitvokteḥ yathā kṛte śuklaścaturbāhurjaṭilo

balkalāmbaraḥ . kṛṣṇājinopavītākṣān bibhraddaṇḍakamaṇḍalū . tretāyāṁ

raktavarṇo’sau caturbāhustrimekhalaḥ . hiraṇyakeśastrayyātmā

sruksruvādyu palakṣaṇaḥ . dvāpare bhagavān śyāmaḥ pītavāsā

nijāyudhaḥ . śrīvatsādibhiraṅkaiśca lakṣaṇairupalakṣitaḥ .

nānātantravidhānena kalāvapi yathā śṛṇu . kṛṣṇavarṇaṁ tviṣā’kṛṣṇaṁ

sāṅgopāṅgāstrapārṣadaḥ . yajñai saṁkīrtanaprāyairyajantīha

sumedhasaḥ . asya tannāmanirbacanaṁ ca bhā° u° 69 a°

kṛṣirbhūvācakaḥ śabdoṇaśca nirvṛtivācakaḥ . viṣṇustadbhāvayogācca

kṛṣṇobhavati sātvataḥ kalpabhede’pi vaivasvatamanoraṣṭāviṁśatime yuge

yuge tasyābhi bhāṁvaḥ ataeva chā° u° kalpabhedādiprāyeṇaiva

taddhaitat ghora āṅgirasaḥ kṛṣṇāya devakīputrāyoktvovāca ityuktam .

vastutastasya bhagavadavatārāt bhinnatvameva tasya

ghorāṅgirasaśiṣyatvokteḥ . parameśvarasya tathātvāsambhavāt .

atastannāmni 29 aparasninneva kṛṣṇaśabdasya vṛttiḥ . kṛṣṇeti maṅgalaṁ

nāma yasya vāci pravartate . masmībhavanti rājendra!

mahāpātakakoṭayaḥ purā° . arjunasya tannāmanirvacanaṁ bhā° vi° 44 a°

. kṛṣṇa ityeva daśamaṁ nāma cakre pitā mama . kṛṣṇāvadātasya sataḥ

priyatvāt bālakasya ca . vyāsasya kārṣṇyāttathātvam yovyasya

vedāṁścaturastapasā bhagavānṛṣiḥ . loke vyāsatvamāpade kārṣṇyāt

kṛṣṇatvameva ca bhā° ā° 105 a° . kṛṣṇasyedam aṇ kārṣṇa

tatsambandhini tri° kārṣṇaṁ vedamimaṁ vidvān śrāvayitvārthamaśnute

bhā° ā° 1 a° ukte . apatye tu iñ . kārṣṇi tadapatye puṁstrī .


pratipadādidarśāntātmakapañcadaśatithyātmake 30 kālabhede

ardhamāse candravṛddhikaraḥ śuklaḥ kṛṣṇaścandrakṣayātmakaḥ ti° ta°

ṣaṭtri° . indukalākṣayaprakāraḥ induśabde 611 pṛ° uktaḥ . tadupalakṣite

31 pitṛyāne śuklakṛṣṇe gatī hyete jagatāṁ śāśvate mate . ekayā

yātyanāvṛttimanyayā vartate punaḥ gītā . pitṛyāne ca yathā

kṛṣṇapakṣasaṁbandhastathā ātivāhikaśabde 651 pṛ° darśitam .

dhūmorātristathā kṛṣṇaḥ ṣaṇmāsā dakṣiṇāyanam gītā .

kṛṣṇapakṣābhimānini pitṛyānasthe karmiṇāmativāhake īśvaraniyojite 32

devabhede ātivāhikaśabda vivṛtiḥ . 33 dyūtādyupārjite dhane na°

kṛṣṇadhanaśabde arthaśabde ca vivṛtiḥ . kṛṣṇasya bhāvaḥ ṣyañ . kārṣṇya

tadbhāve na° kārṣṇyāt kṛṣṇatvameva ca bhā° ā° 105 a° . imanic .

kṛṣṇiman tadbhāve pu° kṛṣṇimānaṁ dadhānena . tal, kṛṣṇatā strī, tva

kṛṣṇala, na0, kṛṣṇavarṇe . kṛṣṇā’pi śuddheradhikaṁ vidhātṛbhiḥ māvaḥ .

abhivṛṣya marucchasyān kṛṣṇameghastirodadhe raghuḥ . 34

netragate’śabhede akṣiśabde vivṛtiḥ . 35 kṛṣṇasāramṛge puṁstrī° eṇaḥ

kṛṣṇaḥ sa kīrtitaḥ chando° pa° . kṛṣṇājinam

कृष्णपाक – kṛṣṇapāka Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṛṣṇapāka “kṛṣṇa-pāka” m. Carissa Carandas (bearing a small fruit

which, when ripe, is of a black colour; commonly Karinda or Karonda)

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kṛṣṇapāka m. = kṛṣṇapākaphala ŚABDAR. im ŚKDR.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

kṛṣṇapāka pu° pacyate iti pākaḥ phalaṁ kṛṣṇaḥ kṛṣṇavarṇaḥ pākaḥ

phaṇamasya . karamarde ratnā0

कृष्णप्रुत् – kṛṣṇaprut Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṛṣṇaprut “kṛṣṇa-prut” mfn. moving in darkness [“taking or imparting a

black colour”

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kṛṣṇaprut (kṛṣṇa + prut von pru = plu) adj. “im Dunkel sich bewegend”:

kṛṣṇaprutau vevije asya sakṣitā ubhā tarete abhi mātarā śiśum ṚV. 1,

140, 3.

कृष्णवर्ण – kṛṣṇavarṇa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899kṛṣṇavarṇa “kṛṣṇa-varṇa” mfn. of a black colour, dark-blue

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kṛṣṇavarṇa (kṛṣṇa + varṇa) adj. “von schwarzer Farbe, schwarz” H. 1238.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

kṛṣṇavarṇa a. black-coloured.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

kṛṣṇavarṇa kṛṣṇa-varṇa, a. black-coloured;

-vartman, m. fire (black-tracked): (a) -vāla, a. black-tailed;

-śakti, m. N.;

-sarpa, m. kind of black snake;

-sāra, a. chiefly black, spotted black and white; m. spotted antelope;

(a) -sāraṅga, a.; m. f.; id..

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

kṛṣṇavarṇa pu° kṛṣṇo varṇo’sya . 1 rāhau grahe . rāhoḥ chāyārūpatvena

tamorūpatyāt tathātvāropāt tathātvam kṛṣṇaḥ aśuddhī varṇaḥ . 2 śūdre

pu° . karma° . kāle varṇe pu° kṛṣṇavarṇavati tri° . kṛṣṇavarṇaṁ

tvipā’kṛṣṇam bhāgava° 11 ska° .

गंधः – gaṁdhaḥ Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :1890

gaṁdhaḥ [gaṁdh-pacādyac]

(1) Smell, odour; gaṁdhamāghrāya corvyāḥ Me. 21; apaghnaṁto

duritaṁ havyagaṁdhaiḥ S. 4. 7; R. 12. 27. (gaṁdha is changed to gaṁdhi

when as the last member of a Bah. comp. it is preceded by ud, pūti, su,

surabhi, or when the compound implies comparison; sugāṁdhi,

surabhigaṁdhi, kamalagaṁdhi mukhaṁ; śāliniryāsagaṁdhibhiḥ R. 1. 38;

āhuti- 1. 53; also when gaṁdha is used in the sense of ‘a little’).

(2) Smell considered as one of the 24 properties or guṇas of the

Vaiśeṣikas; it is a property characteristic of pṛthivī or earth which is

defined as gaṁdhavatī pṛthvī T. S.

(3) The mere smell of anything, a little, a very small quantity;

ghṛtagaṁdhi bhojanaṁ Sk.

(4) A perfume, any fragrant substance; eṣā mayā sevitā

gaṁdhayuktiḥ Mk. 8; Y. 1. 231; Mu. 1. 4.

(5) Sulphur.

(6) Pounded sandal wood.

(7) Connection, relationship.

(8) A neighbour.

(9) Pride, arrogance; as in āttagaṁdha humbled or mortified. (10) An

epithet of Śiva. –dhaṁ

(1) Smell.

(2) Black aloewood.

— Comp.

–adhikaṁ a kind of perfume.

–apakarṣaṇaṁ removing smells.

–aṁbu n. fragrant water.

–amlā the wild lemon tree.

–aśman m. sulphur.

–aṣṭakaṁ a mixture of 8 fragrant substances offered to deities,

varying in kind according to the nature of the deity to whom they are


–ākhuḥ the musk-rat.

–ājīvaḥ a vendor of perfumes.

–āḍhya a. rich in odour, very fragrant; srajaścottamagaṁdhāḍhyāḥ

Mb. (

–ḍhyaḥ) the orange tree. (

–ḍhyaṁ) sandal-wood.

–iṁdriyaṁ the organ of smell.

–ibhaḥ, –gajaḥ, dvipaḥ, –hastin m. ‘the scentelephant’, an

elephant of the best kind; (yasya gaṁdhaṁ samāghrāya na tiṣṭhaṁti

pratidvipāḥ . sa vai gaṁdhagajo nāma nṛpatorvījayāvahaḥ ..); Mu. 2. 6;

śamayati gajānanyāngaṁdhadvipaḥ kalabho’pi san V. 5. 18; R. 6. 7; 17.

70; Ki. 17. 17.

–uttamā spirituous liquor.

–udaṁ scented water.

–upajīvin m. one who lives by perfumes, a perfumer.

–otuḥ (forming gaṁdhotu or gaṁdhautu) the civet-cat.

–kārikā 1. a female servant whose business is to prepare

perfumes. –2. a female artisan living in the house of another, but not

altogether subject to another’s control.

–kālikā, –kālī f. N. of Satyavatī, mother of Vyāsa.

–kāṣṭhaṁ aloewood.

–kuṭī a kind of perfume.

–kelikā, –celikā musk.

–ga a. 1. taking a scent, smelling. –2. redolent.

–gajaḥ see gaṁdhebha. –guṇa a. having the property of odour.

–ghrāṇaṁ the smelling of any odour.

–jalaṁ fragrant water.

–jñā the nose.

–tūryaṁ a musical instrument of a loud sound used in battle (as a

drum or trumpet).

–tailaṁ a fragrant oil, a kind of oil prepared with fragrant


–dāru n. aloe-wood.

–dravyaṁ a fragrant substance.

–dhārin a. bearing fragrance. (–m.) an epithet of Śiva.

–dhūliḥ f. musk.

–nakulaḥ the muskrat.

–nālikā, –nālī the nose.

–nilayā a kind of jasmine.

–paḥ N. of a class of manes.

–patrā, –palāśī a species of zedoary.

–palāśikā turmeric.

–pālin m. an epithet of Śiva.

–pāṣāṇaḥ sulphur.

–piśācikā the smoke of burnt fragrant resin (so called from its dark

colour or cloudy nature, or perhaps from its attracting demons by


–puṣpaḥ 1. the Vetasa plant. –2. the Ketaka plant. (

–ṣpaṁ) 1. a fragrant flower. –2. flowers and sandal offered to

deities at the time of worship.

–puṣpā an indigo plant.

–pūtanā a kind of imp or goblin.

–phalī 1. the Priyangu creeper. –2. a bud of the Champaka tree.

–baṁdhuḥ the mango tree.

–mātṛ f. the earth.

–mādana a. intoxicating with fragrance. (

–naḥ) 1. a large black bee. –2. sulphur. –3. an epithet of Rāvaṇa.


–naḥ –naṁ) N. of a particular mountain to the east of Meru,

renowned for its fragrant forests. (

–naṁ) the forest on this mountain.

–mādanī spirituous liquor.

–madinī lac.

–mārjāraḥ the civet-cat.

–mukhā, –mūṣikaḥ –mūṣī f. the musk rat.

–mṛgaḥ 1. the civet cat. –2. the muskdeer.

–maithunaḥ a bull.

–modanaḥ sulphur.

–mohinī a bud of the Champaka tree.

–yuktiḥ f. preparation of perfumes.

–rasaḥ myrrh. -aṁgakaḥ turpentine.

–rājaḥ a kind of jasmine. (

–jaṁ) 1. a sort of perfume. –2. sandal-wood.

–latā the Priyangu creeper.

–lolupā 1. a bee. –2. a fly or gnat.

–vahaḥ the wind; rātriṁdivaṁ gaṁdhavahaḥ prayāti S. 5. 4;

digdakṣiṇā gaṁdhavahaṁ mukhena Ku. 3. 25.

–vahā the nose.

–vāhaḥ 1. the wind; Bv. 1. 104. –2. the musk-deer.

–vāhī the nose.

–vihvalaḥ wheat.

–vṛkṣakaḥ –vṛkṣaḥ the Śala tree.

–vyākulaṁ a kind of fragrant berry (kakkola. –śuṁḍinī the musk-


–śekharaḥ musk.

–sāraḥ 1. sandal –2. a kind of jasmine.

–sukhī sūyī the musk shrew.

–somaṁ the white water-lily.

–hārikā a female servant whose business is to prepare perfumes;

cf gaṁdhakārikā.

गौर – gaura Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899gaura mf (“ī”) n. (in comp. or ifc. g. “kaḍārādi”) white, yellowish,

reddish, pale red v &c.

mf (“ī”) n. shining, brilliant, clean, beautiful

gaura m. white, yellowish (the colour)

gaura m. a kind of buffalo (Bos Gaurus, often classed with the Gavaya)


gaura m. white mustard (the seed of which is used as a weight, = 3


gaura m. Grislea tomentosa (“dhava”)

gaura m. a species of rice

gaura m. the moon

gaura m. the planet Jupiter

gaura m. N. of the Nāga śeṣa

gaura m. of Caitanya (cf. “-candra”)

gaura m. of a Yoga teacher (son of śuka and Pīvarī) 981

gaura pl. N. of a family (cf. “-rātreya”)

gaura n. white mustard

gaura n. N. of a potherb

gaura n. saffron (cf. “kanaka-“)

gaura n. the filament of a lotus

gaura n. gold

gaura n. orpiment

gaura mf (“ī”) n. (“ā”) f. = “rī” (cf. “gaulā”)

gaura mf (“ī”) n. (“ī”) f. the female of the Bos Gaurus (“Vāc or voice of

the middle region of the air”, i, 164, 41 according to

gaura n. = “gaurikā”

gaura n. the earth

gaura n. red chalk

gaura n. a yellow pigment or dye (“go-rocanā”, “orpiment”

gaura n. turmeric (“rajanī”)

gaura n. N. of several other plants (“priyaṁgu, maṇjiṣṭhā, śveta-dūrvā,

mallikā, tulasī, suvarṇa-kadalī, ākāśa-māṁsī”)

gaura n. N. of several metres (one of 4 x 12 syllables; another of 4 x 13

syllables; another of 4 x 26 long syllables)

gaura n. (in music) a kind of measure

gaura n. () N. of a Rāgiṇī

gaura n. “brilliant Goddess”, śiva’s wife Pārvatī Pariś.

gaura n. N. of Varuṇa’s wife

gaura n. of a Vidyā-devī, iii, 231, 48

gaura n. of śākya-muni’s mother

gaura n. of the wife of Vi-rajas and mother of Su-dhāman

gaura n. of several other women

gaura n. of several rivers (one originally the wife of Prasena-jit or

Yuvanāśva, changed by his curse into the river Bāhu-dā ([cf. Lat.


Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


gaura a. (rā or rī f.)

(1) White; kailāsagauraṁ vṛṣamārurukṣoḥ R. 2. 35;

dviradadaśanacchedagaurasya tasya Me. 59, 52; Rs. 1. 6.

(2) Yellowish, pale-red; gorocanākṣepanitāṁtagaure Ku. 7. 17; R. 6.

65; gaurāṁgi garvaṁ na kadāpi kuryāḥ R. G.

(3) Reddish.

(4) Shining, brilliant.

(5) Pure, clean, beautiful. –raḥ 1 The white colour.

(2) The yellowish colour.

(3) The reddish colour.

(4) White mustard.

(5) The moon.

(6) A kind of buffalo.

(7) A kind of deer.

(8) The planet Jupiter.

(9) N. of Chaitanya. –raṁ

(1) The filament of a lotus.

(2) Saffron.

(3) Gold.

— Comp.

–aṁgaḥ N. of

(1) Viṣṇu.

(2) Kṛṣṇa. –āsyaḥ a kind of black monkey, with a white face. –kharaḥ

a wild monkey. –sarṣapaḥ white mustard (considered as a kind of


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gaura ved., gaura klass. Uṇ. 2, 29. ŚĀNT. 1, 4. 1) adj. f. ī (auch klass.) P.

4, 1, 41. “weisslich, gelblich, röthlich” (als m. “die weissliche Farbe

u.s.w.”) NIR. 11, 39. AK. 1, 1, 4, 22. 24. 3, 4, 25, 191. H. 1393. 1394. an.

2, 413. MED. r. 27. kann im comp. seinem subst. vorgehen oder

nachfolgen gaṇa kaḍārādi zu P. 2, 2, 38. gaurasya yaḥ payasaḥ

pītimānaśe ṚV. 10, 100, 2. gauralalāma TS. 5, 6, 16, 1. mṛṇāla- VARĀH.

BṚH. S. 4, 31. 58, 36. SUŚR. 1, 106, 17. bhūmi 135, 1. sirā 356, 1.

(acalam) gauraṁ tuṣāraiḥ MEGH. 53. 60. tuṣāragaura ṚT. l, 6.

kailāśagauraṁ vṛṣam RAGH. 2, 35. MBH. 6, 445. -dukūla GĪT. 11, 26.

gaurīṁ kanakavarṇābhāmiṣṭāmantaḥpureśvarīm R. 5, 14, 30.

jāmbūnadaśuddhagaura DRAUP. 7, 7. MBH. 4, 2301. fg. nārī 8, 2050. –

payodhara BHARTṚ. 1, 9. taruṇādityasadṛśaiḥ śaṇagauraiśca vānaraiḥ

MBH. 3, 16350. taruṇādityagauraiḥ śaragauraiśca vānaraiḥ R. 4, 39, 14.

11. raśmayo yasya (candrasya) gaurāḥ MṚCCH. 26, 1. rocanā- RAGH. 6,

65. GĪT. 11, 12. CAURAP. 1. “glänzend, rein, schön”, = ujjvala TRIK. 3, 3,

346. = viśuddha H. an. MED. = viśada H. an. -kānti CAURAP. 1 (nach

dem Sch.: = manohara). — 2) m. a) “eine Büffelart, Bos Gaurus”, häufig

neben dem gavaya genannt. AIT. BR. 3, 34. ŚAT. BR. 1, 2, 3, 9. ṚV. 4,

21, 8. gauro na tṛṣitaḥ piva 1, 16, 5. 4, 58, 2. 5, 78, 2. 7, 69, 6. 98, 1. 8,

4, 3. 45, 24. 76, 1. 10, 51, 6. gauramāraṇyamanu te diśāmi VS. 13, 48.

24, 28. ŚĀÑKH. ŚR. 16, 3, 14. BHĀG. P. 3, 10, 21. 8, 2, 20. Vgl.

gauramṛga. — b) “weisser Senf” MED. n. nach H. an. m. “das Korn”, als

“Gewicht” = 3 rājasarṣapa YĀJÑ. 1, 362. Hier eig. adj. mit Ergänzung von

sarṣapa aus dem vorhergehenden rājasarṣaya; vgl. gaurasarṣapa. — c)

“Grislea tomentosa Roxb.” (dhava) RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — d) “der Mond” H.

an. MED.; vgl. Ind. St. 2, 262. 286. — e) “der Planet Jupiter” H. ś. 13; vgl.

Ind. St. 2, 287. — f) N. pr. eines Joga- Lehrers, eines Sohnes des Śuka von

der Pīvarī, HARIV. 981. — g) Bein. des Heiligen Caitanya

ANANTASAṁHITĀ im ŚKDR. — 3) f. gaurā = gaurī f. DVIRŪPAK. im

ŚKDR. — 4) f. ī “die Kuh des Bos Gaurus”: somo gaurī adhi śritaḥ (P. 1, 1,

19, Sch.) ṚV. 9, 12, 3. madhvaḥ pibanti gauryaḥ. yā indreṇa

sayāvarīrvṛṣṇā madanti 1, 84, 10. yathā ha tyadvasavo gauryaṁ citpadi

ṣitāmamuñcata 4, 12, 6. gaurīrmimāya (AV.: gaurinmimāya) salilāni

takṣatī 1, 164, 41. Auf der letzten Stelle beruht die Deutung des Wortes

als Vāc “des mittleren Gebietes” NAIGH. 1, 11. NIR. 11, 40. — b)

“Gelbwurz”, = rajanī H. an. MED. RATNAM. 58. SUŚR. 1, 59, 11. 2, 39,

11. 101, 8. = piṅgā (wofür ŚKDR. dāruharidrā substituirt) MED. Auch N.

einer Menge anderer Pflanzen: = priyaṁgu H. an. MED. = mañjiṣṭhā,

śvetadūrvā, mallikā. tulasī, suvarṇakadalī, ākāsamāṁsī RĀJAN. im ŚKDR.

— c) “ein best. gelbes Pigment” (s. gorocanā) H. an. MED. — d) “ein noch

nicht menstruirtes (achtjähriges) Mädchen” AK. 2, 6, 1, 8. TRIK. 3, 3,

346. H. 510. H. an. MED. GṚHYASAṁGR. 2, 28. 29. — e) “die Erde” H. an.

MED. — f) N. pr. der Tocher des Himālaya u. Gemahlin Śiva’s AK. 1, 1, 1,

32. TRIK. H. 203. H. an. MED. MEGH. 51. 61. gaurī yatra vitastātvaṁ yātā

(vgl. u. “k”) RĀJA-TAR. 1, 29. — g) N. pr. der Gemahlin Varuṇa’s H. an.

MED. MBH. 5, 3968. 13, 6751. 7637. — h) N. pr. der Mutter Śākyamuni’s

(s. māyā) TRIK. 1, 1, 14. — i) N. pr. einer der 16 Vidyādevī H. 240. — k)

N. pr. der Gemahlin Prasenajit’s (oder Yuvanāśva’s), welche durch einen

Fluch ihres Gatten in den Fluss Bāhudā (vgl. u. f) verwandelt wurde,

HARIV. 710. 1716. VP. 362, N. 18. 448, N. 9. — N. pr. der Gemahlin des

Virajas und der Mutter Sudhāman’s 82, N. 2. — l) N. pr. eines Flusses

(vgl. u. “f”) und k) H. an. MED. MBH. 6, 333. VP. 183. LIA. I, Anh.

XXXVIII. Vgl. gaurīgaṅgā ebend. 55. — m) N. pr. einer Rāgiṇī, der

Gemahlin des Rāga Mālava (vgl. gauḍa 2, “a”): ārāmamadhyato kumārikā

(zwei Kürzen fehlen) śāradendumukhalakṣmīḥ. rāḍīdāḍimavījaṁ (rāḍī!)

dadhatī kīrānane gaurī.. SAṁGĪTADĀM. im ŚKDR. Hierher viell. zu ziehen:

gaurī vidyātha gāndhārī keśinī mitrasāhvayā. sāvitryā saha sarvāstāḥ

pārvatyā yānti pṛṣṭhataḥ.. MBH. 3, 14562. HARIV. 12036. 12041. Vgl.

auch u. gāndhāra. — n) N. verschiedener Metra: a) metrical

sequenceCOLEBR. Misc. Ess. II, 160 (VII, 10). — b) metrical sequence

ebend. 161 (VIII, 4). — g) 4 Mal 26 Längen ebend. 164 (XXI, 3). — 5) n.

a) “weisser Senf” H. an. m. nach MED. — b) “die Staubfäden der

Lotusblume” H. an. MED. — c) “Safran” RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. Diese Bed. hat

nach VIŚVA beim Sch. zu CAURAP. 10 kanakagaura n.:

kanakagaurakṛtāṅgarāga KAURAP. 10. — d) “Gold” RĀJAN. im ŚKDR.

gaura 1) ṚV. PRĀT. 17, 9. Ind. St. 8, 273. ŚIŚ. 11, 14. — 4) Z. 1 füge a)

nach ī hinzu. — b) VIŚVA bei UJJVAL. zu UṆĀDIS. 1, 66. “Nacht”

AUFRECHT. — d) vgl. Spr. 282. — f) Ind. St.5,194.9,58. 106. 108. Verz. d.

Oxf. H. 25,a,34. 58,a,10. 71,b,30. 77,b,37. auch mit der Sarasvatī

identificirt WILSON, Sel. Works 2, 190. — k) N. pr. verschiedener Frauen

Verz. d. Oxf. H. 141,a,21. 321,b, No. 763. 364,b, No. 68. — n) d) metrical

sequenceInd. St. 8, 385. — Vgl. mahāgaurī.

Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975

gaura(m) A mountain in the Kuśa island. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 12,

Verse 4).

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

gaura gaura,

I. adj., f. rī, White, yellow, pale red, Megh. 53; Rām. 5, 14, 30.

II. m.

1. A kind of buffalo, Bos gaurus, Bhāg. P. 3, 10. 21.

2. White mustard, as a measure, Yājñ. 1, 362.

III. f. rī,

1. Turmeric, Suśr. 1, 59, 11.

2. A young girl prior to menstruation, Pañc. iii. d. 213.

3. The wife of Śiva, Megh. 51.

4. The wife of Varuṇa, MBh. 5, 3968.

5. The name of a river, MBh. 6, 333.

IV. n. Saffron, Caur. 10.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

gaura f. ī white, yellowish, reddish; brilliant, beautiful. m. = gauramṛga or

= gaurasarṣapa, N. of a teacher; f. ī a female buffalo, a young girl before

puberty, E. of the wife of Śiva, N. of sev. women.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

gaura gaura, a. (ī) whitish, yellowish, reddish; m. kind of buffalo; white

mustard (a grain of it = a measure);

-mukha, m. N.;

-mṛga, m. kind of buffalo.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

gaura pu° guṅ–gatau ra ni° vṛddhiḥ gura–ghañ prajñādyaṇ vā . 1 candre

2 śvetasarṣape medi° 3 dhavavṛkṣe rājani° 4 pītavarṇe 5 śvetavarṇe 6

aruṇavarṇe ca pu° 7 tadviśiṣṭe tri° striyāṁ gaurā° ṅīṣ . 8 śrīcaitanyadeve

mahāprabhau anantamahitā . 9 padmakeśare na° medi° 10 svarṇe 11

kuṅkume ca na° rājani° . tatra śvetavarṇayukte kailāsagauraṁ

vṛṣamārurukṣoḥ raghuḥ pītavarṇādye gorocanopanitānta gaure kumā°

aruṇavarṇādye kīrṇaiḥ piṣṭātakoghaiḥ kṛta divasamukhaiḥ

kuṅkumakṣodagauraḥ ratnāva° taruṇādityagauraiśca śaragauraiśca

vānaraiḥ rāmā° ki° 301 sa° . nitāntagauryo hṛtakuṅkameṣvalam kirā° 12

parimāṇamede yathoktaṁ yājña° jālasūryamarīcisthaṁ trasareṇurajaḥ

smṛtam . te ‘ṣṭau likṣā ca tāstisro rājasarṣapa ucyate . gaurastu te trayaḥ

ṣaṭ ca yavomadhyastu te trayaḥ iti . 13 mṛgabhede pu° strī gaurajo

mahiṣaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ śūkaro gavayo ruruḥ . dviśaphāḥ paśavaśceme

aviruṣṭraśca sattama! . kharo’śvo’śvataro gauraḥ śarabhaścamarī tathā .

ete caikaśaphāḥ kṣattaḥ! bhāga° 3 . 10 . 22 . a° . mahoragāśca bhayato

vidravanti sagaurakṛṣṇāḥ śarabhāścamaryaḥ bhāga° 8 . 2 . 16 a° . 14

viśuddhe tri° medi° . kaḍārā° karmadhāraye’sya vā pūrvanipātaḥ

gaurapaṭaḥ paṭagauraḥ .

घन – ghana Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899ghana mf (“ā”) n. (“han”) a striker, killer, destroyer

mf (“ā”) n. compact, solid, material, hard, firm, dense, i, 8, 3 (“ghanā”

for “-nam ā”) &c.

mf (“ā”) n. coarse, gross

mf (“ā”) n. viscid, thick, inspissated

mf (“ā”) n. full of (in comp.), densely filled with (in comp.)

mf (“ā”) n. uninterrupted

mf (“ā”) n. dark (cf. “-śyāma”)

mf (“ā”) n. deep (as sound; colour) xliii, 19

mf (“ā”) n. complete, all

mf (“ā”) n. auspicious, fortunate

ghana m. (= [characters]) slaying

ghana m. an iron club, mace, weapon shaped like a hammer, i, 33, 4; 36,

16; 63, 5; ix, 97, 16

ghana m. any compact mass or substance (generally ifc.) xiv &c. (said

of the foetus in the 2nd month

ghana ifc. mere, nothing but (e.g. “vijṇāna-ghana”, “nothing but

intuition” xiv) 5 viii f. (cf. “ambu-, ayo-“)

mf (“ā”) n. a collection, multitude, mass, quantity

mf (“ā”) n. vulgar people

mf (“ā”) n. a cloud &c. (ifc. f. “ā” 2660)

mf (“ā”) n. talc

mf (“ā”) n. the bulbous root of Cyperus Hexastachys communis

mf (“ā”) n. a peculiar form of a temple

mf (“ā”) n. a particular method of reciting the and Yajur-veda (cf.


mf (“ā”) n. the cube (of a number), solid body (in geom.)

mf (“ā”) n. phlegm (“kapha”)

mf (“ā”) n. the body

mf (“ā”) n. extension, diffusion

ghana n. any brazen or metallic instrument or plate which is struck

(cymbal, bell, gong, &c.) 8688

ghana n. iron

ghana n. tin

ghana n. a mode of dancing (neither quick nor slow)

ghana n. darkness

ghana mf (“ā”) n. (“am”) ind. closely iii 9

ghana n. (“dhvan”, to sound) deep

ghana n. very much

ghana mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. N. of a stringed instrument

ghana n. Glycine debilis

ghana n. a kind of creeper

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


ghana a. [han mūrtau ap ghanadeśaśca Tv].

(1) Compact, firm, hard, solid: saṁjāta śca ghanāghanaḥ Mal. 9. 39;

nāsā ghanāsthikā Y. 3. 89; R. 11. 18.

(2) Thick, close, dense; ghanāviralabhāvaḥ U. 2. 27; R. 8. 91; Amaru.


(3) Thick-set, full, fully developed (as breasts); ghaṭayati ghasune

kucayugagagane mṛgamadarucirūṣite Gīt. 7; agurucatuṣkraṁ bhavati gurū

dvau ghanakucayugme śaśivadanā’sau Śrut. 8; Bh. 1. 8; Amaru. 28.

(4) Deep (as sound); Mal. 2. 12; Mu. 1. 21.

(5) Uninterrupted, permanent.

(6) Impenetrable.

(7) Great, excessive, violent.

(8) Complete.

(9) Auspicious, fortunate. (10) Coarse, gross.

(11) Engrossed by, full or replete with; Māl. 1. 32; nirvṛti- U. 6. 11. —

naḥ A cloud; ghanodayaḥ prāk tadanataraṁ payaḥ S. 7. 30;

ghanarucirakalāpo niḥsapatno’sya jātaḥ V. 4. 10.

(2) An iron club, a mace.

(3) The body.

(4) The cube of a number (in math.).

(5) Extension, diffusion.

(6) A collection, multitude, quantity, mass, assemblage.

(7) Talc

(8) Phlegm.

(9) Any compact mass or substance. (10) Hardness, firmness.

(11) A particular manner of reciting Vedic texts; thus the padas

namaḥ rudrebhyaḥ ye repeated in this manner would stand thus: –namo

rudrebhyo rudrebhyo namo namo rudrebhyo ye ye rudrebhyo namo namo

rudrebhyo ye. –naṁ

(1) A cymbal, a bell, a gong.

(2) Iron.

(3) Tin.

(4) Skin, rind, bark.

(5) A mode of dancing.

— Comp.

–atyayaḥ, –aṁtaḥ ‘disappearance of the clouds’, the season

succeeding the rains, autumn; (śarad); R. 3. 37.

–ajñānī N. of Durgā.

–aṁbu n. rain.

–ākaraḥ the rainy season.

–āgamaḥ, –udayaḥ ‘the approach of clouds’, the rainy season;

ghanāgamaḥ kāmijanapriyaḥ priye Rs. 2. 1.

–āmayaḥ the date-tree.

–āśrayaḥ the atmosphere, firmament.

–uttamaḥ the face.

–upalaḥ hail.

–oghaḥ gathering of clouds.

–kaphaḥ hail.

–kālaḥ the rainy season.

–garjitaṁ 1. thunder, peal or thundering noise of clouds, roar of

thunder. –2. a deep loud roar.

–golakaḥ alloy of gold and silver.

–ghataḥ the cube of a cube.

–jaṁbāla, thick mire.

–jvālā lightning.

–tālaḥ a kind of bird (sāraṁga). –tolaḥ the Chataka bird.

–dhātuḥ lymph.

–dhvani a. roaring. (

–niḥ) 1. a deep or low tone. –2. the muttering of thunder clouds;

Śi. 16. 25.

–nābhiḥ smoke (being supposed to be a principal ingredient in

clouds; Me. 5).

–nīhāraḥ thick hoar-frost or mist.

–padaṁ the cube root.

–padavī ‘the path of clouds’, firmament, sky;

krāmadbhirghanapadavīmanekasaṁkhyaiḥ Ki. 5. 34.

–pāṣaṁḍaḥ a peacock.

–phalaṁ (in geom.) the solid or cubical contents of a body or of an


–mūlaṁ cube root (in math.).

–rasaḥ 1. a thick juice. –2. extract, decoction. –3. camphor. –4.

water (m. or n.).

–varaṁ the face.

–vargaḥ the square of a cube, the sixth power (in math.).

–vartman n. the sky; ghanavartma sahasradheva kurvan Ki. 5. 17.

–vallikā, –vallī lightning.

–vātaḥ a thick oppressive breeze or air.

–vīthiḥ the sky.

–śabdaḥ thunder, peal of thunder.

–vāsaḥ a kind of pumpkin gourd.

–vāhanaḥ 1. Śiva. –2. Indra.

–śyāma a. ‘dark like a cloud’, deep-black, dark. (

–maḥ) an epithet

(1) of Rāma,

(2) of Kṛṣṇa. –samayaḥ the rainy season. –sāraḥ 1. camphor;

ghanasāranīhārahāra &c. Dk.

(1) (mentioned among white substances). –2. mercury. –3. water.

–svanaḥ, –śabdaḥ, –svaḥ the roaring of clouds. –hastasaṁkhyā the

contents of an excavation or of a solid (in math).

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

ghana (von han) I) subj. 1) adj. subst. “der welcher erschlägt,

Zermalmer”: vṛtrāṇām ṚV. 3, 49, 1. 4, 38, 1. 1, 4, 8. 8, 85, 12. — 2) m.

“Knüttel, Keule” AV. 10, 4, 9. vadhīrhi dasyuṁ dhaninaṁ ghanena ṚV. 1,

33, 4. ā vajraṁ ghanā dadīmahi 8, 3. 36, 16. 63, 5. 9, 97, 16. “eine

hammerähnliche Waffe” AK. 2, 8, 2, 59. H. 785. an. 2, 262. MED. n. 3.

Vgl. ayoghana. — II) obj. 1) adj. f. ā (“fest zusammengeschlagen

u.s.w.”), = mūrta, nirantara, sāndra, dṛḍha AK. 3, 2, 15. 3, 4, 18, 113. H.

1447. H. an. MED. = pūrṇa, saṁpuṭa ŚABDAR. im ŚKDR. a) “compact”:

kavalikā SUŚR. 1, 16, 8. “fest, hart”: granthi 257, 17. śopha 2, 44, 19.

vraṇa 2, 7. piṇḍa 1, 322, 7. nāsā ghanāsthikā YĀJÑ. 3, 89. śilāghane

tāḍakorasi RAGH. 11, 18. stanau BHARTṚ. 1, 17. CAURAP. 40. ŚRUT. 8.

GĪT. 7, 24. jaghana, ūru 10, 6. CAURAP. 15. AMAR. 28. PRAB. 101, 16.

VARĀH. BṚH. S. 68, 3. aṅguli 67, 43. “fest”, von Speisen SUŚR. 1, 241,

15. “zäh, dick”, von Flüssigkeiten und dergl. srāva 84, 9. 2, 363, 5. doṣa

345, 15. ghanayāṅgaṁ mṛdālipat KATHĀS. 24, 93. trapsyaṁ dadhi

ghanetarat AK. 2, 9, 51. ghanaṁ ghanapaṭalam BHARTṚ. 1, 43. udadhi,

vāta (Gegens. tanu) H. 1359. “dicht”, von einem Gewebe SUŚR. 1, 29, 8.

2, 197, 14. vana PAÑCAT. III, 188. 141, 16 (wo sughana für saghana zu

lesen ist). vṛkṣaiḥ VET. 6, 8. von Zähnen VARĀH. BṚH. S. 67, 52.

atighanatarapatracchanna PAÑCAT. 148, 5. pulaka AMAR. 57. dhārā

PAÑCAT. 93, 2. dhūma MBH. 14, 1738. andhakāra R. 6, 19, 60. MṚCCH.

7, 11. PAÑCAT. 129, 18 (comparat.). timira I, 189. ŚIŚ. 4, 67. niśītha

AMAR. 69. “dick, voll von Etwas”, am Ende eines comp.:

jaladhārāghainarghanaiḥ MBH. 1, 5374. tamoghanāyāṁ niśi 13, 4047. hṛdi

śokaghane RAGH. 8, 90. “häufig auf einander folgend, ununterbrochen”:

gāṇḍīvasphuragurughanāsphālanakrūrapāṇi (vgl.

anavataradhanurjyāsphālana ŚĀK. 37) PAÑCAT. III, 237. — b) “dunkel”,

von Farben: ghanaruc “eine dunkle Hautfarbe habend” BHĀG. P. 4, 5, 3;

vgl. ghanaśyāma. — c) “tief”, von Tönen: gaurhambhāravaghanasvanā

MBH. 1, 6680. paraśorjarjaraśabdo neṣṭaḥ snigdho ghanaśca hitaḥ

VARĀH. BṚH. S. 42 (43), 19. ghanam – dhvananti RĀJA-TAR. 5, 377. — d)

“zusammengefasst. ganz, all”: dhanam “das ganze Vermögen” UPAK. 24

(KATHĀS. 4, 26 eine ganz andere Lesart). ghanamapaśyataḥ (pāpasya)

“des Bösen, der nichts merkte” KATHĀS. 4, 53. — 2) m. a) “eine

compacte Masse, Klumpen u.s.w.”: saindhavaghana ŚAT. BR. 14, 7, 3,

13. supuṣpite patraghane nilānaḥ R. 5, 16, 55. saṁdhyābhra- 6, 35, 12.

MBH. 3, 11555. keśa- HARIV. 4298. vom “Fötus im zweiten Monat” (vgl.

SUŚR. 1, 322, 7) NIR. 14, 6. VARĀH. L. JĀT. 3, 4 (nach dem Sch. n.).

rasa-, prajñāna-, vijñāna-, prajñā-, jīva- “ganz, nichts als” rasa, “ganz

Erkennen” u.s.w. ŚAT. BR. 14, 7, 3, 13. 5, 4, 12. MĀṆḌ. UP. 5. PRAŚNOP.

5, 5. BHĀG. P. 8, 3, 12. 9, 8, 23. Vgl. ambughana, ayoghana. Nach den

Lexicographen: = mūrtiguṇa, dārḍhya, vistāra, saṁgha, ogha AK. 3, 4,

18, 113. H. an. MED. — b) “Wolke” AK. 1, 1, 2, 9. 3, 4, 18, 113. TRIK. 3,

3, 237. H. 164. H. an. MED. MBH. 1, 5374. 12, 12405 (unterschieden von

jīmūta, ghanāghana, megha, balāhaka). DAŚ. 1, 15. R. 3, 61, 8. 4, 27, 23.

SUŚR. 1, 113, 19. MEGH. 20. 104. ŚĀK. 109. prativātaṁ na hi ghanaḥ

kadācidupasarpati PAÑCAT. III, 22. HIT. 34, 21. VARĀH. BṚH. S. 5, 93. 6,

11. 21, 20. ghanacchannadṛṣṭirghanacchannamarkaṁ yathā niṣprabhaṁ

manyate VEDĀNTAS. (Allah.) No. 36. Am Ende eines adj. comp. f. ā

HARIV. 2660. — c) “Talk” (wie auch andere Synonyme von “Wolke”; vgl.

abhra, abhraka und H. 1051) RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — d) “die knollige Wurzel

von Cyperus hexastachyus communis Nees.” (wie alle Synonyme von

“Wolke”; vgl. AK. 2, 4, 25. H. 1193) TRIK. 3, 3, 237. H. an. MED. SUŚR. 2,

421, 11. 431, 16. 485, 13. 515, 1. — e) “Phlegma, Schleim” (s. kapha)

RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — f) “Körper” H. 564. RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — g) “Kubus”

COLEBR. Alg. 10. 11. trighana = 3 x 3 x 3 = 27 VARĀH. L. JĀT. 1, 21. 13,

2. — h) “eine Art den” Veda “zu schreiben” COLEBR. Misc. Ess. I, 21.

Verz. d. B. H. No. 368. — 3) f. ghanā N. zweier Pflanzen: a) = māṣaparṇī.

— b) = rudrajaṭā RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — 4) n. a) “Schlaginstrument” AK. 1,

1, 7, 4. TRIK. 3, 3, 237. H. 286. H. an. MED. HARIV. 8688. — b) “Eisen”

H. 1037. — c) “Zinn” H. ś. 160. — d) = tvaca RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. Eher “die

aromatische Rinde der Laurus Cassia” als “Rinde, Haut” überh., wie

WILSON annimmt. — e) “das gemässigte Tempo beim Tanz” AK. 1, 1, 7,

9. H. 292. H. an. MED. — III) nom. act. m. “das Erschlagen”: śreṣṭho

ghane vṛtrāṇāṁ sanaye dhanānām ṚV. 6, 26, 8.

ghana II) 1) a) sūtra “fest” Spr. 4000. viveka “derb, kräftig” 2971 (Conj.).

utsāhaika- (vīrahṛdaya) KATHĀS. 83, 39. Z. 13 lies 129, 8; Z. 14 lies

jaladhārāghanairghanaiḥ. — 2) a) mahābhra- R. 7, 6, 61. vom “Fötus”

WASSILJEW 236. — f) HALĀY. 2, 355. — g) yugānāṁ trighano (d. i.

“siebenundzwanzig” Juga) gataḥ SŪRYAS. 1, 22. 46. 70. — h) vgl. Ind. St.

3, 269.

ghana I) 2) “Hammer” Spr. (II) 4074. — II) 2) a) und b) pl. von Menschen

so v. a. “Pack” und zugleich “Wolken” Spr. (II) 6919. — h) Ind. Antiq.

1874, S. 133.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

ghana ghana, i. e. han + a,

I. adj., f. nā,

1. Firm, hard, Bhartṛ. 1, 17.

2. Without interstices, Suśr. 1, 29, 8.

3. Uninterrupted, Pañc. iii. d. 237.

4. Dense, Pañc. iii. d. 188; 129, 8.

5. As latter part of a compound adj., sometimes Full, Ragh. 8, 90.

6. Dusk, Bhāg. P. 4, 5, 3.

7. Deep (as a sound), MBh. 1, 6680; Rājat. 5, 377.

8. Whole, Upak. 24.

II. m.

1. A solid mass, substance, Vedāntas. in Chr. 211, 9.

2. A heap, Rām. 5, 16, 55.

3. A cloud, Megh. 20.

— Comp. sa-, adj. dense, Pañc. 141, 16. stamba-, m. 1. a small hoe for

weeding. 2. A sickle. 3. A basket for the heads of wild rice.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

ghana a. slaying, striking; compact, solid, firm, tight (n. adv.); dark, deep

(sound); uninterrupted, whole, entire; full of (–°). m. slaughter, slayer;

mace, club, hammer; compact mass, cloud; nothing but (–°).

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

ghana ghan-a, a. striking; slaying; firm, hard; dense, solid, thick;

uninterrupted; dark, murky; deep (tone); whole; -°, full of: -m, ad.

closely, firmly; m. slaying; slayer; club, hammer; lump, solid mass; -°,

nothing but, pure (cognition); cloud: pl. rabble.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

ghana pu° hana–mūrtau ap ghanādeśaśca . 1 meghe 2 mustake 3

samūhe 4 dārdye 5 vistāre ca 6 lauhamudgare medi° 7 śarīre 8 kaphe 9

abhrake rājani° . samatrighātaśca ghanaḥ pradiṣṭaḥ iti 10 sīlāvatyukte

samāddhatrayabadhe . 11 niviḍe sāndre tri° amaraḥ 12 vṛḍhe tri° medi° .

13 pūrṇe 14 saspuṭe tri° śabdara° . 15 karatālādikāṁsyavādyamede 16

madhyama nṛtye ca na° amaraḥ . 17 lauhe na° hemaca° 18 tvace na°

rājani° . tatra meghasyotpattibhedādikaṁ purāṇamarvasve

brahmāṇḍapu° uktaṁ yathā sūryaḥ kiraṇajālena vāyuyuktena sarvataḥ .

jagato jalamāṭatte kṛtsnasya dvijasattamāḥ! . ādityabhūtaṁ bhūtebhyaḥ

somaṁ saṁkramate jalam . nāḍībhirvāyuyuktābhirlokādhāraḥ pravartate .

yat somāccyavate sūkṣmaṁ tadabbhreṣvavatiṣṭhate .

meghāvāvvabhivātena visṛjanti jalaṁ bhuvi . evaṁ prakaraṇenaiva patate

cāsakṛjjalam . na nāśamudakasyāsti tadeva parivartate .

mandhāraṇārthaṁ bhūtānāṁ māyaiṣā viṣṇunirmitā . anayā māyayā

vyāptaṁ trailokyaṁ sacarācaram . viśraśo lokakṛddevaḥ sahabhrāṁśuḥ

prajāpatiḥ . dhātā kṛtsnasya lokasya prabhaviṣṇurdivākaraḥ .

sārvalaukikamambhoya ttat somo nabhasorasaḥ . evaṁ bhūtaṁ jagat

sarvametattathyaṁ prakīrtitam . sūryāduṣṇaṁ nisravati somācchītaṁ

pravartate . śītoṣṇavīryau dvāvetau yuktyā pālayato jagat .

somāmṛtodbhavā gaṅgā pavitrā vimalodakā . bhadrāsomapurogāśca

mahānadyo dvijottamāḥ! . sarvabhūtaśarīreṣu yāstvāpo’pasṛtābhuvi . teṣu

sandahyamāmeṣu jaṅgamasthāvareṣu ca . pūryante sarvabhūtebhyo

niṣkrāmantīha sarvaśaḥ . tena cābbhrāṇi jāyante sthānamabbhramayaṁ

smṛtam . tejo’rkaḥ sarvabhūtebhya ādatte raśmibhirjalam .

samudrādvāyusaṁyogādraśmayaḥ pravahantyapaḥ . tatastvṛtugate kāle

parivṛtto divākaraḥ . niyacchatyapomeghebhyaḥ śuklakṛṣṇairgabhastibhiḥ

. abbhrasthāḥ prapatantyāpo vāyunā samudīritāḥ . sarvabhūtahitārthāya

rasyabhūtāḥ samantataḥ . tato varṣati ṣaṇmāsān sarvabhūta vivṛddhaye .

vāyavyaṁ stanitañcaiva vidyudagnisamudbharvā . mehanācca

miherdhātormeghatvaṁ vyañjayantyuta . na bhraśyanti

yataścāpastadabhraṁ kavayo viduḥ . meghānāṁ punarutpattau trividhā

yonirucyate . agnijā brahmajā caiva pakṣajā ca pṛthagvidhāḥ . tridhā

ghanāḥ samākhyātāsteṣāṁ vakṣyāmi sambhavam . āgneyāḥ sūkṣmajāḥ

proktāsteṣāṁ dhūmāt pravartanam . śītadurdinavātā ye svaguṇāste

vyavasthitāḥ . mahipāśca varāhāśca mattamātaṅgarūpiṇaḥ . bhūtvā

dharaṇi mabhyetya ramanti vicaranti ca . jīmūtā nāma te meghā ye

tebhyo vījasambhavāḥ . vidyadguṇavihīnāśca jaladhārāvalamvinaḥ . sakā

meghā mahākāyā āvahasya vaśānugāḥ . krośamātrācca varṣanti

krośārdhādapi vā punaḥ . parvatāgra nitatveṣu varṣanti gahvareṣu ca .

valākāgarbhadāścaiva vālākā garbhadhāriṇaḥ . brahmajāścaiva ye meghā

brahmaniśvāsasambhavāḥ . te ha vidyudgaṇāpetāḥ stanayitnupriyasvanāḥ

. teṣu śabdapraṇādena bhūmeḥsvāṅgaruhodbhavaiḥ .

vāyuvāhyābhiṣikteṣu vāyuryauvanamaśnute . teṣviya prāvṛḍāsaktā

bhūtānāṁ jīvitodbhavā . jīmūtā nāma te meghā ye tebhyo jīvasambhavāḥ

. dvitīyaṁ pravahaṁ vāyuṁ meghāste tu samāśritāḥ . ito yojanamātrācca

sārdhārdhādapi vā ca te . vṛṣṭidharmo dvadhā teṣāṁ dhārā”sāraḥ

prakīrtitaḥ . puṣkarāvartakā nāma ye mevāḥ pakṣamambhatāḥ .

saṁyogādvāyunocchinnāḥ parvatānāṁ mahaujasām . kāmagānāṁ ca

lokānāṁ sarvepāṁ śitamicchatām . puskarā nāma te meghā vṛhatto

ḥsamatsarāḥ . puṣkarāvartakāstena kāraṇeneha śabditāḥ .

nānārūpadharāṁścaiva mahāghorasvanāśca ye . kalpāntavṛṣṭeḥ sraṣṭāraḥ

saṁvartāgnerniyāmakāḥ . varṣanti te yugānteṣu tutīyāste prakīrtitāḥ .

anekarūpasaṁsthānāḥ pūrayanto mahītalam . vāyuṁ parivahaṁ te syuḥ

śritāḥ kalpāntasādhakāḥ . yo’ṇḍasya ca vibhinnasya prākṛtasyābhavattadā

. yasmāt brahmā samutpannaścaturvaktraḥ svayambhuvaḥ .

tasyaivāṇḍakapālāni sarvameghāḥ pravartitāḥ . teṣāmāpyāyanaṁ dhūmaḥ

sarveṣāmaviśeṣataḥ . teṣāṁ śreṣṭhastu parjanya ścattvāraścaiva

diggajāḥ . gajānāṁ parvatānāñca meghānāṁ bhogibhiḥ saha .

kulamekaṁ pṛthak bhūtaṁ yonistvekaṁ jalaṁ smṛtam . parjanyo

diggajāścaiva hemante śītasambhavāḥ . tuṣāravṛṣṭiṁ varṣanti himaṁ

sasyavivṛddhaye . vāyuviśeṣakṛtaeva ghanabhedo bhā° śā° 330 a° darśito

yathā prerayatyabhrasaṁghātān dhūmajāṁścoṣmajāṁśca yaḥ .

prathamaḥ prathame mārge pravaho nāma yo’nilaḥ . ambare

snehamabhyetya taḍidbhyaścotamadyutiḥ . āvaho nāma saṁbhāti

dvitīyaḥ śvasanonadan . udayaṁ jyotiṣāṁ śaśvat somādonāṁ karoti yaḥ .

antardeheṣu codānaṁ yaṁ vadanti manīṣiṇaḥ . yaścaturbhyaḥ

samudrebhyo vāyurdhārayate jalam . uddhṛtyādadate cāpo

jīmūtebhyo’mbare’nilaḥ . yo’dbhiḥ saṁyojya jīmūtān parjanyāya

prayacchati . udvaho nāma vaṁhiṣṭha stṛtīyaḥ sa sadāgatiḥ .

samuhyamānā bahudhā yena nītāḥ pṛthagghanāḥ .

varṣamokṣakṛtārambhāste bhavanti ghanāghanāḥ . saṁhatā yena

cāviddhā bhavanti nadatā nadāḥ . rakṣaṇārthāya sambhūtāḥ

meghatvamupayānti ca . yo’sau vahati bhūtānāṁ vimānāni vihāyasā .

caturthaḥ saṁvaho nāma vāyuḥ sa girimardanaḥ . yena vegavatā rugaṇā

rūkṣeṇārujatā nagān . vāyunā sahitā meghā ste bhavanti valāhakāḥ .

ṣṭāruṇotpātasañcāro nabhasaḥ stanayitnumān . pañcamaḥ sa mahāvego

vivaho nāma mārutaḥ . yasmin pāriplavā divyā vahantyāpovihāyasā .

puṇyañcākāśagaṅgāyā stoyaṁ viṣṭabhya tiṣṭhati .

samatrighātaścetyāderayamayaḥ samasaṁkhyānāṁ trayāṇāṁ ghātaḥ

yadyapyatra samayordvayorghātena vargarūpeṇa tanmūlasya samatvaṁ

nāsti tathāpi samaśabdena sadṛśaghātadvithātatvena samatvaṁ todhyaṁ

yathā 1 ghanaḥ? . dvābhyo dvayorguṇane 4 catvāraḥ teṣāṁ dvābhyāṁ

guṇane 8 . evaṁ trayāṇāṁ tribhirguṇane 9 nava teṣāṁ

punastribhirguṇane 27 . evaṁ krameṇa vāradvayaṁ

samasamadvighātarūpavargaguṇanāt ghanarūpatvaṁ jāyate

tatraikādīnāṁ daśaparyuntānāṁ ghanasaṁkhyāḥ suvodhāya pradarśyante

yathā 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 10 1 . 8 . 27 . 64 . 125 . 216 . 343 .

512 729 . 1000 asya prakārāntaraṁ sthāpyoghanotyasyetyādi līlāvatyāṁ

dṛśyaṁ vistarabhayānnoktam . jaṭāmuktāṁ viparyasya

ghanamāhurmanīṣiṇaḥ ityukte 19 vedapāṭhabhede ṛgvedaśabde 1409 . 11

. 12 pṛ° vivṛtiḥ tatra sāndre pracaṇḍaghanagarjitapratirutānukārī (ravaḥ)

muhuḥ veṇī° . jaghanena ghanena sā lauhodghanaghanaskandhāḥ bhaṭṭiḥ

. lauhamudgare pratijaghāna ghanairiva muṣṭibhiḥ kirā° . meghe

prāvṛṣamiva ghanakeśajālām kāda° . rajanītimirāvaguṇṭhite puramārge

ghanaśabdavihvalāḥ kumā° asambhavadghanarasā śatālīpariṣevitā

udbhaṭaḥ . ghanaśyamaḥ . mūrtau–kāṭhinthe dvāraṁ

tamoghanaprakhyam bhaṭṭiḥ . tamasoghano mūrtiḥ kāṭhinyam tena

mūrtimattamaḥsamam jayama° .

देवहूती – devahūtī Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975devahūtī A daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu, the son of Brahmā. The

Manu had two sons called Priyavrata and Uttānapāda and three

daughters named Ākūti, Devahūti and Prasūti. Ākūti was married by

Ruciprajāpati and Devahūti by Kardamaprajāpati and Prasūti to

Dakṣprajāpati. Kapila, the mighty exponent of the Sāṅkhya system of

philosophy and great ascetic was the son born to Kardama by Devahūti.

Kapila taught his mother the world famous Kapila Śāstra,

(Devibhāgavata, Aṣṭama Skandha) and when the teaching was over he

bade farewell to her and took to forest life. And, his mother performed a

yajña on the lines advised by her son, on the banks of river Sarasvatī.

Because she took three baths daily her hairs became a mixture of black

and blue in colour and she got emaciated due to fasting. She wore the

bark of trees. Devahūti, who realised all the principles and the truth

became blind to all external objects like gardens, maids, mansions etc.

Thus immersed in meditation she in course of time attained siddhi

(realisation). The particular spot on the banks of Sarasvatī where she

attained Siddhi is called Siddhapada.

द्वि – dvi Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899dvi du. two (nom. “dvau” see “dva”).

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


dvi num. a. (Nom. du. dvau m., dve f., dve n.) Two, both; sadyaḥ

parasparatulāmadhirohatāṁ dve R. 5. 68. (N. B. In comp. dvā is

substituted for dvi necessarily before daśan, viṁśati and triṁśat, and

optionally before catvāriṁśat, paṁcāśat, ṣaṣṭi, saptati and navati, dvi

remaining unchanged before aśīti). [cf. L. duo, bis or bi in comp.; Gr. duo,

dis; Zend dva; A. S. twi.].

— Comp.

–akṣa a. two-eyed, binocular.

–akṣara a. dissyllabic. (

–raḥ) a word of two syllables.

–aṁgula a. two fingers long. (

–laṁ) two fingers’ length.

–aṇuka an aggregate or molecule of two atoms a diad.

–artha a. 1. having two senses. –2. ambiguous, equivocal. –3.

having two objects in view.

–aśīta a. eighty-second.

–aśītiḥ f. eighty-two.

–aṣṭaṁ copper.

–ahaḥ a period of two days.

–ātmaka a. 1. having a double nature. –2. being two.

–āmuṣyāyaṇaḥ ‘a son of two persons or fathers, an adopted son

who remains heir to his natural father though adopted by another.

–ṛcaṁ (dvṛcaṁ or dvyarcaṁ) a collection of two verses or ṛks.

–kaḥ, –kakāraḥ 1. a crow (there being two Kas in the word kāka).

–2. the ruddy goose (there being two kas in the word koka). –kakud m. a


–gu a. exchanged or bartered for two cows. (

–guḥ) a sub-division of the Tatpurusha compound in which the

first member is a numeral; dvaṁdvo dvigurapi cāhaṁ Udb.

–guṇa a. double, twofold. (dviguṇākṛ to plough twice; dviguṇīkṛ to

double, increase; dviguṇībhūta a. doubled, augmented).

–guṇita a. 1. doubled, multiplied by two; Ki. 5. 46. –2. folded

double. –3. enveloped. –4. doubly increased, doubled.

–caraṇa a. having two legs, two-legged; dvicaraṇapaśūnāṁ

kṣitibhujāṁ Śānti. 4. 15.

–catvāriṁśa a. (dvi-dvā-catvāriṁśa) fortysecond.

–catvāriṁśat f. (dvi dvā-catvāriṁśat) forty-two.

–jaḥ ‘twice-born’ 1. a man of any of the first three castes of the

Hiṇdus (a Brāhmaṇa, Kshatriya or Vaiśya); see Y. 1. 39. –2. a Brāhmaṇa

(over whom the Samskāras or purificatory rites are performed); janmanā

brāhmaṇo jñeyaḥ saṁskārairdvija ucyate. –3. any oviparous animal, such

as a bird, snake, fish &c.; sa tamānaṁdamaviṁdata dvijaḥ N. 2. 1; S. 5.

21; R. 12. 22; Mu. 1. 11; Ms. 5. 17. –4. a tooth; kīrṇaṁ dvijānāṁ gaṇaiḥ

Bh. 1. 13 (where dvija means ‘a Brāhmaṇa’ also). -agryaḥ a Brāhmaṇa. –

ayanī the sacred thread worn by the first three castes of the Hindus. –

ālayaḥ 1. the house of a dvija. –2. a nest. -iṁdraḥ, -īśaḥ 1. the moon; Śi.

12. 3–2. an epithet of Garuḍa. –3. cam. phor. -dāsaḥ a Śūdra. -devaḥ a

Brāhmaṇa. -patiḥ, -rājaḥ an epithet off 1. the moon; R. 5. 23. –2. Garuḍa.

–3. camphor. -prapā 1. a trench or basin round the root of a tree for

holding water. –2. a trough near a well for watering birds, cattle, &c. –

baṁdhuḥ, -bruvaḥ 1. a man who pretends to be a Brāhmaṇa. –2. one

who is ‘twice-born’ or a Brāhmaṇa by name and birth only and not by

acts; cf. brahmabaṁghu -mukhyaḥ a Brāhmaṇa. -liṁgin m. 1. a Kshatriya.

–2. a pseudo-Brāhmaṇa, one disguised as a Brāhmaṇa. -vāhanaḥ an

epithet of Viṣṇu, (having Garuḍa for his vehicle.). -sevakaḥ a Śūdra.

–janman a. 1. having two natures. –2. regenerated. –3.

oviparous. (–m.),

–jātiḥ m. 1. a man of any of the first three castes of the Hindus;

Ms. 2. 24 –2. a Brāhmaṇa; Ki. 1. 39; Ku. 5. 40. –3. a bird. –4. a tooth.

–jātīya a. 1. belonging to the first three castes of the Hindus. –2.

of a twofold nature. –3. of mixed origin, mongrel. (

–yaḥ) a mule.

–jihva a. 1. double-tongued, (fig. also). –2. insincere (

–hvaḥ) 1. a snake; Śi. 1. 63; R. 11. 64, 14. 41; Bv. 1. 20.

(2) an informer, a slanderer, tale-bearer. –3. an insincere person –4.

a thief –ṭhaḥ 1. the sign visarga consisting of two dots. –2. N. of Svāhā

wife of Agni. –tra a. pl. two or three: R. 5. 25; Bh. 2. 121. –triṁśa

(dvātriṁśa) a. 1. thirty second. –2. consisting of thirty two. –triṁśat

(dvātriṁśat) f. thirtytwo. -lakṣaṇa a. having thirty-two auspicious marks

upon thebody. –daṁḍi ind. stick against stick. –dat a. having two teeth.

–dala a. having two parts, two leafed. –daśa a. pl. twenty. –daśa a.

(dvādaśa) 1. twelfth; Ms. 2. 36. –2. consisting of twelve. –daśan

(dvādaśam) a. pl. twelve. -aṁśuḥ, -arcis m. an epithet of 1. the planet

Jupiter. –2. Bṛhaspati, the preceptor of the gods. -akṣaḥ, -karaḥ, -locanaḥ

epithets of Kārtikeya. -aṁgulaṁ a measure of twelve fingers. -adhyāyī N

of Jaimini’s Mīmāmsā in twelve Adhyāyas. -anyika a. committing twelue

mistakes in reading. -asraṁ a dodecagon. -ahaḥ 1. a period of twelve

days; Ms. 5. 83, 11. 168. –2. a sacrifice lasting for or completed in twelve

days. -ākhyaḥ, -akṣaḥ a Buddha. -ātman m. the sun. -ādityāḥ pl. the

twelve suns; see āditya. -āyus m. a dog. -vārṣika a. 1. twelve years old,

lasting for twelve years; Pt. 1. -vidha a. twelve-fold. -sahasra a.

consisting of 12000. –daśī (dvādaśī) the twelfth day of a lunar fortnight.

–daśaṁ (dvādaśaṁ) a collection of twelve. –dāmnī a cow tied with two

ropes. –divaḥ a ceremony lasting for two days. –devataṁ the

constellation viśākhā. –dehaḥ an epithet of Gaṇeśa. –dhātuḥ an epithet

of Gaṇeśa. –nagnakaḥ a circumcised man. –navata (dvi-dvā-navata) a.

ninety-second. –navatiḥ (dvi-dvānavatiḥ) f. ninety-two. –paḥ an

elephant. -adhipaḥ Indra’s elephant. -āsyaḥ an epithet of Gaṇeśa. —

pakṣaḥ 1. a bird. –2. a month. –paṁcāśa (dvidvā-pacāṁśa) a. fifty-

second. –paṁcāśat f. (dvi-dvā-paṁcāśat) fifty-two. –pathaṁ 1. two


(2) a cross-way, a place where two roads meet. –pad see dvipād

below. –pada a. having two feet (as a verse). –padaḥ a biped, man. —

padikā, –padī a kind of Prākṛta metre. –pād, –pādaḥ 1. a biped, man. –2.

a bird. –3. a god. –pādyaḥ, –dyaṁ a double penalty. –pāyin m. an

elephant. –biṁduḥ a Visarga(:) –bhujaḥ an angle. –bhūma a. having two

floors (as a palace). –mātṛ, -ma tṛjaḥ an epithet of 1. Gaṇeśa. –2. king

Jarāsandha. –mātraḥ a long vowel (having two syllabic instants.) –mārgī

a crossaway. –mukhā a leech. –raḥ 1 a bee; cf. dvirepha. –2 = barvara

q. v. –radaḥ an elephant; R. 4. 4; Me. 59. -aṁtakaḥ, -arātiḥ, -aśanaḥ 1. a

lion. –2. the Śarabha. –rasanaḥ a snake. –rātraṁ two nights. –rūpa a. 1.

biform. –2. written in two ways. –3. having a different shape.

(4) bi-colour, bipartite. (–paḥ) 1. a variety of interpretation or

reading. –2. a word correctly written in two ways. –retas m. a mule. —

rekaḥ a large black bee (there being two ras in the word bhramara); Ku.

1. 27, 3. 27, 36. –vacanaṁ the dual number (in gram.). –vajrakaḥ a kind

of house or structure with 16 angles (sides). –vāhikā a swing. –viṁśa

(dvāviṁśa) a. twenty-second. –viṁśatiḥ f. (dvātriṁśatiḥ) twenty-two. —

vidha a. of two kinds or sorts; Ms 7. 162 –veśarā a kind of light carriage

drawn by mules. –śataṁ 1. two hundred. –2. one hundred and two. —

śatya a. worth or bought for two hundred. –śapha a. clovenfooted. (–

phaḥ) any cloven-footed animal. –śīrṣaḥ an epithet of Agni. –ṣaṣ a. pl.

twice six, twelve. –ṣaṣṭa (dviṣaṣṭa, dvāṣaṣṭa) a. sixty-second. –ṣaṣṭiḥ f.

(dviṣaṣṭiḥ, dvāṣaṣṭiḥ) sixtytwo. –saptata (dvi-dvā-saptata) a.

seventysecond. –sraptatiḥ f. (dvi-dvā-saptatiḥ) seventy-two. –saptāhaḥ

a fortnight. –samatribhujaḥ an isosceles triangle. –sahasrākṣaḥ the great

serpent Śeṣa. –sahasra, –sāhasra a. consisting of 2000. (–sraṁ) 2000.

–sītya, –halya a. ploughed in two ways, i. e. first lengthwise and then

breadth-wise. –suvarṇa a. worth or bought for two golden coins. –han m.

an elephant. –hāyana, –varṣa a. two years old. –hīna a. of the neuter

gender. –hṛdayā a pregnant woman. –hotṛ m. an epithet of Agni.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

dvi am Anf. von Zusammensetzungen und in dem abgeleiteten dvaya =

dva “zwei.”

dvi = dyu “Tag” WEBER, JYOT. 93. 104. — Vgl. dvis weiter unten.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

dvi dvi, the base of the deelension is dva, m. n; dvā, f.; du. nuieral,

1. Two.

2. Both, Rām. 6, 95, 44.

— Cf. [greek] etc., [greek] Lat. duo, bi-farius, dubius, duellum, bellum,

dis-; Goth. tvai; A. S. tvá, twi-, tweogan; Goth. tveifljan, tvi-standan,


Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

dvi (°–) two.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

dvi tri° dvi° va° . dvṛ–ḍa . 1 dvitvasaṁkhyāyāṁ

dvyekayordvivacanaikavacane pā° dvitvārthakatāyā bhāṣyādyukteḥ . 2

dvitvasaṁkhyānvite ca . sarvanāmakāryaṁ tasya jasādiprāptyabhāvāt

tyadāditvāt atvam . dvau dve . dvayoḥ striyoḥ putraḥ dviputra ityādau

sarvanāmatvāt vṛttimātre puṁvadbhāvaḥ . akac . dvake ityādi . svārthe

kenopapattau citsvarārthamakac .

नील – nīla Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899nīla mf (“ā” or “ī”; cf. ) n. of a dark colour, (esp.) dark-blue or dark-green

or black &c. &c.

nīla dyed with indigo 2

nīla m. the sapphire (with “maṇi”

nīla m. the Indian fig-tree (= “vaṭa”)

nīla m. = “nīla-vṛkṣa”

nīla m. a species of bird the blue or hill Maina

nīla m. an ox or bull of a dark colour

nīla m. one of the 9 Nidhis or divine treasures of Kubera

nīla m. N. of a man g. “tikādi”

nīla m. of the prince of Māhiṣmatī

nīla m. of a son of Yadu

nīla m. of a son of Aja-mīḍha

nīla m. of a son of Bhuvana-rāja

nīla m. of an historian of Kaśmīra

nīla m. of sev. authors (also “-bhaṭṭa”)

nīla m. N. of Maṇjuśrī

nīla m. of a Nāga

nīla m. of one of the monkey-chiefs attending on Rāma (said to be a son

of Agni) &c.

nīla m. the mountain Nīla or the blue mountain (immediately north of

Ilāvṛita or the central division; cf. “nīlādri”)

nīla (“ā”) f. the indigo plant (Indigofera Tinctoria) (cf. “nīlī”)

nīla (“ā”) f. a species of Boerhavia with blue blossoms

nīla (“ā”) f. black cumin

nīla (“ā”) f. a species of blue fly

nīla (“ā”) f. (du.) the two arteries in front of the neck

nīla (“ā”) f. a black and blue mark on the skin

nīla (“ā”) f. N. of a goddess

nīla (“ā”) f. (in music) of a Rāgiṇi (personified as wife of Mallāra)

nīla (“ā”) f. of a river (v.l. “nālā”)

nīla (“ī”) f. the indigo plant or dye &c. Blyxa Octandra.

nīla (“ī”) f. m. a species of blue fly

nīla (“ī”) f. m. a kind of disease

nīla (“ī”) f. m. N. of the wife of Aja-mīḍha (v.l. “nalinī” and “nīlinī”)

nīla n. dark (the colour), darkness

nīla n. any dark substance

nīla n. = “tālī-pattra” and “tālīśa”

nīla n. indigo iii. 38

nīla n. black salt

nīla n. blue vitriol

nīla n. antimony

nīla n. poison

nīla n. a partic. position in dancing

nīla n. a kind of metre

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


nīla a. (lā-lī f.; the former in relation to clothes &c., the latter in relation

to animals, plants &c.)

(1) Blue, dark-blue; nīlasnigdhaḥ śrayati śikharaṁ nūtanastoyavāhaḥ

U. 1. 33.

(2) Dyed with indigo. –laḥ 1 The dark-blue or black colour.

(2) Sapphire.

(3) The Indian fig tree.

(4) N. of a monkey-chief in the army of Rāma.

(5) ‘The blue mountain’, N. of one of the principal ranges of


(6) A kind of bird, the blue Mainā.

(7) An ox of a dark-blue colour.

(8) One of the nine treasures of Kubera; see navanidhi.

(9) A mark. (10) An auspicious sound or proclamation. –lā

(1) The indigo plant.

(2) A Ragiṇī. –le f. du.


(1) The two arteries in front of the neck.

(2) A black and blue mark on the skin; (for other senses see nīlī.) —


(1) Black-salt.

(2) Blue vitriol.

(3) Antimony.

(4) Poison.

(5) Indigo, indigo dye.

(6) Darkness.

— Comp.

–akṣaḥ a goose.

–aṁgaḥ the Sārasa bird.

–aṁjanaṁ 1. antimony. –2. blue vitriol.

–aṁjanā-aṁjasā lightn ing.

–abjaṁ-aṁbujaṁ, –aṁbujanman n., utpalaṁ the blue lotus.

–abhraḥ a dark cloud.

–aṁbara a. dressed in dark blue clothes. (

–raḥ) 1. a demon. goblin. –2. the planet Saturn. –3. an epithet of


–aruṇaḥ early dawn, the first dawn of day.

–aśman m. a sapphire.

–upalaḥ the blue stone, lapis lazuli.

–kaṁṭhaḥ 1. a peacock; Māl. 9. 30; Me. 79. –2. an epithet of Śiva.

–3. a kind of gallinule. –4. a blue-necked jay. –5. a wag-tail. –6. a

sparrow. –7. a bee. (

–ṭhaṁ) a radish. -akṣa = rudrākṣa q. v.

–keśī the indigo plant.

–grīvaḥ an epithet of Siva.

–chadaḥ 1. the date-tree. –2. an epithat of Garuḍa.

–jaṁ blue steel.

–taruḥ the cocoanut tree.

–tālaḥ, –dhvajaḥ the Tamāla tree.

–paṁkaḥ, –kaṁ darkness.

–paṭalaṁ 1. a dark mass, a black coating or covering. –2. a dark

film over the eye of a blind man; Pt. 5.

–patraḥ the pomegranate tree. (–traṁ) –padmaṁ the blue


–picchaḥ a falcon.

–puṣpikā 1. the indigo plant. –2. linseed.

–bhaḥ 1. the moon. –2. a cloud. –3. a bee.

–maṇiḥ, –ratnaṁ 1. the sapphire; nepathyocitanīlaratnaṁ Git. 5;

Bv. 2. 42. –2. an epithet of Kṛṣṇa; also nīlamādhavaḥ. –mīlikaḥ a fire-fly.

–mṛttikā 1. iron pyrites. –2. black earth.

–rājiḥ f. a line of darkness, dark mass, thick darkness,;

niśāśaśāṁkakṣatanīlarājayaḥ Rs. 1. 2.

–lohita a. dark-blue, purple. (

–taḥ) 1. a purple colour. –2. an epithet of Śiva; S. 7. 35; Ku. 2. 57.

–varṇa a. dark-blue, bluish. (

–rṇaṁ) a radish.

–vasana-vāsas a. dressed in darkblue clothes; see nīlāṁbara. —

vṛṁtakaṁ cotton.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

nīla 1) adj. f. ā und ī (nach P. 4, 1, 42 ī in anderer Verbindung als mit

Kleidern, nach dem Vārtt. zu diesem Sūtra in Verbindung mit Pflanzen und

lebenden Wesen) “dunkelfarbig”; namentlich “blau, dunkelblau,

schwarzblau” AK. 1, 1, 4, 23. H. 1397. an. 2, 495 (wo nīlo va- zu lesen

ist). HALĀY. 4, 49. n. “das Dunkle, Schatten” AV. 14, 2, 48.

nīlamasyodaraṁ lohitaṁ pṛṣṭham 15, 1, 7. 8. nāsya nīlaṁ na haro vyeti

TS. 3, 1, 1, 2. śuklam, nīlam ŚAT. BR. 14, 7, 2, 12. 1, 20. CHĀND. UP. 1,

6, 5. 8, 6, 1. KAUṢ. UP. in Ind. St. 1, 410. nīlatoyamadhyasthā vidyullekhā

TAITT. ĀR. 10, 13. 1, 9, 1. KAUŚ. 18. 93. dhenu 126. vṛṣa (vgl. nīlaṣaṇḍa

und unten u. 2, d) M. 11, 136. YĀJÑ. 3, 271. pataṁga ŚVETĀŚV. UP. 4, 4.

nāga R. 5, 18, 11. makṣikā AK. 2, 5, 26. kānana R. 2, 55, 8. 3, 11, 2.

nīlābhirvanarājibhiḥ 5, 54, 3. śādvalāni 9, 5. nadī nīlā 4, 44, 81.

samudrasya salilam 5, 7, 16. jalasrāva SUŚR. 2, 305, 7. MEGH. 42.

vaidūrya R. 2, 91, 29. maṇi 3, 58, 26. kuṣṭha SUŚR. 2, 68, 8. śoṇita 1, 45,

3. megha HIḌ. 4, 29. 1, 37. N. 16, 13. R. 3, 28, 19. 58, 25. PRAB. 95, 1.

VET. in LA. 5, 9. DAŚAK. in BENF. Chr. 186, 14. netra DHŪRTAS. 91, 14.

pakṣman BHARTṚ. 1, 59. mūrdhajāḥ VARĀH. BṚH. S. 74, 4. BHĀG. P. 2,

2, 11. nīlāṅga R. 3, 58, 26. 1, 58, 10. (śivam)

kaṇṭhaprabhāsaṅgaviśeṣanīlāṁ kṛṣṇatvacaṁ granthimatiṁ dadhānam

KUMĀRAS. 3, 46. nīlāṁ patākām MBH. 4, 1738. mahānīla (dhvaja) INDR.

1, 8. nīlavastraprāyaścitta VĀRĀHA-P. in Verz. d. B. H. No. 485. nīlā jhiṇṭī

AK. 2, 4, 2, 55. HALĀY. 2, 50. ānīlamukhaṁ stanadvayam RAGH. 3, 8.

“mit Indigo gefärbt” P. 4, 2, 2, Vārtt. 2. MED. l. 29. — 2) m. a) “Sapphir”

H. an.; vgl. nīlaṁ maṇim R. 3, 58, 26 und nīlamaṇi. — b) “der indische

Feigenbaum” (vaṭa) RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — c) “ein best. Vogel, the blue or

hill Maina” WILS. nach ŚABDAR. — d) = nīlavṛṣa “ein dunkelfarbiger Stier”

Verz. d. B. H. No. 1227. — e) N. eines der 9 Schätze Kuvera’s TRIK. 1, 1,

79. H. 193. H. an. MED. — f) N. pr. eines Mannes gaṇa tikādi zu P. 4, 1,

154. Fürst von Māhiṣmati MBH. 1, 2697. 6990. 2, 1124. 3, 15250. 5, 79.

592. anūpādhipatiścaiva nīlaḥ 6, 4153. HARIV. 8019. nīlaṁ cāpi

nadīsutam 8098. ein Sohn Jadu’s 1843. VP. 416, N. 2. Ajamīḍha’s 453.

BHĀG. P. 9, 21, 30. Bhuvanarāja’s RĀJA-TAR. 7, 253. – LIA. II, 955. fg.

Geschichtschreiber von Kāśmīra RĀJA-TAR. 1, 14.16. — g) Bein.

Mañjuśrī’s TRIK. 1, 1, 21. — h) N. pr. eines Nāga MBH. 1, 1552. RĀJA-

TAR. 1, 28. 182. fg. — i) N. pr. eines Affen im Gefolge Rāma’s, eines

Sohnes des Feuergottes, H. an. MED. MBH. 3, 16287. R. 1, 16, 14. 4, 13,

4. 31, 29. 41, 3. 6, 2, 29. 22, 2. BHĀG. P. 9, 10, 19. — k) N. pr. eines

Gebirges H. 947, Sch. H. an. MED. antarā niṣadhaṁ nīlaṁ ca videhāḥ H.

1538, Sch. MBH.3,12918.6,198. 247. 13,1700. 7658. 14,1174. HARIV.

9736. 11447. VP. 167. 180, N. 3. BHĀG. P.5,16,8. 19,16. Verz. d. Oxf. H.

148,b,16. Vgl. nīlādri. — 3) f. ā und ī P. 4, 1, 42, Vārtt. 3. a) nīlā a) “die

Indigopflanze” H. an. RĀJAN. im ŚKDR.; vgl. nīlī. — b) “eine blaublühende

Boerhavia” (nīlapunarnavā) ebend. — g) “eine blaue Fliegenart” nach den

Erklärern zu AK. 2, 5, 26, während das Wort dort offenbar adj. ist; vgl.

nīlī. — d) du. “die beiden hervortretenden Schlagadern vorn am Halse”:

grīvādhamanyau (u. dhamani 2 am Ende ist aus Unachtsamkeit nach

dieser Stelle dhamani mit grīvā gleichgesetzt) prāgnīle H. 587. — e)

“Flecken” (als Krankheit?) H. an. — z) die Gemahlin des Rāga Mallāra

BṚHADDHARMA-P. 44 im ŚKDR. — b) nīlī a) “die Indigopflanze” AK. 2, 4,

3, 13. 3, 4, 14, 82. MED. M. 10, 89. SUŚR. 1, 162, 14. 163, 2. 2, 25, 14.

151, 19. 285, 12. VARĀH. BṚH. S. 76, 5. -rasa PAÑCAT. 62, 24. -varṇa 63,

1. — b) “Blyxa Saivala” (śaivala) H. 1167; vgl. jalanīlī. — g) “eine blaue

Fliegenart” COLEBR. und LOIS. zu AK. 2, 5, 26. — d) “eine best.

Krankheit”, = rugbheda MED.; vgl. nīlīroga, nīlikā. — e) N. pr. der

Gemahlin Ajamīḍha’s MBH. 1, 3722. HARIV. 1756; vgl. nalinī und nīlinī. —

4) n. a) “Indigo” YĀJÑ. 3, 38. Diese Bed. geben ŚKDR. und WILS. nach

MED., aber hier heisst es nīlaṁ nīlīrakte; s. u. 1 am Ende. — b)

“schwarzes Salz” (kācalavaṇa). — c) “blauer Vitriol” (tuttha). — d)

“Antimonium” (sauvīrāñjana). — e) “Gift.” — f) = tālīśapattra RĀJAN. im

ŚKDR. — g) “eine best. Stellung beim Tanze”,

nṛtyāṅgāṣṭottaraśatakaraṇāntargatakaraṇaviśeṣaḥ SAṁGĪTAD. im ŚKDR.

— h) “ein best. Metrum, metrical sequence”COLEBR. Misc. Ess. II, 162

(XI, 6). Das Geschlecht ist nicht angegeben, doch ist das n.

wahrscheinlicher. — Nach H. an. giebt WILSON für das n. auch die

Bedeutung “a mark, a characteristick sign” und “a medical plant,

apparently distinct from the Indigofera.” Beide Bedeutungen kommen

aber dem f. nīlā zu. Die ganze Stelle lautet: nīlavarṇe (lies nīlo va-)

maṇau śaile nidhivānarabhedayoḥ. nīlauṣadhyāṁ (d. i. nīlā o-) lāñchane

ca.. — Vgl. kāṁsya-, kākanīlā.

nīla 2) b) nīlaṁ vanaspatim Spr. 3605. — h) Verz. d. Oxf. H. 348,b, No.

818. — 3) a) greek N. pr. einer Göttin WILSON, Sel. Works 1, 145. — b) a)

auch “Indigo” Spr. 4955. -vastra “ein mit Indigo gefärbtes Gewand” Verz.

d. Oxf. H. 282,b,2 v. u. — Vgl. mahā-.

nīla , nāsya pāpaṁ cakruṣo (so lesen wir) mukhānnīlaṁ vyeti (wohl so zu

lesen) KAUṢ. UP. 3, 1; vgl. TS. 3, 1, 1, 2.

Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975

nīla I. A prominent nāga born to Kaśyapa Prajāpati of Kadrū. (Ādi Parva,

Chapter 35, Verse 7).

nīla 2 II

nīla 3 III A monkey-chief, who was a dependant of Śrī Rāma. He was

Agni’s son. ‘Nīla, son of Pāvaka (fire) shone forth like agni (fire). He stood

foremost among the monkeys in the matter of effulgence, reputation and

prowess’. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Canto 17).

nīla 4 IV A warrior who fought on the Pāṇḍava side. He was king of

Anūpadeśa. He fought against Durjaya and Aśvatthāmā and was killed by

Aśvatthāmā. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 25).

nīla 5 V A famous king in nothern Pāñcāla. The Purāṇas refer to sixteen

famous kings of this royal dynasty from Nīla to Pṛṣata.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

nīla nīla, i. e. niś + la,

I. adj., f. lā and lī, Black or dark-blue, Man. 11, 136.

II. m.

1. A proper name, MBh. 1, 2697.

2. The name of a mountain, 6, 198.

III. f. lī,

1. The indigo plant, Man. 10, 89.

2. A proper name, MBh. 1, 3722.

IV. n. Indigo, the dye, Yājñ. 3, 38.

— Comp. ā-, adj. blackish, Kir. 5, 31. indra-, m. a sapphire, Megh. 47.

kāṁsya-, m. the name of a monkey, Rām. 4, 39, 23. makā-, m. 1. the

sapphire. 2. one of the Nāgas. rāja(n)-, n. the emerald.

— Cf. Lat. niger for nigro = niś + ra.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

nīla a. dark-coloured, esp. dark-blue or black. –m. sapphire; N. of a

serpent-demon, sev. men, etc.; f. nīlā a woman’s name, nīlī indigo (plant

or dye); n. dark colour or substance, indigo.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

nīla nīla, a. swarthy, black; esp. dark blue; m. sapphire; Indian fig-tree;

N.; n. indigo;

-kaṇṭha, a. blue-necked; m. peacock; ep. of Śiva; N., esp. of a

commentator on the Mahābhādrata;

-giri, m. Blue Mountain, N. of a mountain-range (Nīlgiri);

-jā, f. ep. of the river Vitastā;

-tā. f. blueness; dark-blue colour;

-nicolin, a. wearing a dark cloak;

-nīraja, n. blue lotus;

-pakṣman, n. feathered with black eyelashes;

-paṭa, m. dark garment;

-paṭala, n. dark film (on a blind eye);

-pura, n. N. of a town;

-purāṇa, n. T. of a Purāṇa;

-bhāṇḍa-svāmin, m. indigo-vat proprietor;

-bhū, f. N. of a river, -maṇi, m. sapphire;

-ratna, n. id.;

-rāji, f. dark streak, darkness;

-lohita, a. dark-blue and red, dark red;

-vat, a. blackish, dark;

-varṇa, a. blue-coloured: -śṛgāla-vat, ad. like the blue jackal;

-vasana, n. blue cloth;

-vṛṣa, m. dark-coloured bull;

-saṁ-dhāna-bhāṇḍa, n. vat for preparing indigo;

-saroruha, n. blue lotus;

-aṁśuka, n. blue garment;

-aṅga, a. dark-bodies;

-abja, n. blue lotus;

-abhra-saṁvṛta, pp. obscured by dark clouds;

-ambhoja, n. blue lotus.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

nīla pu° nīla–aca . svanāmakhyāte varṇe 1 śyāmavarṇe 2 tadvati tri°

amaraḥ . 3 parvatabhede 4 vānarabhede ca medi° . 5 nīlyoṣadhau 6

nidhibhede 7 lāñchane ca pu° hemaca° . 8 maṅkalaghoṣe trikā° 9

vaṭavṛkṣe rājani° . nīlaparvataśca ramyakavarṣasya sīmāparvataḥ

yathoktaṁ bhāga° 5169 ślo° uttarottareṇelāvṛtaṁ nīlaḥ śvetaḥ

śṛṅgavāniti trayoramyakahiraṇmayakurūṇāṁ varmāṇāṁ maryādāgirayaḥ

prāgāyatā ubhayataḥ kṣārodābadhayodvisāhasravṛthava ekaikaśaḥ

pūrvasmāt pūrvasmāduttarottareṇa daśāṁśādhikāṁśena dairghya eva

hrasanti . bhāratavarṣadakṣiṇasthe svanāmakhyāte 10 girau ca 11

indranīlamaṇau śanituṣṭyarthaṁ dhārye deye ca maṇibhede .

tasyotpattyādiparīkṣā garuḍapu° uktā yathā tatraiva

siṁhalavadhūkarapallavāgravyālūnabālalavanīkusuma pravāle . deśe

papāta ditijasya nitāntakāntaṁ protphulla nīrajasamadyuti netrayugmam

. tatpratyayādubhayaśobhana vīcībhāsā vistāriṇī

ūlanidherupakacchabhūmiḥ . prodbhinnaketakavanapratibaddhalekhā

sāndrendranīlamaṇiratnavatī vibhāti .


paiḥ . śukletaraiśca kusumairgiri karṇikāyāstasmin bhavanti maṇayaḥ

sadṛśāvabhāmaḥ . anye prasannapayasaḥ payasāṁ nidhāturambutviṣaḥ

śikhigala pratimāstathānye . nīlīrasaprabhavabudvudabhāśca kecit

kecittathā samadakokilakaṇṭhabhāsaḥ . ekaprakārā vispaṣṭa

tarṇaśobhāvabhāsinaḥ . jāyante maṇayastasminnindranīlā mahāguṇāḥ .

mṛtpāṣāṇaśilāvajrakarkarābhāsasaṁyutāḥ . avbhrikāpaṭalacchāyā

varṇadoṣaiśca dūṣitāḥ . tata eva hi jāyante maṇayastatra bhūrayaḥ .

śāstrasambodhita dhiyastān praśaṁsanti sūrayaḥ . dhāryamāṇasya ye

dṛṣṭāḥ padmarāgamaṇerguṇāḥ . dhāraṇādindranīlasya tānevāpnoti

mānavaḥ . yathā ca padmarāgāṇāṁ jātu kartṛbhayaṁ bhavet .

indranīleṣvapi tathā draṣṭavyamaviśeṣataḥ . parīkṣāpratyayairyauśca

padmarāgaḥ parīkṣyate . taeva pratyayā dṛṣṭā indranīlamaṇerapi .

yāvantañca kramedagniṁ padmarāgaḥ prayogataḥ . indranīlamaṇistasmāt

krameta sumahattaram . tathāpi na parīkṣārthaṁ guṇānāmativṛddhaye .

maṇiragnau samādheyaḥ kathañcidapi kaścana . magnimātrā’parijñāne

dāhadoṣaiśca dūṣitaḥ . so’narthāya bhavedbhartuḥ kartuḥ kārayitustathā .

śyāmotpalakaravīrasphaṭikādyā iha budhaiḥ savaidūryāḥ . kathitā vijātaya

ime sadṛśā maṇinendranīlena . gurubhāvakaṭhinabhānāścaiteṣāṁ

nityameva vijñeyāḥ . kācādyāyāvaduttaravivardhamānā viśeṣeṇa .

indranīlo yadā kaścit vibharti tāmravarṇatām . rakṣaṇīyau tathā tāmrau

karavīrotpalābubhau . yasya madhyagatā bhāti nīlasyendrāyudhaprabhā .

tadindranīlamityāhurmahārdhaṁ bhuvi durlabham . yastu varṇasya

bhūyasvāt kṣīre śata guṇe sthitaḥ . nīlatāṁ tannayet sarvaṁ mahānīlaḥ

sa ucyate . yat padmarāgasya mahāguṇasya mūlyaṁ bhavenmāṣa

samunmitasya . tadindranīlasya mahāguṇasya savarṇasaṁkhyātulitasya

mūlyam 12 nāgabhede pu° nīlānīlau tathā nāgau kalmāṣaśavalau tathā

bhā° ā° 35 a° . krodhavaśagaṇāṁśajāte dvāparayugīye 13 nṛpabhede

gaṇaḥ krodhavaśo nāma yaste rājan! prakīrtitaḥ . tataḥ saṁjajñire vīrāḥ

kṣitāviha narādhipāḥ ityuprakrame krathovikṣitraḥ surathaḥ śrīmān

nīlaśca bhūmipaḥ bhā° ā° 670 uktam . 14 ajamīḍhasya nīlyaparanāmnyāṁ

nīlinyāṁ jāte putrabhede ajamīḍhasya nīlinī nāma ṣatnī tasyāṁ

nīlanaṁjñaḥ putro’bhavat viṣṇupu° 4 aṁśe 19 a° . ajamīḍhasya 15

patnībhede strī ṅīp . ajamīḍhasya patnyastu tisro vai yaśasānvitā . nīlī ca

keśinī caiva dhūminī ca varāṅganā harivaṁ° 22 a° vānarabhedaśca

rāmasenāntargataḥ nalanīlāṅgadakrāthasundadvividapālitā . yayau

sumahatī senā rāghavasyārthasiddhaye bhā° va° 282 a° . nīla +

oṣadhijātau ṅīp . 16 nīlyoṣadhau strī nīlyā raktam an . nīla 17 nīlīrakte tri°

18 yamabhede pu° vaivasvatāya kālāya nīlāya parameṣṭhine

yamatarpaṇamantraḥ . 19 kālikāśaktibhede strī nīlā ghanā valākā ca

mātrā mudrā mitā ca mām kālīkavacam . 20 kācalavaṇe 21 tālīśapatre 22

viṣe śabdārthaci° . 23 nṛtyāṅgāṣṭottaraśatakaraṇāntargatakaraṇe

saṁgītadā° . nīlavastradhāraṇādiniṣedhaḥ mitākṣarāyām yathā

nīlīraktaṁ yadā vastraṁ vrāhmaṇo’ṅreṣu dhārayet . ahorātroṣito

bhūtvā pañcagavyena śudhyati romakūpe yadā gacchedraso nīlyāstu

kasyacit . trivarṇeṣu ca sāmānyantaptakṛcchraṁ viśodhanam . pālanaṁ

vikrayaścaiva tadvṛttyā copajīvanam . pātanañca bhavedvipre tribhiḥ

kṛcchrairvyapohati . nīlīdāru yadā bhindyādbrāhmaṇasya śarīrataḥ .

śoṇitaṁ dṛśyate yatra dvijaścāndrāyaṇañcaret . strīṇāṁ

krīḍārthasambhone śayanīye na duptyati smṛtiḥ bhṛguṇāpyuktam

strīkrīḍāśayane nīlī brāhmaṇasya na duṣyati . nṛpasya vṛddhau vaiśyasya

parvavarjaṁ vighāraṇam tathā vastraviśeṣakṛtaśca pratiprasavaḥ

kambale pradṛsūtre ca nīlīrāgo na duṣyati iti smaraṇāt . nīlīraktaṁ yadā

vastra vipraḥ svāṅgeṣu dhārayet . tantusanta tisaṁkhyāke vaset sa

narake dhruvam . skānde kāśīkhaṇḍe nīlīraktaṁ tu yadvastraṁ

dūratastadvivarjayet . strīṇāṁ krīḍārthasaṁyoge śayanīye ga duṣyati .

mṛte bhartari yā nārī nīlīvastraṁ tu ghārayet . bhartāgre narakaṁ yāti sā

nārī tadanantaram . kambale paṭṭasūtre ca nīlīdomo na vidyate . śūdre

viśeṣaḥ brāhmaṇasya sitaṁ vastraṁ nṛpate raktamulvaṇam . pītaṁ

vaiśyasya śūdrasya nīlaṁ malavadiṣyate . nīlaṁ malavat kṛṣṇamiti vithā°

pā° katicit nīlavastūni kavikalpalatāyāṁ darśitāni yathā śukaḥ śaivālaṁ

dūrvā bālatṛṇaṁ budhagrahaḥ vaṁśāṅkuraḥ marakata indranīlamaṇiḥ . 24

mātrāvṛttabhede na° tālapayodharanāyakatomarayajradharam

pāṇiyutañca vidhāya bhāminī vṛttavaram . nīlamidam

phaṇināyakapiṅgalasaṁlapitam paṇḍitamaṇḍalikāsukhadaṁ sakhi!

karṇagatam pariśīlaya nīlanicolam gītago° . śukrāṅganīlopalanirmitānām

māghaḥ kaṇṭhaprabhāsaṅgaviśeṣanīlāṁ kṛṣṇakhacaṁ granthimatīṁ

dadhānam kumā° . nīlaśyāmalakālānāmīṣadbhedāt ekaparyāyatā amare

paryāyatayā teṣāmukteḥ . 25 diggajabhede nīrājanaśabde dṛśyam .

पीत – pīta Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899pīta mfn. (1. “pā”) drunk, sucked, sipped, quaffed, imbibed &c. &c.

pīta ifc. having drunk, soaked, steeped, saturated, filled with (also with

instr.) (cf. g. “āhitāgny-ādi”)

pīta n. drinking

pīta mf (“ā”) n. (possibly fr. 2. “pi” or “pyai”, the colour of butter ind oil

being yellowish) yellow (the colour of the Vaiśyas, white being that of the

Brāhmans, red that of the Kshatriyas, and black that of the śūdras) &c.

pīta m. yellow colour

pīta m. a yellow gem, topaz

pīta m. a yellow pigment prepared from the urine of kine

pīta m. N. of sev. plants (Alangium Hexapetalum, Carthamus Tinctorius,

Trophis Aspera)

pīta m. of the Vaiśyas in śālmala-dvipa

pīta mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. N. of sev. plants (Curcuma Longa and Aromatica,

a species of Dalbergia Sissoo, a species of Musa, Aconitum Ferox,

Panicuni Italicum = “mahā-jyotihmatī”)

pīta m. a kind of yellow pigment (= “go-rocanā”)

pīta m. a mystical N. of the letter “ṣ”

pīta n. a yellow substance

pīta n. gold

pīta n. yellow orpiment

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


pīta a. [pā-karmaṇi kta]

(1) Drunk, quaffed; vanāya pītapratibaddhavatsāṁ (gāṁ musoca) R.

2. 1.

(2) Steeped, soaked in, filled or saturated with

(3) Absorbed, drunk up, evaporated; Ku. 4. 44.

(4) Watered, sprinkled with water; pātuṁ na prayama vyavasyati

jalaṁ yaṣma svapīteṣu yā S. 4 8

(5) Yellow; vidyutprabhāracitapītapaṭottarīyaḥ Mk. 5. 2. –taḥ

(1) Yellow colour.

(2) Topaz.

(3) Safflower.

(4) A yellow pigment prepared from cow’s urine. –taṁ

(1) Gold.

(2) Yellow orpiment.

— Comp.

–abdhiḥ an epithet of Agastya.

–aṁbaraḥ 1. an epithet of Viṣṇu; iti nigaditaḥ prītaḥ pītāṁbaropi

tathākarot Gīt. 12. –2. an actor. –3 a religious mendicant wearing yellow


–aruṇa a. yellowish-red. (

–ṇaḥ) the middle of day-break.

–aśman m. topaz.

–kadalī a species of banana (svarṇakadalī). –kaṁdaṁ the carrot.

–kāveraṁ 1. saffron. –2. brass.

–kāṣṭhaṁ yellow sanders.

–gadhaṁ yellow sandal.

–caṁdanaṁ 1. a species of sandal-wood. –2. saffron. –3.


–caṁpakaḥ a lamp.

–tuṁḍaḥ a Kāraṇḍava bird.

–dāru n. a kind of pine or Sarala tree.

–dugdhā 1. a milch cow. –2. a cow whose milk has been pledged.

–3. a cow tied up to be milked.

–druḥ the Sarala tree.

–nīla a. green. (

–laḥ) the green colour.

–pādā a kind of bird (Mar. mainā). –puṣpaḥ N. of several plants,

caṁpaka, karṇikāra &c.

–maṇiḥ a topaz.

–mākṣikaṁ a kind of mineral substance

–mūlakaṁ the carrot.

–yūthī yellow jasmine.

–rakta a. yellowish-red, orange-coloured. (

–ktaṁ) a kind of yellow gem, the topaz.

–rāgaḥ 1. the yellow colour. –2. wax. –3. the fibres of a lotus.

–lohaṁ brass.

–vālukā turmeric.

–vāsas m. an epithet of Kṛṣṇa.

–sāraḥ 1. the topaz. –2. the sandal tree. (

–raṁ) yellow sandal-wood.

–sāri n. antimony.

–skaṁdhaḥ a hog.

–sphaṭikaḥ the topaz.

–harita a. yellowishgreen.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

pīta (partic. praet. pass. von 1. pā) “getrunken”: jīvapītasarga adj.

“dessen Strahlen (Güsse) von Lebendigen getrunken sind” ṚV. 7, 149, 2.

Belege aus der späteren Literatur für diese und andere Bedd. s. u. pā.

pīta 1) adj. f. ā “gelb” AK. 1, 1, 4, 24. H. 1394. an. 2, 178. MED. t. 34.

HALĀY. 4, 50. BALA beim Schol. zu NAIṢ 8, 98. VYUTP. 48. ĀŚV. GṚHY.

2, 8. CHĀND. UP. 8, 6, 1. SUŚR. 1, 45, 3. 61, 9. pītāvabhāsa 84, 6. 259, 6.

262, 15. VARĀH. BṚH. S. 3, 21. 29, 22. Die Farbe der Vaiśya, wie weiss

die der Brahmanen, roth die der Krieger und schwarz die der Śūdra, 3, 19;

vgl. MBH. 12, 6934. MUIR, Sanskrit Texts I, 191. – AK. 2, 4, 2, 52. 56.

HALĀY. 2, 50. MĀRK. P. 109, 65. -kauṣeya Citat beim Schol. zu ŚĀK. 6, 5.

-cchavivarṇa VYUTP. 205. -māñjiṣṭha R. 2, 94, 5. āpītasūryaṁ nabhaḥ

MṚCCH. 84, 8. — 2) m. a) “Topas” RATNAM. bei WILS. RĀJAN. im ŚKDR.

— b) “ein gelbes aus Kuhurin verfertigtes Pigment” RATNAM. bei WILS. —

c) N. verschiedener Pflanzen: “Alangium hexapetalum” (aṅkoṭha);

“Safflor, Carthamus tinctorius; Trophis aspera” (śākhoṭa) RĀJAN. — 3) f.

ā a) N. verschiedener Pflanzen: “Gelbwurz”, = haridrā AK. 2, 9, 41. H.

418. H. an. MED. RATNAM. 58. = dāruharidrā, mahājyotiṣmatī,

kapilaśiṁśapā, priyaṅgu RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. = ativiṣā ŚABDAC. im ŚKDR. —

b) “eine Art gelbes Pigment” (gorocanā) RĀJAN. — c) mystische Bez.

“des Buchstabens” ṣa Ind. St. 2, 316. — 4) n. a) “Gold” BALA a. a. O.

NAIṢ 8, 98. — b) “Auripigment” RĀJAN.

pīta Z. 2 lies 1, 149, 2.

pīta s. u. 2. pī.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

pīta pīta, adj., f. tā, Of a yellow colour, Rām. 2, 94, 5.

— Comp. ā-, adj. yellowish, Rām. 2, 76, 4.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

pīta [1] -> pā2.

pīta [2] a. yellow; abstr. tā f.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

pīta 2. pīta, a. yellow: -tā, f. yellowness; yellow colour.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

pīta tri° pā–karmaṇi kta . 1 pānakarmaṇi bhāve kta . 2 pāne na° pivati

varṇāntaraṁ pā–ūṇā° kartari kta . 3 varṇabhede pu° 4 tadvati tri°

amaraḥ . 5 haritāle na° medi° . pītaṁ pānamastyasya ac . 6 pānakartari

tri° vanāya pīta pratibaddhavatsām raghuḥ . kāvye

varṇanīyapītavarṇadravyāṇi kavikalpalatāyāmuktāni yathā pītāni brahma 1

jīve 2 ndra 3 garuḍe 4 śvaradṛ 5 gjaṭāḥ 6 . gaurī 7 dvāpara 8 gomūtra 9

madhu 10 vīrarasā 11 rajaḥ 12 . haridrā 13 rocanā 14 rīti 15 gandhake 16

dīpa 17 campake 18 . kiñjalka 19 valkale 20 śāli 21 haritāla 22 manaḥśilāḥ

23 . karṇikāvaṁ 24 cakravāka 25 vānarau 26 śārikāmukham 27 .

keśavāṁśuka 28 maṇḍūka 29 sarāga 30 kanakādayaḥ 31 .

बुक्कस – bukkasa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899bukkasa m. a Caṇḍāla (cf. “pukkasa”)

bukkasa m. = “kālī” (black colour?)

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

bukkasa 1) m. “ein” Caṇḍāla, “ein Mann aus der niedrigsten Schichte des

Volkes” H. 933. an. 3, 752. — 2) f. ī a) = kālī viell. “die schwarze Farbe.”

— b) “die Indigopflanze” H. an. — Vgl. pukkaśa, pulkasa.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

bukkasa puṁstrī° pukvasa + pṛṣodarādi . caṇḍāle hemacandra .

मलिन – malina Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899malina mfn. dirty, filthy, impure, soiled, tarnished (lit. and fig.) &c.

mfn. of a dark colour, gray, dark gray, black &c.

malina m. a religious mendicant wearing dirty clothes (perhaps) a


malina m. N. of a son of Taṁsu (v.l. “anila”)

malina m. (“ā” [Prāyaśc.] or “ī” [) f. a woman during menstruation

malina n. a vile or bad action

malina n. buttermilk

malina n. water

malina n. borax

malina &c. see col.2.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


malina a. [mala astyarthe inan]

(1) Dirty, foul, filthy, impure, unclean, soiled, stained, sullied (fig.

also); dhanyāstadaṁgarajasrā malinībhavaṁti S. 7. 17; kimiti mudhā

malinaṁ yaśaḥ kurudhve Ve. 3. 4

(2) Black, dark (fig. also); malinamapi himāṁśorlakṣma lakṣmīṁ

tanoti S. 1. 20; atimaline kartavye bhavati khalānāmatīva nipuṇā dhīḥ

Vās; Śi. 9. 18.

(3) Sinful, wicked, depraved; dhiyo hi puṁsāṁ malinā bhavaṁti H. 1.

28; malinācaritaṁ karma surabhernanvasāṁprataṁ Kāv. 2. 178.

(4) Low, vile, base; laghavaḥ prakaṭībhavaṁti malināśrayataḥ Śi. 9.


(5) Clouded, obscured. –naṁ

(1) Sin, fault, guilt.

(2) Butter-milk.

(3) Borax. –nā, –nī A woman during menstruation.

— Comp.

–aṁbu n. ‘black water’, ink.

–āsya a. 1. having a dirty or black face. –2. low, vulgar. –3.

savage, cruel.

–prabha a. obscured, soiled, clouded.

–mukha a. = malināsya q. v. (

–khaḥ) 1. fire. –2. a ghost, an evil spirit. –3. a kind of monkey


Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

malina (von 1. mala) 1) adj. f. ā P. 5, 2, 114. UJJVAL. zu UṆĀDIS. 2, 49.

a) “schmutzig, unrein” (eig. und übertr.) AK. 3, 2, 4. TRIK. 3, 3, 251

(dūṣite st. bhūṣite zu lesen). H. 1435. an. 3, 397. fg. MED. n. 104.

HALĀY. 4, 42. von Personen YĀJÑ. 1, 70. MBH. 3, 2338. 2423. 2514.

2662. PAÑCAT. III, 178. dīrghādhva- KATHĀS. 10, 166. vastra Spr. 5176,

v. l. MEGH. 84. MBH. 4, 245 (su-). SUŚR. 1, 105, 6. vasāvaśeṣa- (asthika)

Spr. 3335. -darpaṇa KAP. 4, 30. himāṁśorlakṣma ŚĀK. 19.

svinnāṅguliviniveśa 142. āśādaśakamamalinam Spr. 1753. f.

“menstruirend” MED. malinā PRĀYAŚKITTEND. 39,a,1. malinī AK. 2, 6, 1,

20. H. 535. H. an. — kimiti mudhā malinaṁ yaśaḥ kriyeta so v. a.

“beflecken” Spr. 2369. kaḥ kurvīta śiraḥpraṇāmamalinaṁ mānam 3254.

nīcāvamānamalināṁ yo bhuṅkte saṁpadaṁ pumān 4479. nṛpaśrī RĀJA-

TAR. 4, 373. malinācaritaṁ karma “von einem Befleckten, Unreinen” (eig.

und übertr.) KĀVYĀD. 2, 178. kṛpaṇa Spr. 1227. khal 4962. -cetas KAP. 4,

29. antarmalinacetas PAÑCAR. 1, 2, 38. malinātman Spr. 2864. -manas

4998. amalinadhī 1802. parasātkṛtāpi kurute malinam “Schmutziges,

Gemeines” 931. 1922. atimaline kartavye bhavati khalānāmatīva nipuṇā

dhīḥ 57. prāyaḥ samāsannavipattikāle dhiyo ‘pi puṁsāṁ malinā bhavanti

so v. a. “sich verfinstern” 283. laghavaḥ prakaṭībhavanti malināśrayataḥ

“schmutzig, finster” (= nikṛṣṭa MALLIN.) ŚIŚ. 9, 23. — b) “von

unbestimmter dunkler Farbe, dunkelgrau, schwarz”; = asita, kṛṣṇa TRIK.

MED. H. an. LAGHUJ. 1, 6 in Ind. St. 2, 278. cañcucaraṇaiḥ AK. 2, 5, 24.

H. 1326. HALĀY. 2, 97. nāgayūthamalināni tamāṁsi ŚIŚ. 9, 18.

mahoragatvac RĀJA-TAR. 4, 373. kṛpāṇa Spr. 1227. gaṇikākaṭākṣāḥ

4962. makarālaya 5317. ārdratamālapattra- MṚCCH. 84, 8. — 2) m. N. pr.

eines Sohnes des Taṁsu (anila andere Autt.) VP. 448, N. 12. — 3) n. a)

“Buttermilch” (ghola) ŚABDAC. im ŚKDR. — b) “Borax” RĀJAN. im ŚKDR.

— Vgl. mālinya.

malina Sp. 600, Z. 3 lies khala.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

malina malina, i. e. mala + in + a,

I. adj.

1. Dirty, Pañc. iii. d. 178; soiled, Hit. ii. d. 39.

2. Black, Śiś. 9, 18; obscure, ib. 23; obscured, Hit. i. d. 27, M. M.

3. Sinful.

4. Bad.

II. n.

1. Fault.

2. Buttermilk.

— Comp. a-, adj. pure, Bhartṛ. 3, 100.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

malina a. dirty, impure (lit. & fig.); darkcoloured, gray, black. m. a

religious mendicant; n. meanness, fault, sin.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

malina mal-ina, a. dirty, foul, turbid, soiled, stained; unclean, impure,

sullied; beclouded (intellect); dark-coloured, dark grey, black; (ā, f.)

menstruating; n. baseness, wickedness: -tā, f. dirtiness, uncleanliness;

-tva, n. blackness; wickedness;

-manas, a. impure-minded.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

malina tri° mala + astyarthe inan . 1 malayukte amaraḥ . 2 draṣite 3

kṛṣṇe ca medi° . 4 ghole na° śabda ca° . 5 doṣe hema° 6 ṭaṅkaṇe na°

rājani° (sohāgā) . ini . malītyapyatra

मलीमस – malīmasa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899malīmasa mf (“ā”) n. dirty, impure, soiled (lit. and fig.)

mf (“ā”) n. of a dark or dirty gray colour &c.

malīmasa m. (!) iron

malīmasa m. (!) or n. yellowish vitriol of iron

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


malīmasa a. [mala-īmasac]

(1) Dirty foul, impure, unclean, stained, soiled; mā te

malīmasavikāraghanā matirbhūt Māl. 1. 32; R. 2. 53.

(2) Dark, black. of a black colour; paṇitā na janāravairavaidapi

kūjaṁtamaliṁ malīmasaṁ N. 2. 92; mahāmanomohamalīmasāṁdhayā K.

5; visāritāmajihata kokilāvalīmalīmasā jaladamadāṁburājayaḥ Śi. 17. 57,

1. 38; Māl. 10. 4.

(3) Wicked, sinful, wrong, unrighteous; malīmasāmādadate na

paddhatiṁ R. 3. 46. –saḥ

(1) Iron.

(2) Green vitriol.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

malīmasa P. 5, 2, 114. 1) adj. f. ā “schmutzig, unrein” (eig. und übertr.),

“von schmutzig grauer Farbe” AK. 3, 2, 4. H. 1435. an. 4, 330. MED. s.

58. HALĀY. 4, 42. ŚĀK. 61, v. l. citraṁ nṛpadvipāḥ pūtamūrtayaḥ

kīrtinirjharaiḥ. bhavanti vyasanāsaktipāṁsusnānamalīmasāḥ.. Spr. 4050.

kṣālayituṁ kṣameta kaḥ kṣapātamaskāṇḍamalīmasaṁ nabhaḥ ŚIŚ. 1, 38.

prājyacitādhūma- KATHĀS. 25, 180. añjana Spr. 619.

dhūmādgāḍhamalīmasāt 4267. ali NAIṢ 2, 92. kiṁ

prāṇairupakrośamalīmasaiḥ RAGH. 2, 53. pathaḥ śucerdarśayitāra īśvarā

malīmasāmādadate na paddhatim 3, 46. akīrti- KATHĀS. 49, 55. asāre

saṁsāre sarvaduḥkhamalīmase Verz. d. Oxf. H. 90,b,22. — 2) m. a)

“Eisen.” — b) “schwarzer Eisenvitriol” H. an. MED. — Vgl. mala und masi.

malīmasa 1) ghoraniviḍadhvāntavrāta- (śmaśāna) KATHĀS. 75, 42.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

malīmasa malīmasa (cf. mala), adj.

1. Dirty, Hit. ii. d. 148; stained, Ragh. 2, 33.

2. Wicked.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

malīmasa a. = malina a.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

malīmasa mal-ī-mas-a, a. dirty, foul, stained; unclean, impure (also fig.);

dirty-coloured, dark grey.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

malīmasa tri° mala–īmasac . 1 maline amaraḥ . 2 lauhe 3 puṣpakāsīse ca

medi° .

मिश्र – miśra Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899miśra mf (“ā”) n. (prob. fr. a lost “miś” cf. under “mikṣ”) mixed, mingled,

blended, combined &c. &c. (“vacāṁsi miśrā” 1. “kṛ” “-kṛṇute”, to mingle

words, talk together

mf (“ā”) n. manifold, diverse, various &c. &c.

mf (“ā”) n. mixed or connected or furnished with, accompanied by

(instr. with or without “samam” gen. or comp.; rarely “miśra” ibc. cf.

“miśra-vāta”) &c. &c.

miśra pl. (ifc. after honorific epithets = &c.; e.g. “ārya-miśrāḥ”,

respectable or honourable people &c.; often also in sg. ifc. and rarely ibc.

with proper names by way of respect cf. “kṛṣṇa-, madhu-m” and comp.


mf (“ā”) n. mixing, adulterating: (cf. “dhānyam-“)

miśra m. a kind of elephant

miśra m. (in music) a kind of measure

miśra m. N. of various authors and other men (also abbreviation for

some names ending in “miśra” e.g. for Madana-, Mitra-, Vācaspati-iśra)

miśra n. principal and interest (cf. “-dhana”)

miśra n. a species of radish

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


miśra a. [miśr-ac]

(1) Mixed, blended, mingled, combined; gadyaṁ padyaṁ ca miśraṁ

ca tat tridhaiva vyavasthitaṁ Kav. 1. 11, 31, 32; R. 16. 32.

(2) Associated, connected.

(3) Manifold, diverse.

(4) Tangled, intertwined.

(5) (At the end of comp.) Having a mixture of, consisting for the most

part of.

(6) Mixing, adulterating. –śraḥ

(1) A respectable or worthy person; usually affixed to the names of

great men and scholars; āryamiśrāḥ pramāṇaṁ M. 1; vasiṣṭhamiśraḥ,

maṁḍanamiśraḥ &c.

(2) A kind of elephant

(3) The group of the constellations kṛttikā and viśākhā. –śraṁ

(1) A mixture.

(2) A kind of radish.

— Comp.

–jaḥ a mule.

–jāti a. of mixed breed.

–dhānyaṁ mixed grain.

–varṇa a. of a mixed colour. (

–rṇaṁ) a kind of black aloe-wood.

–vyavahāraḥ investig ation of composition (of principal and


–śabdaḥ a mule.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

miśra (von 1. miś) UJJVAL. zu UṆĀDIS. 2, 13. 1) adj. f. ā a) “vermischt,

vermengt; gemischt” so v. a. “mannichfaltig, vielartig” H. 1469.

karpūrāgarukakkolakastūrīcandanadravaiḥ. syādyakṣakardamo miśraiḥ

638. fg. vacāṁsi miśrā kṛṇavāvahai nu so v. a. “sich unterreden” ṚV. 10,

95, 1. bahu vai gārhapatyasyānte miśramiva caryate TS. 1, 7, 6, 4. yadi

miśramiva caret 3, 3, 8, 4. 6, 3, 11, 6. ŚAT. BR. 3, 6, 1, 23. 4, 3, 5, 1.

KĀTY. ŚR. 19, 2, 23. pṛthakpṛthagvā miśrau vā vivāhau pūrvacoditau.

gāndharvo rākṣasaścaiva dharmyau kṣatrasya vai smṛtau.. M. 3, 26. MBH.

1, 2966. 12, 11438. 13, 2413. aniṣṭamiṣṭaṁ miśraṁ ca trividhaṁ

karmaṇaḥ phalam BHAG. 18, 12.

ebhirlakṣaṇairviparītairalpāyurmiśrairmadhyamāyurbhavati SUŚR. 1, 124,

15. 252, 4. KĀM. NĪTIS. 15, 39. 40. VARĀH. BṚH. S. 7, 9. 14. 30, 4. 61,

19. 69, 9. 96, 9. BṚH. 8, 7. 19. RĀJA-TAR. 6, 117. MĀRK. P. 68, 46.

padyaṁ gadyaṁ ca miśraṁ ca KĀVYĀD.1,11. 31. 32. H. 1. 19. WEBER,

Nax.2,385. Ind. St.8,312. 426. fgg. Verz. d. Oxf. H. 175,a,12 BHĀG.

P.2,10,40. prakhyāta, utpādya, miśra (vastu) PRATĀPAR. 20,a,4. –

nāmamālā “gemischt, mannichfaltig” Verz. d. Oxf. H. 210,b,40. –

prakaraṇa 335,a, No. 787. miśrairmūlaiḥ “verschlungen” VARĀH. BṚH. S.

55, 13. RĀJA-TAR. 5, 37. “vermischt –, vermengt mit, begleitet von,

versehen mit”; die Ergänzung im instr. M. 3, 273. aiṅgudaṁ

badarairmiśraṁ (so die ed. Bomb.) piṇyākam R. 2, 103, 29.

viṣeṇevāmṛtaṁ miśram 5, 35, 2. 6, 16, 6. miśrā devebhirādhvam VS. 17,

65. ājyena miśrāhutiḥ ŚAT. BR. 1, 6, 1, 21. AV. 12, 3, 41. 44. MBH. 7,

8774. nyāyairmiśrānapavādān ṚV. PRĀT. 1, 13. na miśraḥ

syātpāpakṛdbhiḥ kathaṁcit “nie und nimmer geselle man sich zu Bösen”

Spr. 3645. tayā (gaṅgayā) cāpyabhavanmiśro garbhaṁ cāsyā dadhe tadā

(pāvakaḥ) “er vermischte sich mit ihr” MBH. 13, 4071. statt des blossen

instr. der instr. mit samam Spr. 2842. gen. statt instr.: tatra

saugandhikānāṁ ca puṣpāṇāṁ puṇyagandhinām. udvījyamāno miśreṇa

vāyunā puṇyagandhinā.. MBH. 3, 1757. pravartate yatra rajastamastayoḥ

sattvaṁ ca miśraṁ na ca kālavikramaḥ BHĀG. P. 2, 9, 10. Gewöhnlich

geht die Ergänzung im comp. voran und der Ton ruht auf der letzten Silbe

desselben P. 2, 1, 31. 6, 2, 154. madhu- TS. 5, 2, 8, 6. 5, 2. reto- AIT. BR.

6, 27. lohita- ŚAT. BR. 12, 7, 3, 4. dadhi- KĀTY. ŚR. 5, 4, 26. YĀJÑ. 1,

249. jalamiśreṇa vāyunā MBH. 3, 11003. HARIV. 16205. Spr. 1914.

PAÑCAT. 9, 4. ŚĀK. 155. karakāmiśraṁ dadātyambhaḥ VARĀH. BṚH. S.

21, 33. 78, 22. kaṇṭaki- (druma) 95, 37. śallakībadarī- (kānana) R. 2, 55,

8. tīrthāśramagirisaridgarbhakāntāramiśrāḥ (daṇḍakāraṇyabhāgāḥ)

UTTARARĀMAC. 32, 8. maularakṣoharimiśrasainya RAGH. 14, 10. ratna-

(svarṇalakṣa) KATHĀS. 35, 25. paramastambhasopānairvajramiśraiḥ

PAÑCAR. 1, 7, 56. avyañjanamiśraśuddhakevalasvara Schol. zu AV. PRĀT.

4, 113. daśarātramiśraṁ māsam LĀṬY. 4, 7, 11. 8, 6, 12. tau khalu

jāgranmiśrāvevaitāṁ rātriṁ vihareyātāmitihāsamiśreṇa vā kenacidvā

GOBH. 1, 6, 6. KAUŚ. 10. 11. 17. 18. NIR. 4, 6. AIT. UP. 5, 3.

prayāṇadhvanimiśratūrya RAGH. 16, 32. madhuroktipremasaṁmāna-

(dāna) Spr. 187. pārthivatvamantritvamiśrayā ceṣṭayā RĀJA-TAR. 6, 117.

brāhmaṇamiśro rājā soll nach dem Schol. zu P. 6, 2, 154 = brāhmaṇaiḥ

saha saṁhita aikārthyamāpanno rājā sein. Ausnahmsweise geht miśra

voran, wodurch ein adj. comp. gebildet wird: parjanyo miśravātaḥ “Regen

von Wind begleitet” MBH. 7, 887. mahāmeghāvivodīrṇau miśravātau

3492. Vgl. a-, unmiśra, vi-, vyā-, saṁ-, samunmiśra, tila-, panmiśra,

pāda-. — b) wie śalla- kībadarīmiśraṁ kānanam (R. 2, 55, 8) “ein mit”

Śall. “und” Bad. “vermischter Wald” so v. a. bedeutet als “ein Wald, der

ausser” Śall. und Bad. “noch andere weniger nennenswerthe Bäume

enthält”, so ist marīcimiśrā ṛṣayaḥ BHĀG. P. 1, 6, 31 so v. a. Ṛṣi’s “mit”

Marīci “an der Spitze” und marīcimiśrāḥ ohne subst. 6, 13, 21 so v. a.

Marīci “und die Uebrigen”, Mar. “nebst Genossen.” śārṅgaravamiśrāḥ

ŚĀK. 48, 21. 52, 1. In Verbindung mit ehrenden Beiwörtern so v. a. unser

“u.s.w.”: āryamiśrāḥ (s. d.), bhāvamiśra (s. d.), āryavidagdhamiśrāḥ

“Hochgeehrte, Gelehrte u.s.w. u.s.w.” VIKR. 3, 12. MĀLATĪM. 2, 16. 17,

v. l. Häufig auch im sg. am Ende und am Anfange von Personennamen,

insbes. von Gelehrten, als Ehrenbezeichnung. Dies ist das miśra

praśaṁsāvacana im gaṇa matallikādi zu P. 2, 1, 66. Vgl. asajjāti-, kṛṣṇa-,

keśava-, deva-, dhīreśa-, bṛhaspati-, bhavadeva-, bhāva-, bhāskara-,

maṇi-, maṇḍana-, madana-, madhu-, mahārāja-, mitra-, misarū-,

mohanadāsa-, hari-, harṣa- u.s.w. — c) = miśraka “mischend”: dhānya-

“Korn mischend” d. i. “verfälschend” YĀJÑ. 3, 211. — 2) m. a) Bez. “einer

Art von Elephanten” H. 1218. — b) Abkürzung für verschiedene auf miśra

ausgehende Personennamen, = asajjātimiśra DHŪRTAS. in LA. 95, 9. =

maṇḍanamiśra Verz. d. Oxf. H. 240,a, No. 582. Auch volles N. pr.

verschiedener Männer Ind. St.2,251. HALL 83. Verz. d. Oxf. H. 291,b,3 v.

u. śrī- Verz. d. B. H. No. 938. miśrāḥ und mitra 823. — 3) n. “eine Art

Rettig” (cāṇakyamūlaka) RĀJAN. im ŚKDR.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

miśra miśra, i. e. miś (perhaps for mikṣ, desider. of mih, without red., cf.

mih with sam), + ra,

I. adj. Mixed, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 187; Pañc. 9, 4; Utt. Rāmac. 42, 11.

II. n. Mixing.

III. m.

1. An elephant.

2. A respectable person, Sir, Lass. 95, 9; in this sense it is a common

affix to nouns, Vikr. 3, 12, and proper names, Lass. 89, 6.

— Comp. ārya-, m. pl. a respectable person, Rām. 2, 82, 18; Prab. 25, 2.

— Cf. Lat. miscere; O.H.G. miscjan; A.S. miscan; [greek]

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

miśra miś-ra, a. mixed, mingled, blended, combined; various, manifold,

diverse; intertwined, tangled; mixed, connected, or associated with (in. ±

samam, g. or -°, rarely °-); -° (w. names) accompanying, — and his

companion (like ādi or ādya, -°); -° w. honorific epithets = our ‘etc. etc.’

(e. g. ārya-miśra, honourable, etc. etc.); often -° (sts. °-) with names,

esp. of scholars, as an honorific designation; -°, mixing, adulterating; m.

abbreviation for names ending in miśra; N.; n. capital together with


Rādhākāntadeva: Śabdakalpadruma (5 Vol). Third edition, reprint of the

1886 edition. Varanasi : 1967

miśra t ka yutyām . iti kavikalpadrumaḥ .. (curā°-para°-saka°-seṭ .)

tālavyamadhyo’yam . dantyamadhya iti varṇadeśanāyām . yutiḥ

saṁyojanam . miśrayati miśrāpayati ghṛtenānnaṁ lokaḥ . iti durgādāsaḥ


Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

miśra (sra) yojane ada° ca° ubha° saka° seṭh . miśra(sra) yati–te

amimiśra(sra)t ta .

miśra tri° miśra ac . 1 saṁyute uttarapadasthaḥ 2 śreṣṭhārthe . yathā

āryamiśrāḥ . 3 gajajātibhede pu° hemaca° . 4 jyotibhokte

kṛttikāviśākhānakṣatragaṇe ca pu° . saṁjñāyāṁ kan . 5 indravane jaṭā° 6

auṣaralavaṇe rājani° .

मिश्रवर्ण – miśravarṇa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899miśravarṇa “miśra-varṇa” mfn. being of a mixed colour

miśravarṇa “miśra-varṇa” m. a species of sugar-cane

miśravarṇa “miśra-varṇa” m. (in music) a kind of measure

miśravarṇa “miśra-varṇa” n. a kind of black aloe-wood

miśravarṇa “miśra-varṇa” n. “-phalā” f. Solanum-Melongena

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

miśravarṇa (miśra + varṇa) 1) adj. “eine gemischte Farbe habend.” — 2)

n. “eine schwarze Art Aloeholz” (kṛṣṇāguru) RĀJAN. im ŚKDR.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

miśravarṇa ma° miśraścitro varṇo yasya . 1 kṛṣṇāguruṇi rājani° 2

miśritavarṇamātre tri° .

मेचक – mecaka Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899mecaka mf (“ā”) n. dark-blue, black &c. (in alg. applied to the 15th

unknown quantity

mecaka m. dark-blue colour, blackness

mecaka m. the eye of a peacock’s tail

mecaka m. a kind of gem

mecaka m. smoke

mecaka m. a cloud

mecaka m. Moringa Pterygosperma

mecaka m. (also n.) a teat, nipple

mecaka n. darkness

mecaka n. sulphuret of antimony, L:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


mecaka a. [cf. Uṇ. 5. 37] Black, dark-blue, dark-coloured kurvanna

janamecakā iva diśo meghaḥ samuttiṣṭhate Mk. 5. 23; U. 6. 25; Me. 59.


(1) Blackness, the dark blue-colour.

(2) An eye of a peacock’s tail; Māl. 6. 5.

(3) A cloud.

(4) Smoke.

(5) A nipple.

(6) A kind of gem. –kaṁ

(1) Darkness.

(2) Sulphuret of antimony.

— Comp.

–āpagā an epithet of the Yamunā.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

mecaka UṆĀDIS. 5, 37. 1) adj. f. ā “dunkelblau, dunkelfarbig”; m.

“dunkelblaue Farbe, Schwärze” AK. 1, 1, 4, 23. 2, 9, 43. 3, 4, 14, 85. H.

1397. DURGA beim Schol. zu H. 1397. H. an. 3, 83. MED. k. 139. fg.

HALĀY. 4, 49. MBH. 12, 10410. SUŚR. 1, 274, 17. 2, 293, 3. MṚCCH. 84,

24. MEGH. 60. KĀM. NĪTIS. 7, 17. Spr. 4811. VARĀH. BṚH. S. 21, 15. 34,

3. 54, 107. UTTARARĀMAC. 111, 1. ŚIŚ. 6, 26. — 2) m. a) “das Auge im

Pfauenschweife” AK. 2, 5, 31. TRIK. 3, 3, 36. H. 1320. H. an. (lies –

candrake). MED. HALĀY. 2, 87. Hierher ziehen WILSON und BENFEY

MĀLAT. 90, 6, was aber wohl nicht richtig ist. — b) “Brustwarze” H. ś.

124. — c) “Rauch.” — d) “Wolke.” — e) “Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn.”

ŚABDAR. im ŚKDR. — f) “ein best. Edelstein” VYUTP. 138. — 3) n. a)

“Finsterniss” H. an. MED. — b) “Antimonium” MED.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

mecaka mechaka,

I. adj. Black, Utt. Rāmac. 149, 15; dark blue, Pañc. ed. orn. i. d. 63;

Megh. 60.

II. m.

1. Black, or dark blue (the colour).

2. The eye of a peacock’s tail.

3. A cloud.

4. Smoke.

III. m. and n. Darkness.

IV. n. Antimony.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

mecaka a. dark blue, black; m. an eye in a peacock’s tail.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

mecaka meca-ka, a. dark-blue, dark-coloured, sable, sombre; m. eye in a

peacock’s tail: i-ta, den. pp. having a dark-blue sheen.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

mecaka na° maca–vun pṛṣo° . 1 andhakāre 2 sroto’ñjane ca medi° 3

nīlāñjane rājani° . 4 mayūracandrake 5 kṛṣṇavarṇe medi° . 6 dhūme 7

meghe 8 śobhāñjane śabdara° 9 kṛṣṇavarṇayute tri° amaraḥ .

लोहितकृष्ण – lohitakṛṣṇa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899lohitakṛṣṇa “lohita-kṛṣṇa” mfn. of a reddish black colour

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

lohitakṛṣṇa adj. “röthlichschwarz”: -varṇā (ajā) ŚVETĀŚV. UP. 4, 5.

lohitaśuklakṛṣṇā v. l.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

lohitakṛṣṇa a. reddish black.

विड – viḍa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899viḍa m. n. a kind of salt (either factitious salt, procured by boiling earth

impregnated with saline particles, or a partic. kind of fetid salt used

medicinally as a tonic aperient, commonly called Vit-lavan or Bit-noben cf.

“viḍ-lavaṇa”; it is black in colour and is prepared by fusing fossil silt with

a small portion of Emblic Myrobalan, the product being muriate of soda

with small quantities of muriate of lime, sulphur, and oxide of iron)

viḍa m. N. of a country and its king

viḍa m. a fragment, bit, portion (?)

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

viḍa n. “eine Art Salz” AK. 2, 9, 42. H. 942. SUŚR. 1, 33, 9. 157, 8. 226,

20. 2, 125, 15. -lavaṇa (vgl. viḍlavaṇa) 89, 13. masc. MBH. 13, 4365.

Nach WILSON auch “a part, a fracture, a bit (!).”

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

viḍa viḍa (perhaps a dialectical form based on vi-dra, vb. 1. drā), n.

1. Factitious salt.

2. A particular kind of fetid salt.

3. A part, a bit.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

viḍa s. a kind of salt.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

viḍa viḍa, m. n. kind of salt.

Rādhākāntadeva: Śabdakalpadruma (5 Vol). Third edition, reprint of the

1886 edition. Varanasi : 1967

viḍa ākrośe . iti kavikalpadrumaḥ .. (bhvā°para°-saka°-seṭ .) veḍati

śatruṁ balī . iti durgādāsaḥ ..

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

viḍa ākrośe bhvā° para° saka° seṭ . veḍati aveḍīt .

व्यधिकरण – vyadhikaraṇa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899vyadhikaraṇa “vy-adhikaraṇa” mfn. being in a different case-relation,

relating to another subject

vyadhikaraṇa “vy-adhikaraṇa” n. incongruity

vyadhikaraṇa “vy-adhikaraṇa” n. the subsisting or inhering in different

receptacles or subjects or substrata (sometimes applied to a loose or

ambiguous argument; opp. to “samānādhik-” see “viśeṣa-vyāpti”)

vyadhikaraṇa “vy-adhikaraṇa” n. N. of sev. wks.

vyadhikaraṇa “vy-adhikaraṇa” n. “-dharmāvachinna-vāda” m. “-

cchinnābhāva” m. (“-va-kroda”, m. “-va-khaṇḍana” n. “-va-ṭikā” f. “-va-

pariṣkāra” m. “-va-prakāśa” m. “-va-rahasya” n.), N. of wks.

vyadhikaraṇa “vy-adhikaraṇa” n. “-pada” mfn. containing words in

different cases (as a Bahuvrīhi, e.g. “kaṇṭhe-kāla”, “one who has black

colour in the throat” [= “kālakaṇṭha”, “black-throated”])

vyadhikaraṇa “vy-adhikaraṇa” n. “-nābhāva” m. N. of wk.

vyadhikaraṇa “vy-adhikaraṇa” “vy-adhva” &c. see p.1028, col.3.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

vyadhikaraṇa (2. vi + a-) 1) n. “Incongruenz” KUSUM. 46,14. Verz. d. Oxf.

H. 241,a, No. 590. 242,a, No. 593. fgg. -dharmāvacchinnābhāvakroḍa Titel

verschiedener Schriften HALL. 33. 36.fg. — 2) adj. “auf ein anderes

Subject sich beziehend” Schol. zu KAP. 1, 32. — Vgl. vaiyadhikaraṇya und


Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

vyadhikaraṇa a. relating to another subject; n. incongruency (g.).

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

vyadhikaraṇa vi+adhikaraṇa, a. involving a different case-relation

(Brhuvrīhi compound, the first member of which is not in apposition to

the second; e. g. śaravaṇa-bhava, ‘having his origin in a forest of reeds’).

शनि – śani Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śani m. (prob. “slow-moving”; cf. “manda”) the planet Saturn or its

regent (fabled as the offspring of the Sun; he is represented as of a black

colour or dressed in dark-coloured clothes; cf. “nīla-vāsas”) &c.

m. N. of śiva

m. of a son of Atri

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

śani m. = śanaiścara “der langsam Einherschreitende”, Bez. “des

Planeten Saturn” (eines Sohnes des Sonnengottes) AK.1,1,2,27.

TRIK.1,1,94. H. 120. HĀR. 12. Verz. d. Oxf. H. 184,b,9. R. GORR.2,40,10.

ravervyāpāramādatte pradīpo na punaḥ śaniḥ Spr. (II) 3341. (I) 2949.

VARĀH. BṚH. S. 97, 2. 103, 5. 6. GAṆIT. MADHJAM. 1. VP. 240. Verz. d.

Oxf. H. 86, “b”, 44. 339, “b”, 14. 23. Verz. d. B. H. No. 878. -stotra 1274.

-cakra JYOTISTATTVA im ŚKDR. -prasū f. “die Mutter” Śaṇi’s d. i. Chāyā

BHŪRIPR. im ŚKDR. Śaṇi als Sohn des Atri VĀYU-P. in VP. 83, N. 4.

Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975


Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

śani śani (cf. śanais), and śanaiścara śanaiścara, i. e. śanais-cara, m.

The planet Saturn, Pañc. 50, 19 (śanaiścara); Rām. 2, 52, 15


Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

śani m. the planet Saturn.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

śani śani, m. planet Saturn (son of the sun): -vāra, m. Saturday.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

śani pu° śā–ani kicca . 1 sūryaputre chāyāgarbhajāte grahabhede

śanirvihaṅgo’nilavanyavandhyā śūdrāṅganā dhātuḥsamosthiraśca . kruraḥ

pratīcītuvaro’tivṛddho’karaḥ kṣitīṭ dīrghasunīlalauham . nīla° tāja° .

mando’lasaḥ kapilakuntaladīrghagātraḥ sthūladvijaḥ

paruṣaromakaconilātmā vṛhajjā° . 2 tatsvāmikadine ca śanau bandhyāṁ

vijānīyāt jyo° ta° .

शनिः – śaniḥ Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :1890

śaniḥ [śo-ani kicca Tv.]

(1) The planet Saturn (the son of the sun and represented as of a

black colour or dressed in dark-coloured clothes).

(2) Saturday.

(3) N. of Śiva.

— Comp.

–jaṁ black pepper.

–pradoṣaḥ a term for the (evening) worship of Śiva performed on

the thirteenth day of a lunar fortnight when it falls on a Saturday.

–prasūḥ f. an epithet of Chhāyā, wife of the sun; cf. saṁjñā. —

priyaṁ a sapphire.

–vāraḥ, –vāsaraḥ Saturday.

Rādhākāntadeva: Śabdakalpadruma (5 Vol). Third edition, reprint of the

1886 edition. Varanasi : 1967

śaniḥ puṁ, ravyādinavagrahāntargatasaptamagrahaḥ . tatparyāyaḥ .

sauriḥ 2 śanaiścaraḥ 3 . ityamaraḥ .. nīlavāsāḥ 4 mandaḥ 5 chāyātmajaḥ

6 . iti trikāṇḍaśeṣaḥ .. pātaṅgiḥ 7 grahanāyakaḥ 8 chāyāsutaḥ 9 bhāskariḥ

10 nīlāmbaraḥ 11 . iti śabdaratnāvalī .. āraḥ 12 kroḍaḥ 13 vakraḥ 14 kolaḥ

15 saptāṁśuḥ 16 paṅguḥ 17 . iti jaṭādharaḥ .. kālaḥ 18 sūryaputtraḥ 19

asitaḥ 20 . iti jyotistattvam .. asya varṇaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ .


lakāntamaṇisaurāṣṭradeśānāmadhipatirayam . kaśyapamunisantānaḥ .

śūdravarṇaḥ . sūryamukhaḥ . caturaṅgulaparimāṇaḥ . kṛṣṇavarṇavastraḥ .

gṛdhravāhanaḥ . sūryaputtraḥ . caturbhujaḥ .

bhallavāṇavaraśūladhanurdhārī . asyādhidevatā yamaḥ . pratyadhidevatā

prajāpatiḥ . iti grahayāgatattvabṛhajjātakādayaḥ .. api ca .

śanirvihaṅgo’nilavanyavandhyā śūdrāṅganā dhātusamaḥ sthiraśca .

krūraḥ pratīcī tuvaro’tivṛddho’karakṣitīṭ dīrghasunīlalauham .. iti

nīlakaṇṭhīyajātakam .. * .. asyotpattiryathā —

marīceḥ kaśyapo jajñe tasmājjajñe vibhāvasuḥ .

tasya bhāryābhavat saṁjñā puttrī tvaṣṭuḥ prajāpateḥ ..

nātitejomayaṁ rūpaṁ soḍhuṁ sālaṁ vivasvataḥ .

māyāmayīṁ tataśchāyāṁ savarṇāṁ nirmame svataḥ ..

saṁjñovāca tataśchāyāṁ savarṇe śṛṇu me vacaḥ .

ahaṁ yāsyāmi sadanaṁ pitustvaṁ punaratra me .

bhavane vasa kalyāṇi nirviśaṅkaṁ mamājñayā ..

iti cchāyāṁ gṛhe sthāpya saṁjñāgāt piturālayam .

manyamāno’tha tāṁ saṁjñāṁ savarṇāyāṁ tathā raviḥ ..

sāvarṇiṁ janayāmāsa manuśreṣṭhaṁ mahīpate .

śanaiścaraṁ dbitīyañca sutaṁ bhadrāṁ tṛtīyikām .. iti pādme

svargakhaṇḍe 11 adhyāyaḥ .. tasya krūradṛṣṭeḥ kāraṇaṁ yathā —

etasminnantare tatra draṣṭuṁ śaṅkaranandanam .

ājagāma mahāyogī sūryaputtraḥ śanaiścaraḥ ..

atyantānamravadana īṣanmīlitalocanaḥ .

dvāriṇaṁ śūlahastañca viśālākṣamuvāca ha ..

śanaiścara uvāca .

śivājñayā śiśuṁ draṣṭuṁ yāmi śaṅkarakiṅkara .

viṣṇupramukhadevānāṁ munīnāmanurodhataḥ ..

viśālākṣa uvāca .

ājñāvaho na devānāṁ nāhaṁ śaṅkarakiṅkaraḥ .

dvāraṁ dātumaśakto’haṁ vinā manmāturājñayā ..

dadau vartma graheśāya cakṣuḥkoṇājñayā tataḥ .

śanirabhyantaraṁ gatvā nanāmānamrakandharaḥ ..

ratnasiṁhāsanasthāñca pārvatīṁ sasmitāṁ mudā .

nataṁ sūryasutaṁ dṛṣṭvā durgā saṁbhāṣya yatnataḥ .

śubhāśiṣaṁ dadau tasmai pṛṣṭvā tatkuśalaṁ śubhā ..

pārvatyuvāca .

kathamānamravaktrastvaṁ śrotumicchāmi sāmpratam .

kathaṁ na paśyasi māṁ sādho bālakañca graheśvara ..

śaniruvāca .

sarve svakarmaṇaḥ sādhvi bhuñjate vāñchitaṁ phalam .

śubhāśubhaṁ vā yat karma koṭikalpairna lupyate ..

itihāsaṁ cātigopyaṁ śṛṇu śaṅkaravallabhe .

akathyaṁ jananīsākṣāllajjājanakakāraṇam ..

ābālāt kṛṣṇabhakto’haṁ kṛṣṇadhyānaikamānasaḥ .

tapasyāsu rataḥ śaśvadbiṣaye virataḥ sadā ..

pitā dadau vivāhena kanyāṁ citrarathasya ca .

atitejasvinī śaśvattapasyānuratā satī ..

ekadā sā ṛtusnātā suveśaṁ svaṁ vidhāya ca .

ratnālaṅkārasaṁyuktā munimānasamohinī ..

haripādaṁ dhyāyamānaṁ sā māṁ paśyetyuvāca ha .

matsamīpaṁ samāgatya sasmitānanalocanā .

śaśāpa māmapaśyantamṛtunaṣṭā svakopataḥ .

bāhyajñānavihīnañca dhyānaikatānamānasam ..

na dṛṣṭāhaṁ tvayā yena na kṛtaṁ ṛturakṣaṇam .

tvayā dṛṣṭantu yadyattu mūḍha sarvaṁ vinaśyati ..

ahañca virate dhyāne tāmatoṣaṁ purā satīm .

śāpaṁ moktuṁ na śaktā sā paścāttāpaṁ cakāra ha ..

tena mātarna paśyāmi kiñcidvastu svacakṣuṣā .

tataḥ prabhṛti namrāsyaḥ prāṇihiṁsābhayādaham .. iti brahmavaivarte

gaṇapatikhaṇḍe 11 adhyāyaḥ .. * .. asya bhogakālo yathā —

ravirmāsaṁ niśānāthaḥ sapādadivasadvayam .

pakṣatrayaṁ bhūmiputtro budho’ṣṭādaśa vāsarān ..

varṣamekaṁ surācāryaścāṣṭāviṁśadinaṁ bhṛguḥ .

śaniḥ sārdhadbayaṁ varṣaṁ svarbhānuḥ sārdhavatsaram .. iti

jyotistattvam .. tasya japamantro yathā —

praṇavaṁ vāgbhavaṁ māyāṁ śrīmuddhṛtya śanaiścaram .

caturthyantaṁ manuṁ proktaṁ ravisūnornavākṣaram .. oṁ aiṁ hrīṁ

śrīṁ śanaiścarāya . iti rudrayāmalam .. ūrdhvapāṇistanmantraṁ japet .

yathā —

sūryārarāhumandānāmūrdhapāṇau japedvudhaḥ .

somaketvoradhaḥ pāṇyoranyeṣāṁ śuddhapāṇikaḥ .. iti ca

rudrayāmalam .. tasya homamantro yathā . oṁ śanno devīrabhīṣṭaye

śanno bhavantu pītaye śaṁyorabhisravantu naḥ . yathā śanaiścarāyeti

punaḥ śanno devīti homayet . ityudvāhatattvadhṛtamatsyapurāṇam .. * ..

vāraviśeṣaḥ . tatra vāravelā yathā —

kṛtamuniyamaśaramaṅgalarāmartubhāskarādiyāmārdhe .

prabhavati hi vāravelā na śubhāśubhakāryakaraṇāya .. * .. tatra

kālavelā yathā —

kālasya velā ravitaḥ śarākṣikālānalāgāmbudhayo gajendū .

dine niśāyāmṛtuvaidanetranageṣu rāmā vidhudantinau ca .. tatra

kulikavelā yathā —

ṣaṣṭhāṣṭaikaṁ dineśāt kramaśa iha dine mantricaṇḍeśvaroktaḥ pūrve

vārārdhayāmaḥ kulika iha paro madhyamaśceti kālaḥ . taddine

pūrvadiggamananiṣedho yathā —

śukrādityadine na vāruṇadiśaṁ na jñe kuje cottarāṁ mandendośca

dine na śakrakakubhaṁ yāmyāṁ gurau na vrajet .. * .. tatra

pathamarajoyoge doṣo yathā —

āditye vidhavā nārī some caiva pativratā .

veśyā maṅgalavāre ca budhe saubhāgyameva ca ..

bṛhaspatau patiḥ śrīmān śukre cāpatyameva ca .

śanau bandhyāṁ vijānīyāt prathame strī rajasvalā .. iti jyotistattvam ..

atha navānāṁ grahāṇāṁ dānāni .

sūrye dhenuñca tāmrañca godhūmaṁ raktacandanam .

candre candanaśaṅkhau ca vastrañca tilataṇḍulān ..

kuje vṛṣaḥ pradātavyo raktavastraṁ guḍaudanam .

budhe karpūramudgañca haridvastraṁ hiraṇyakam ..

pītavastradvayaṁ jīve haridrākanakāni ca .

aśvaḥ śukre sito deyaḥ śukladhānyāni yāni ca ..

śanau ca satilā deyā kṛṣṇā gaurlauhamuttamam .

rāhau ca mahiṣīcchāgau māṣāśca tilasarṣapāḥ ..

ajāmeṣau ca dātavyau ketau cānnañca miṁśritam .

svarṇagoviprapūjābhiḥ sarveṣāṁ śāntiruttamā .. iti jyotistattvam ..

grahāṇāṁ valayo yathā —

guḍaudanaṁ pāyasañca haviṣyaṁ kṣīraṣaṣṭikam .

dadhyodanaṁ haviścūrṇaṁ māṁsaṁ citrānnameva ca ..

dadyāt grahakramāccedaṁ dbijebhyo bhojanaṁ budhaḥ .

śaktito vā yathālābhaṁ satkṛtya vidhipūrvakam .. grahāṇāṁ dakṣiṇā

yathā —

dhenuḥ śaṅkhastathānaḍvān hema vāso hayastathā .

kṛṣṇā gaurāyasaṁ chāgaetā vai dakṣiṇāḥ kramāt .. iti

saṁskāratattvam ..

शार – śāra Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śāra mf (“ā”) n. (in most meanings also written “sāra”; of doubtful

derivation) variegated in colour, of different colours (as dark hair mixed

with grey), motley, spotted, speckled 2

mf (“ā”) n. yellow

śāra m. variegating or a variegated colour, (esp.) a mixture of blue and

yellow, green

śāra m. (also “śāraka”) a kind of die or a piece used at chess or at


śāra m. air, wind

śāra m. hurting, injuring (fr. “śṝ”)

śāra mf (“ā”) n. (“ī”) f. a chessman &c. (see m.)

śāra m. a kind of bird (= “śāri”)

śāra m. Kuśa grass

śāra n. a variegated colour

śāra Vṛiddhi form of “śara”, in comp.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


śāra a. [śār-ac śṝ-ghañ vā]

(1) Variegated, speckled, mottled, spotted.

(2) Yellow. –raḥ

(1) A variegated colour.

(2) Green colour.

(3) Air, wind.

(4) A piece used at chess, a chessman; kālaḥ kālyā bhuvanaphalake

trīḍati praṇiśāraiḥ Bh. 3. 39.

(5) Injuring, hurting

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

śāra P. 3, 3, 21, Vārtt. 2 (vgl. P. 6, 1, 159). m. f. (ī) TRIK. 3, 5, 19. 1) adj.

“bunt, scheckig” P. 3, 3, 21. Vārtt. 2. AK. 3, 4, 25, 168. H. an. 2, 461.

MED. r. 90. HALĀY. 4, 56. palita- DAŚAK. 60, 5. Vgl. kṛṣṇa- und sāra. —

2) m. a) “ein beim Würfelspiel gebrauchter Stein, – Figur” H. 487.H. an.

MED. kālaḥ kālyā bhuvanaphalake krīḍati prāṇiśāraiḥ Spr. 2294.

pramādadatta- DAŚAK. 70, 4. — b) “Wind” P. 3, 3, 21, Vārtt. 2. AK. H. an.

MED. — c) nom. act. von śar, = hiṁsana ŚABDĀRTHAK. bei WILSON. —

3) f. ī a) = 2) a) ŚABDAR. im ŚKDR. (sārī). — b) Kuśa-“Gras”


Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

śāra śāra,

I. adj.

1. Variegated (in colour), Daśak. in Chr. 180, 1 (of hair, mixed with

greyand white).

2. Yellow.

II. m.

1. Hurting (vb. śṛ10).

2. A mixture of blue and yellow, a green.

3. Variegating.

4. Air, wind (cf. sāra).

5. A piece or man at chess, backgammon, Daśak. in Chr. 185, 24 (cf.


III. f. rī.

1. An arrow (vb. śṛ10, cf. śara), Chr. 297, 16 = Rigv. i. 112, 16.

2. Kuśa grass.

— Comp. kṛṣṇa-, adj. blue-black, Megh. 48, read -śāra (Sch.).

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

śāra f. ā mottled, spotted; m. a stone or piece used at sev. games (also

f. ī).

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

śāra śāra, a. variegated, speckled, spotted; m. piece or figure used on a

draught-board: ī, f. id.; a bird.

Rādhākāntadeva: Śabdakalpadruma (5 Vol). Third edition, reprint of the

1886 edition. Varanasi : 1967

śāra t ka daurbalye . iti kavikalpadrumaḥ . (adanta curā°-para°-aka°-seṭ

.) aśaśārat . iti durgādāsaḥ ..

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

śāra daurvalye ada° cu° uma° saka° seṭ . śārayati–te aśaśārat ta .

śāra na° śāra–ac, śṛ–ghañ vā . 1 karvūravarṇe 2 tadvati tri° amaraḥ 3

vāyau pu° amaraḥ 4 akṣopakaraṇe medi° .

शृङ्गार – śṛṅgāra Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śṛṅgāra m. (prob. connected with “śṛṅga” as “vṛndāra” with “vṛnda”)

love (as “the horned” or “the strong one” ?), sexual passion or desire or

enjoyment &c.

śṛṅgāra m. (in rhet.) the erotic sentiment (one of the 8 or 10 Rasas q.v.;

it has Viṣṇu for its tutelary deity and black for its colour; accord. to most

authorities it is of two kinds, viz. “sambhoga”, “mutual enjoyment”, and

“vipralambha”, “deception, disappointment”, to which by some is added

as third “a-yoga”, “separation”) &c.

m. a dress suitable for amorous purposes, elegant dress, line

garments, finery &c.

m. the ornaments on an elephant (esp. red marks on its head and

trunk) (cf. “-dhārin”)

m. any mark

śṛṅgāra m. (also with “bhaṭṭa”) N. of various persons (esp. of a poet)

śṛṅgāra n. (only gold

śṛṅgāra n. red-lead

śṛṅgāra n. fragrant powder for the dress or person

śṛṅgāra n. cloves

śṛṅgāra n. undried ginger

śṛṅgāra n. black aloe-wood

śṛṅgāra mfn. handsome, pretty, dainty, fine

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

śṛṅgāra (von śṛṅga wie vṛndāra von vṛnda) UṆĀDIS. 3, 136. m. n. SIDDH.

K. 249, “b”, 4. 1) adj. “schmuck”: vaktra R. 6, 95, 24. śṛṅgāraiḥ

suprahāraiśca kailāso madanāyate HARIV. 12007. -veṣābharaṇa adj.

MBH. 4, 2295. -veṣa adj. 5, 237. — 2) m. a) “Putz, Staat, schmucke

Kleider” Spr. (II) 1649. vasantaḥ saṁtatojjṛmbhitānaṅgaśṛṅgāra eva

DHŪRTAS. 69, 5. śṛṅgāraṁ vidhāya PAÑCAT. ed. orn. 32, 20. VET. in LA.

(III) 8, 18. ŚUK. ebend. 36, 4. kṛta- adj. (f. ā) PAÑCAT. ed. orn. 32, 24.

51, 15. mukta- 32, 23. sa- “geputzt” 49, 21. KATHĀS. 64, 131. MED. n.

214. “Schmucksachen eines Elephanten” TRIK. 3, 3, 375. H. an. 3, 614

(gajamaṇḍana st. rājamaṇḍana zu lesen). MED. 3, 231. HĀR. 204.

ŚĀŚVATA bei UJJVAL. zu UṆĀDIS. 3, 136. -dhārin R. 7, 35, 37. — b)

“Geschlechtsliebe; der erotische Grundton” (rasa) “in einem Kunstwerke”

AK. 1, 1, 7, 17. TRIK. 1, 1, 126. H. 229. 294. H. an. MED. HALĀY. 1, 92.

5, 75. puṁsaḥ striyāṁ striyaḥ puṁsi saṁbhogaṁ prati yā spṛhā. sa

śṛṅgāra iti khyātaḥ krīḍāratyādikārakaḥ.. SUVARṆAREKHA bei UJJVAL. a.

a. O. śṛṅgaṁ hi manmathodbhedastadāgamanahetukaḥ.

uttamaprakṛtiprāyo rasaḥ śṛṅgāra iṣyate.. SĀH. D. 210. DAŚAR. 2, 13. 45.

R. 1, 4,7 (3, 46 GORR.). śṛṅgāraikaraso madanaḥ VIKR. 9. -lajjā ŚĀK. 14,

3. Spr. 3018. (II) 1911. RĀJA-TAR. 2, 121. 3, 484. 5, 230. 233. -śūra

PAÑCAR. 1, 10, 26. 11, 30. 14, 69. Verz. d. Oxf. H. 130, “a”, No. 236. 208,

“b”, 27. 213, “b”, 1. dharmārthakāmaistrividhaḥ śṛṅgāraḥ SĀH. D. 516.

dharma-, artha-, kāma- 193, 8. fgg. BHAR. NĀṬYAŚ. 18, 67. fgg.

saṁbhoga- SĀH. D. 226. 7, 7. -ceṣṭita 95. -ceṣṭā RAGH. 6, 12. HALĀY. 1,

89. — c) N. pr. verschiedener Männer Verz. d. Oxf. H. 210,a, No. 495.

RĀJA-TAR.8,329. 509. 2121. 2354. 2370. 2434. 2471. -bhaṭṭa 2427. — 3)

n. a) “Mennig” H. 1061, Schol. H. an. MED. — b) “Gewürznelke.” — c)

“Mehl, Pulver” H. an. MED. — d) “frischer Ingwer” (vgl. śṛṅgavera)

ŚABDAC. im ŚKDR. — e) “schwarzes Agallochum” (kālāguru) RĀJAN. im


Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

śṛṅgāra śṛṅgāra (from śṛṅga, cf. the next),

I. m.

1. Copulation, coition, Pañc. i. d. 191.

2. Love, Vikr. d. 9; as an object of poetical description.

3. (m. or n.?), Elegant dress (properly, a dress for amorous

purposes), Pañc. 36, 18 (cf. my transl. n. 173).

4. Marks made with red lead on an elephant’s head and trunk.

5. Mark in general, Lass. 69, 5 (at the end of a comp. adj.).

II. n.

1. Red lead.

2. Cloves.

3. Fragrant powder for the dress or person.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

śṛṅgāra a. fair, beautiful; m. ornament, fine dress, love, sexual passion, a

man’s name.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

śṛṅgāra śṛṅg-āra, a. handsome, fine (rare); fine garments, finery (also of

the ornamental trappings of an elephants); sexual love; erotic sentiment

in a poem (it is of two kinds, sambhoga- and vipralambha-śṛṅgāra); N.: –

ceṣ-ṭā, f. amatory gesture;

-mañjarī, f. N.;

-vat, a. erotic: -ī, f. N.;

-śata: -ka, n. hundred verses treating of love, T. of the first century of


-śekhara, m. N. of a king;

-siṁha, m. N..

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

śṛṅgāra pu° śṛṅga kāmodrekamṛcchatyanena ṛ–aṇ . 1 rasabhede amaraḥ

. 2 lavaṅge 3 sindūre 4 cūrṇe ca medi° . śṛṅgaṁ kāraṇatvena ṛcchati aṇ .

5 kālāguruṇi rājani° 6 ārdrake śabdaca° . śṛṅgaṁ

prādhānyamṛcchatyanena aṇ . 7 bhūṣaṇe 8 gajabhūṣaṇe ca . svārthe ka .

sindūre puṁsaḥ striyāṁ striyaḥ puṁsi saṁyogaṁ prati yā spṛhā . sā

śṛṅgāra iti khyātā ratikrīḍādikāraṇam ityukte 9

strīpuṁsayoranyonyasaṁyogaṁ pratīcchābhede ca

rasabhedalakṣaṇādikaṁ sā° da° uktaṁ yathā śṛṅgaṁ hi

manmathodbhedastadāgamanahetukaḥ . uttasaprakṛtiprāyo rasaḥ

śṛṅgāra iṣyate . paroḍhāṁ varjayitvātra veśyāñcānanurāgiṇīm .

ālambanaṁ nāyikāḥ syurdakṣiṇādyāśca nāyakāḥ .

candracandanarolambarutādyuddīpanaṁ matam .

bhūvikṣepakaṭākṣādiranubhāvaḥ prakīrtitaḥ .

tthaktvogryamaraṇālasyajugupsā vyabhicāriṇaḥ . sthāyī bhāvo ratiḥ

śyāmavarṇo’yaṁ viṣṇudaivataḥ . śūnyaṁ vāsagṛhamityādi . atra

uktasvarūpaḥ patiruktasvarūpā ca bālā ālambanavibhāvau . śūnyaṁ

vāsagṛhamuddīpanavibhāvaḥ . cumbanamanubhāvaḥ . lajjāhāsau

vyabhicāriṇau . etai° rabhivyaktaḥ sahṛdayaratibhāvaḥ śṛṅgārarūpatāṁ

bhajate . tadbhedāvāha . vipralambho’tha sambhoga ityeṣa dvividho

mataḥ . tatra vipralambho vipralambhaśabde uktaḥ sambhogastu

darśanasparśanādīni niṣevete vilāsinau . yatrānuraktāvanyonyaṁ

sambhogo’yamudāhṛtaḥ . ādiśabdādanyonyādharapānacumbanādayaḥ .

yathā śūnyaṁ vāsagṛhamityādi . saṁkhyātumaśakyatayā

cumbāparirambhaṇādibahubhedāt . ayameka eva dhīraiḥ kathitaḥ

sambhogaśṛṅgāraḥ . tatra syādṛtuṣaṭkaṁ candrādityau tathāstamayaḥ .

jalakelivanavihāraprāyamadhupānayāminīprabhṛtiḥ . anulepanabhūṣādyā

vācyaṁ śuci medhyamanyacca . tathā ca bharataḥ yatkiñcilloke śuci

medhyamujjvalaṁ darśanīyaṁ vā tatsarvaṁ śṛṅgāreṇopanīyate

upayujyate . kiñca kathitaścaturvidho’sā° vānantaryāttu pūrbarānādeḥ .

yaduktam na vinā vi pralambheṇa sambhogaḥ puṣṭimaśnute . kaṣāyite hi

vastrādau bhūyānrāgo vivardhate .

श्यामाय – śyāmāya Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899śyāmāya Nom. ā. “-māyate”, to assume a dark colour (“-māyita” mfn.

become dark)

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

śyāmāya śyāmāya, a denomin. derived from śyāma with ya, Ātm. To

become black, to prove impure (as gold, cf. the next), Mālav. d. 30.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

śyāmāya śyāmā-ya, den. Ā. assume a dark colour.

सार – sāra Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sāra m. or n. (?) salts of iron

sāra (fr. “sṛ”) m. course, motion (see “pūrva-s-“); stretching out,

extension ; mfn. driving away, destroying

sāra m. n. (ifc. f. “ā”; perhaps to be connected with 1. “sāra” above;

prob. fr. a lost root meaning. “to be strong”) the core or pith or solid

interior of anything &c. &c.

m. firmness, strength power, energy &c. &c.

m. the substance or essence or marrow or cream or heart or essential

part of anything, best part, quintessence (ifc. = “chiefly consisting of or

depending on &c.” [cf. “para”] e.g. “dharma-sāraṁ jagat”, “the world

chiefly depends on justice”; “tūṣṇīṁ-sāra” mfn. “chiefly silent”; “sārat

sāram”, “the very best”) &c. &c.

m. the real meaning, main point

m. a compendium, summary, epitome (often ifc. in titles of books)

m. a chief-ingredient or constituent part of the body (causing the

peculiarities of temperament; reckoned to be 7, viz. “sattva, śukra,

majjan, asthi, medas, māṁsa, rakta”)

m. any ingredient

m. nectar

m. cream, curds

m. worth, value (“eṇa”, “in consideration of.”, “according to”) &c.

m. wealth, property, goods, riches

sāra m. (in rhet.) a kind of climax (“uttarottaram utkarṣaḥ”)

m. resin used as a perfume

m. water

m. dung

m. the matter formed in a boil or ulcer, pus

m. impure carbonate of soda

m. a confederate prince, ally

sāra m. (= 1. “śāra”) a piece at chess or backgammon &c.

sāra mf (“ā”) n. hard, firm solid strong &c.

sāra mf (“ā”) n. precious, valuable

sāra mf (“ā”) n. good, sound, best, excellent

sāra mf (“ā”) n. sound (as an argument, thoroughly proved)

sāra mf (“ā”) n. full of (instr.)

sāra mf (“ā”) n. motley, speckled (= “śāra”)

sāra mfn. having spokes

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


sāra a. [sṛ-ghañ, sār-ac vā]

(1) Essential.

(2) Best, highest, most excellent; Mu. 1. 13.

(3) Real, true, genuine.

(4) Strong, vigorous.

(5) Sound, thoroughly proved.

(6) Highest or best (at the end of comp.); trivargasāraḥ Ku. 5. 38. —

raḥ, –raṁ (but usually m. only except in the first 4 senses)

(1) Essence, essential part, quintessence; snehasya tatphalamasau

praṇayasya sa Māl. 1. 9; U. 6. 22. asāre khalu saṁsāre

sārametaccatuṣṭayam . kāśyāṁ vāsaḥ satāṁ saṁgo gaṁgāṁbhaḥ

śaṁbhusevanaṁ .. Dharm; 14.

(2) Substance, pith.

(3) Marrow.

(4) Real truth, main point.

(5) The sap or essence of trees; as in khadirasāra, sarjasāra.

(6) Summary, epitome, compendium.

(7) Strength, vigour, power, energy; sāraṁ dharitrīdharaṇakṣamaṁ ca

Ku. 1. 17; R. 2. 74.

(8) Prowess, heroism, courage; R. 4. 79.

(9) Firmness, hardness. (10) Wealth, riches; gāmāttasārāṁ R. 5. 26.

(11) Nectar.

(12) Fresh butter.

(13) Air, wind.

(14) Cream, coagulum of curds.

(15) Disease.

(16) Matter, pus.

(17) Worth, excellence, highest perception.

(18) A man at chess.

(19) Impure carbonate of soda. (20) A figure of speech corresponding

to English ‘climax’; uttarottaramutkarṣo bhavetsāraḥ parāvadhiḥ K. P. 10.

–21. The heart. –rā

(1) Dūrvā grass.

(2) Kuśa grass. –raṁ

(1) Water.

(2) Fitness, propriety.

(3) Wood, thicket.

(4) Steel.

— Comp.

–asāra a. valuable and worthless, strong and weak. (

–raṁ) 1. worth and worthlessness. –2. substance and emptiness.

–3. strength and weakness. -vicāraḥ consideration of strong and weak

points &c.

–gaṁdhaḥ sandal wood.

–grīvaḥ N. of Śiva.

–jaṁ fresh butter.

–taruḥ the plantain tree.

–dā 1. N. of Sarasvatī. –2. of Durgā.

–drumaḥ the Khadira tree.

–bhaṁgaḥ loss of vigour.

–bhāṁḍaṁ 1. a natural vessel. –2. a bale of goods, merchandise.

–3. implements.

–mitiḥ the Veda.

–lohaṁ steel.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

sāra (von sar) m. 1) “Lauf, Gang” in -sārin und pūrva-. — 2) = prasāra

“Ausstreckung”: sarvāṅgulyagra- KĀLACAKRA 3, 187.

sāra (sāra P. 3, 3, 17; vgl. 6, 1, 159) 1) m. n. gaṇa ardharcādi zu

P.2,4,31. SIDDH. K. 249,b,4. am Ende eines adj. comp. f. ā. a) “die

inneren festen Bestandtheile eines Körpers”: khadirasya “Kernholz” ṚV. 3,

53, 19. khadira-, śāla- P. 3, 3, 17, Schol. tindukasāreṇa nirmitaḥ

paryaṅkaḥ VARĀH. BṚH. S. 79, 11. abhyantaragataiḥ sārairyathā tiṣṭhanti

bhūruhāḥ. asthisāraistathā dehāḥ SUŚR. 1, 339, 18. ŚĀRÑG. SAṁH. 1, 5,

4. asthīni na vinaśyanti sārāṇyetāni dehinām SUŚR. 1, 339, 21. sārāṇi von

Früchten neben rasa und tvac vielleicht “Kerngehäuse” MBH. 3, 10064.

sāra m. = sthira P. 3, 3, 17. = sthirāṁśa AK. 3, 4, 25, 173. H. an. 2, 466.

MED. r. 96. = atidṛḍha ŚABDAR. im ŚKDR. — b) “Festigkeit, Härte;

Stärke, Kraft”: bhujayoḥ sāramarpaya MBH. 1, 6029. 5, 1991. BHĀG. P. 5,

1, 29. -sthita SUŚR. 1, 188, 3. dharitrīdharaṇakṣama eines Berges

KUMĀRAS. 1, 17. -gurubhiḥ padanyāsaiḥ desgl. 6, 50. Kāma’s 3, 13.

akhilasārasaṁbhṛta Viṣṇu als Zwerg BHĀG. P. 8, 18, 20. yadi vaḥ

pradhane śraddhā sāraṁ vā kṣullakā hṛdi 6, 11, 5. adrākṣamahametatte

hṛtsāraṁ mahadadbhutam 7, 3, 18. āhārasya “die nährende Kraft” SUŚR.

1, 43, 5. 247, 21. ŚĀRÑG. SAṁH. 1, 6, 4. sāroddharaṇadūṣita (māṁsa)

MĀRK. P. 34, 56. sāra (sārā Padap., wohl für sāram) ṛṣabhāṇām “die

zeugende Kraft” AV. 4, 4, 4. vāksāra “die Kraft der Rede, Beredsamkeit”

VARĀH.BṚH. S. 2, S. 4, Z. 18. fg. am Ende eines adj. comp.:

vajrasamāna- ein Mann MBH. 1, 7076. mahendrādisamāna- RAGH. 6, 54.

mahābhujau giriśṛṅgasārau R. 6, 37, 64. bhuje bhujagendrasamānasāre

RAGH. 2, 74. nala- “die Härte” (d. i. “Weichheit, Schwäche) des

Rohrschilfs habend” MBH. 12, 11156. utpalapattra- RAGH. 6, 42.

sarvātirikta- (ātman) 1, 14. vapuḥ sasāram KUMĀRAS. 5, 19. dṛṣṭa- Spr.

(II) 6212 (gajendra). RAGH. 11, 47 (vīryaśulka).

dṛṣṭistṛṇīkṛtajagattrayasattvasārā UTTARAR. 111, 17 (151, 1 = SĀH. D.

38, 10). ajāta- R. GORR. 1, 39, 17. abhedya- RĀJA-TAR. 4, 298. kṣīṇa-

MBH. 13, 281. gṛhīta- BHĀG. P. 5, 14, 19. ātta- 6, 10, 29. smaranunna-

10, 21, 12. mahā- “fest, stark”: Bogen R. 2, 100, 19. alpa- “schwach” Spr.

(II) 1952. KĀM. NĪTIS. 11, 8. hṛtasārā sudhā “berauschende Kraft” R. 2,

61, 18. sāra m. = sthāman HALĀY. 5, 67. = bala AK. 2, 4, 12. H. an.

MED. — c) “Werth”: sāratas M. 8, 405. YĀJÑ. 2, 275. (vijñātaḥ) rājñā

himavataḥ sāro rājñaḥ sāro himādriṇā RAGH. 4, 79. puruṣārtha- BHĀG. P.

3, 13, 49. mahā- adj. “werthvoll, kostbar” R. 3, 72, 1. 4, 33, 15. 43, 33.

alpa- adj. “von geringem Werth” M. 11, 164. gata- adj. “werthlos

geworden, nichtig” Spr. (II) 2067. 6122. — d) “Vermögen, Besitz,

Reichthum”; neutr. H. 191. H. an. MED. HALĀY. 1, 80. masc. 5, 67.

sārāparādhau M. 8, 126. 9, 262. karaṁ dāpayāmāsa

sāragrahaṇapūrvakam MĀRK. P. 122, 10.

sārāpahāramakarotparihāsapurasya RĀJA-TAR. 5, 160. sāratas DAŚAK.

70, 13. am Ende eines adj. comp.: naikakoṭi- 75, 13. sāvitrīmātra- M. 2,

118. gāmāttasārām RAGH. 5, 26. — e) “Kern” so v. a. “Hauptsache,

Quintessenz, das Beste, Werthvollste, etwas Werthvolles”: etatsāram

(kāmaḥ) — dharmārthāvatra saṁsthitau MBH. 12, 6244. sāraṁ tato

grāhyam Spr. (II) 243. sarvataḥ sāramādadyāt 459. atra na kimapi

sāramaṇīyaḥ 554. 777. 1794. 2347. 2954. 5699. 5776. 6605. 6639. fg.

7211. sāra iti (besser als ratnamiti) VIKR. 143, v. l. KATHĀS. 28, 16. 34,

190. 39, 213. SĀH. D. 23, 17. MĀRK. P. 18, 43. VET. in LA. (III) 16, 16.

BHĀG. P. 1, 1, 11. 4, 18, 2. 13. SARVADARŚANAS. 158, 20. sārātsāraṁ

vadasva naḥ Verz. d. Oxf. H. 7, “a”, No. 42. apām RAGH. 10, 10. 53.

kṛtsnasya jagataḥ R. 5, 12, 27. dharmasya KATHĀS. 33, 34. dṛṣṭaḥ

sārastasyāḥ (so ist zu lesen) puro bhavān 54, 62. tat –

sarvavedetihāsānāṁ sāraṁ sāraṁ samuddṛtam BHĀG. P. 1, 3, 41.

PAÑCAR. 1, 15, 13. sarvamantreṣu sāraśca mantrarājaḥ prakīrtitaḥ

2,3,104. Verz. d. Oxf. H. 252,b, No. 626, Z. 4. kathāmeva kathāsu sāram.

uddhṛtya puṣpebhya iva BHĀG. P. 3, 5, 15. -mārgaṇam Spr. (II) 4823.

sārādānaṁ ṣaṭpadavat KAP. 4, 13. -śūnya Spr. (II) 2919. -saṁgraha CĀṆ.

1. -grāhin R. 3, 72, 1. -darśin 5, 84, 7. sārārthin MBH. 4, 1567. samudra-

2, 1893. kathāsāro hi sā (kathā) matā 12, 12711. loka- 14, 597. trivarga-

(dharma) KUMĀRAS. 5, 31. muktā- RAGH. 4, 50. PAÑCAR. 1, 4, 54. 7, 49.

11, 13. veda-, yajña-, sāma- 4, 3, 50. ācāra- RĀJA-TAR. 4, 344. mandira-

Spr. (II) 473. sakalārthaśāstra- PAÑCAT. Pr. 3. jīvaloka- 49, 4.

samastavastusaṁbhāra- 157, 22. DHŪRTAS. 88, 1. vastusārāṇām BHĀG.

P. 2, 6, 4. 10, 6, 7. am Ende eines adj. comp.: hṛta- R. 2, 33, 18. R.

GORR. 2, 36, 12. upātta- MĀLAV. 22, 19. ātta- BHĀG. P. 3, 15, 23. sāra

m. = śreṣṭha H. an. HALĀY. 5, 67. — f) “das Vorwaltende, Hauptsache”

am Ende eines adj. comp. (vgl. den Gebrauch von para): tūṣṇīṁ- AIT. BR.

2, 31. prīti- (kāma) MBH. 2, 153. R. GORR. 2, 109, 61. kṣamā- HARIV.

15624. fg. dharma- R. 2, 33, 15. Spr. (II) 3113. WEBER, RĀMAT. UP. 338.

ŚRUT. 20. Spr. (II) 2789. 3738. 4253. 6233. 6985. GĪT. 5, 8. KATHĀS. 40,

48. VP. 1, 9, 22. BHĀG. P. 1, 19, 19. 3, 5, 45. 6, 9, 50. 8, 16, 60.CAURAP.

5. 33. — g) “ein dem Temperamente eines Menschen zu Grunde liegender

Hauptbestandtheil des Körpers”: es werden deren acht oder auch nur

sieben angenommen: sattva (fehlt bei VARĀH.), śukra, majjan, asthi,

medas, māṁsa, rakta und śukra SUŚR. 1, 125, 11. 126, 18. tvaksāra adj.

127, 3. CARAKA 3, 8. VARĀH. BṚH. S. 68, 1. 96. 69, 21. rakta- adj. 68,

97. māṁsa- adj. 100. LAGHUJ. 2, 13. fgg. — h) “Bestandtheil” überh.:

pañca- adj. (peya) SUŚR. 2, 421, 5. — i) “das Rechte, Richtige”; neutr. =

nyāyya AK. H. an. MED. naitatsāram Comm. zu TS. PRĀT. 14, 5.

tadasāram zu 1, 21. — k) “Nektar”: yattatrotpatsyate sāraṁ tatpāsyāmaḥ

R. GORR. 1, 46, 19. sāraṁ juṣāṁ caraṇayoḥ BHĀG. P. 7, 6, 25. am Ende

eines adj. comp.: nirviṣṭasārāṁ pitṛbhirhimāṁśorantyāṁ kalām RAGH.

14, 80. — l) “Seim” KAP. 4, 13. BHĀG. P. 1, 18, 7. — m) “saurer Rahm”

SUŚR. 2, 378, 6. dadhnā sasāreṇa 441, 8. sāra n. = dadhyuttara ŚABDAC.

im ŚKDR. — n) “verdickter als Räucherwerk verwandter Pflanzensaft,

Harz” SUŚR. 1, 133, 9. 12. 183, 15. 2, 12, 15. 63, 1. 73, 21. 83, 14. fg.

119, 3. 175, 4. 468, 21. ŚĀRÑG. SAṁH. 1, 1, 42. Vgl. sārin. — o) “Dünger”

KṚṢIS. 8, 26. vinā sāreṇa yaddhānyaṁ vardhate na phalatyapi 9, 3. — p)

“ein Fürst, der einem andern im Kriege zu Hilfe kommt, Bundesgenosse”

VARĀH. BṚH. S. 34, 22; vgl. āsāra 3) in den Nachträgen. — q) Bez. “des

Gürtels bei den” Maga Verz. d. Oxf. H. 33,b,30. — r) m. in der Rhetorik

“eine Art Klimax”: uttarottaramutkarṣo bhavetsāraḥ parāvadhiḥ

KĀVYAPR. 173,8 (331,15). SĀH. D. 731. KUVALAJ. 113,a. PRATĀPAR.

103,b,3. Beispiele Spr. (II) 2347. 5776. — Die Lexicographen kennen noch

folgende nicht zu belegende Bedd. a) m. = majjan AK. 2, 4, 1, 12. H.

1121. H. an. MED. HALĀY. 2, 28. 5, 67. = asthi H. 626 (neutr. v. l.). =

tvacisāra 1153, Schol. = vajrakṣāra RĀJAN. 6, 256. = vāyu (vgl. śāra)

JAṬĀDH. im ŚKDR. = roga DHAR. ebend. = pāśaka (vgl. śāra) ŚABDAR.

ebend. — b) n. = jala H. an. MED. = navanīta RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. = lauha

BHĀVAPR. ebend. = vipina ŚABDAR. ebend. — 2) f. ā = kṛṣṇatrivṛtā

ŚABDAR. im ŚKDR. = dūrvā (vgl. śārī) ŚABDAC. ebend. — 3) f. ī “der

Vogel” Sārikā und = pāśaka (vgl. śārī) ŚABDAR. im ŚKDR. = saptalā

RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — 4) adj. a) “hart, fest, stark”: -druma VARĀH. BṚH. S.

43, 58. -dāru 54, 118. dhanuṣī R. GORR. 1, 77, 14. -puṅkha ŚĀK. 10. –

gātra (-yodha ed. Bomb.) MBH. 6, 3316. SUŚR. 1, 151, 5. CARAKA 3, 8.

madhusūdana HARIV. 5794. ye tu garbhāṅkurāḥ

sārāstāndivyānparvatānviduḥ 11446 (die neuere Ausg. hat eine andere

Lesart). bala “Kerntruppen” (Gegens. phalgu) MBH. 2, 1031. 5, 2205.

2516. fg. 5244. KĀM. NĪTIS. 18, 58. 19, 59. Spr. (II) 5966. MĀRK. P. 122,

18. — b) “kostbar, werthvoll”: sārābharaṇa DAŚAK. 84, 11. — c) “der

vorzüglichste, beste”; = vara AK. 3, 4, 25, 173. MED. sarvavedoddhṛtaḥ

sāro mantraḥ Verz. d. Oxf. H. 106,a,32. sūkta BHĀG. P. 4, 22, 17.

PAÑCAR. 1, 5, 22. — d) mit einem instr. “voller”: śukreṇa = śukrasāra

adj. comp. “Samen zum Hauptbestandtheil im Körper habend” VARĀH.

BṚH. S. 69, 33. — e) = śāra “bunt, scheckig”: maṇḍūkaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sāraḥ

(kṛṣṇasāraḥ?) kuhakaḥ SUŚR. 2, 290, 6. sāraḥ śabalaḥ kṛṣṇaścāsau

sāraśca kṛṣṇasāraḥ kṛṣṇamṛgaḥ MALLIN. zu KUMĀRAS. 3, 36. nicht

“schwarz und scheckig”, sondern “in dem das Schwarze vorwaltet.” —

sāraniyuktaṁ HARIV. 4530 wohl fehlerhaft für sādhunirvyūhaṁ, wie die

neuere Ausg. liest. Vgl. a- (“werthlos, nichtig” auch MBH. 14, 597.

KATHĀS. 36, 105. BHĀG. P. 7, 5, 26), aguru- (“das Harz der Aquilaria

Agallocha” SUŚR. 1, 183, 15. 2, 175, 4. RAGH. 6, 8), agra-, adri-, antaḥ-

(“innerer Gehalt” Spr.(II) 350. “inwendig hart, – fest” VARĀH. BṚH. 3, 7),

ambhaḥ, artha-, aśma-, kaṁ-, karka-, kāla-, kusuma-, kṛṣṇa-, kṣīra-,

gandha-, gāyatri-, giri-, ghana-, candana- (auch R. 2, 78, 6), carma-,

takra-, tantu-, tantra-, taru-, tīkṣṇa-, tṛṇa-, tvak-, tvaci-, dravya-,

dhānya-, naya-, niḥ-, nīti-, piṅga-, picchila-, pīta-, pīlu-, puṇya-,

puṣkarasārī, puṣpa-, prapañca-, prayoga-, prāṇa- (“Lebenskraft” RĀJA-

TAR. 6, 368), bahu-, bindu-, bimbi-, bhadra-, bhāgavata-,

bhāvasāraviveka, bhāvanāsārasaṁgraha, bhūta-, bhūṣaṇasāradarpaṇa,

majjā-, maṇi-, mada-, manaḥ-, mahā-, māṁsa-, mādhvasiddhānta-,

megha-, moca-, yajña-, yathāsāram, yuddha-, yoga-, rakta-, laghu-,

lokabindu-, vajra-, vasu-, vākya-, vāri-, viveka-, viśva-, veda-, veṣṭa-,

vaidyakasārasaṁgraha, vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa- (unter

vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa), vyavahāra-, vyākhyā-, śāla-, śilā-, śubha-, śaila-

(auch KIR. 10, 14), śyāma-, śveta-, sakalavedopaniṣat-, saṁkṣipta-

(unter saṁkṣipta), saṁgīta-, samara-, samudra-, sarva-, sita-,


sāra 1) i) naitatsāram ebend. 8,21,b.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

sāra sāra, perhaps sṛ + a, with ‘cream,’


9. as first signification,

I. adj.

1. Easential, Hit. iv. d. 71.

2. Excellent, best, Daśak. in Chr. 194, 22; Pañc. i. d. 284; Hit. iii. d.


3. Hard, Śāk. d. 10.

4. Irrefragable (as an argument), proved, Man. 9, 262.

II. m. (and n.).

1. The pith or sap of trees.

2. The essence of anything, the essential or vital part of it, Hit. ii. d.

126; Pañc. 49, 4.

3. Nectar, Bhāg. P. 7, 6, 25.

4. The substance or material part (of a book, speech, etc.), Pañc. pr.

d. 3; 10 (n.).

5. Marrow, Ragh. 10, 10.

6. Strength, vigour, Hit. 104, 7; affluence, Hit. i. d. 90, M.M. (artha-, of

wealth, cf.

IV. 2.).

7. Prowess, heroism.

8. Firmness, hardness.

9. The coagulum of curds, cream.

10. Fresh butter.

11. Air, wind (cf. śāra).

12. Disease, pus, Hit. ii. d. 101 (and wealth).

III. m., and f. rī, A man at chess, backgammon (cf. śāra).

IV. n.

1. Water.

2. Wealth, Man. 8, 126; Daśak. in Chr. 189, 3 (at the end of a comp.


3. Fitness.

4. Steel.

5. (In rhetoric), Climax.

V. f. rā, Kuśa grass.

VI. f. rī, Turdus Salica Buch.

— Comp. a-, adj. 1. sapless, Hit. iv. d. 87. 2. insipid, Daśak. in Chr. 188, 2;

vain, Pañc. 165, 17. 3. weak, Pañc. i. d. 376. 4. bad, Man. 8, 202. 5. poor,

Daśak. in Chr. 180, 23. sāra-a-, m. 1. strength and weakness, Hit. 104, 7.

2. excellence or defect, Man. 9, 331. 3. substance and emptiness. agra-,

f. rā, a method of numbering, by which one may sum up the sand of a

hundred Koṭis of Gaṅgā rivers, Lalit. 141 (cf. Arcimedes’ method). adri-,

m. iron. antaḥsāra, i. e. antar-,

I. m. and n. 1. the inward pus and wealth, Hit. ii. d. 101. 2. own worth,

Cāṇ. 69 in Berl. Monatsb. 1864, 411.

II. adj. 1. having inward essence, full of strength, Pañc. i. d. 142. 2.

heavy, ponderous. artha-, m. important motive, Pañc. ii. d. 46. aśmasāra,

i. e. aśman-, m. iron, Suśr. 2, 531, 4. eka-, m. only essence, Bhartṛ. 2, 1.

kṛṣṇa- (cf. śāra),

I. adj. of a blue-black colour, Rām. 5, 32, 47.

II. m. 1. the black-pied antelope, Man. 2, 23; Vikr. d. 120. 2. the name of

several plants. giri-, m. 1. iron. 2. tin. ghana-, m. camphor, Lass. 92, 8.

candana-, m. the best sandal, Rām. 2, 20, 43 Gorr. traksāra, i. e. tvac-,

m. reed, Man. 10, 37. dṛṣṭa-, adj. one of whom the strength is tested,

Kām. Nītis. 8, 67. nis-abhibhava-, adj. having the highest excellence, i. e.

than which there is nothing better, Bhartṛ. 2, 54 (but cf. also Böhtl. Ind.

Spr. 1859). niḥsāra, i. e. nis-, adj., f. rā, 1. sapless, Suśr. 1, 20, 16; Cāṇ.

66 in Berl. Monatsb. 1864, 411. 2. powerless, insignificant, Pañc. i. d. 421.

3. insipid.

4. vain, perishable, Hit. iv. d. 71. prāṇa-, adj. having the marrew of

life, Śāk. d. 37. vajra-,

I. adj. having the vigour of a thunderbolt, Pañc. 58, 10.

II. m. a proper name, Rājat. 5, 226. vedānta-, m. the essence of the

Vedānta philosophy, Vedāntas. title, in Chr. 202, 1. śilā-, m. iron. śaila-,

adj. firm as a rock, Kir. 10, 14 sa-kala-artha-śāstra-, adj. containing the

essence of precepts about all things, Pañc. pr. d. 3. sattva-, m. excellence

of strength, i. e. the most powerful, Utt. Rāmac. 151, 1. su-, m. 1. a kind

of jewel or crystal (?), MBh. 7, 672. 2. Mimosa catechu. sva-anubhūti-

eka-sāra-, adj. whose only essence consists in enjoying himself, Bhartṛ.

2, 1.

— Cf. sara; Goth. sāls; A.S. sel, sael.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

sāra [1] a. driving away, removing; m. course, way (only –°).

sāra [2] m. n. the interior firm parts of a body; firmness, solidity,

strength; property, wealth; substance or essence of anything; nectar;


Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

sāra 1. sār-a, a. [sṛ] driving away, destroying (-°); m. course.

Rādhākāntadeva: Śabdakalpadruma (5 Vol). Third edition, reprint of the

1886 edition. Varanasi : 1967

sāra t ka daurvalye . iti kavikalpadrumaḥ .. (adantacurā°-para°-aka°-seṭ

.) rephopadhaḥ . asasārat . iti durgādāsaḥ ..

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

sāra daurbalye ada° cu° ubha° saka° seṭ . sārayati te asasārat ta

anekāckatvānna ṣopadeśaḥ

sāra na° sṛ–ghañ, sāra–ac vā . 1 jale 2 dhane 3 nyāyye tri° medi° . 4

navanīte na° rājani° . 5 lauhe bhāvapra° . 6 vane śabdara° . 7 bale 8

sthirāṁśe 9 majjani pu° amaraḥ 10 sarjakṣāre 11 vāyau jaṭā° . 12 roge

dharaṇiḥ 13 atidṛde 14 pāśake pu° śabdara° 15 dadhyagre pu° hemaca°

16 śreṣṭhe 17 vare ca tri° amaraḥ . 1ṣaparameśvare ekaṁ śivaṁ

śāntamanantamacyutaṁ parātparaṁ jñānamayaṁ viśeṣam . advaita

mavyagramacintyarūpa sārantvekaṁ nāsti sāraṁ tatonyat .

yasmādetajjāyate viśvamagryaṁ yasmin līnaṁ syācca paścātsthitañca .

ākāśavanmeghajālañca dhṛtyā yadviśvaṁ vai dhriyate tacca sāram .

aṣṭāṅgayogairyadavāptumicchan yogī yunaktyātmarūpaṁ sadaiva .

nivartate prāpya yanneha loke tadvai sāraṁ sāramanyanna cāsti

kālikāpu° 27 a° .

सारंग – sāraṁga Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :1890

sāraṁga a. (gī f.) [sāraṁ aṁgamasya śakaṁ-] Spotted, variegated. –gaḥ

(1) The variegated colour.

(2) The spotted deer, an antelope; eṣa rājeva duṣyaṁtaḥ

sāraṁgeṇātiraṁhasā S. 1. 5.

(3) A deer in general; sāraṁgāste jalalavamucaḥ sūcayiṣyaṁti

mārgaṁ Me. 21 (where it is preferable to take this sense rather than that

of ‘elephant’ or ‘bee’).

(4) A lion.

(5) An elephant.

(6) A large black bee.

(7) The cuckoo.

(8) A large crane.

(9) The flamingo. (10) A peacock.

(11) An umbrella.

(12) A cloud.

(13) A garment.

(14) Hair.

(15) A conch-shell.

(16) N. of Śiva.

(17) The god of love.

(18) A lotus.

(19) Camphor. (20) A bow.

(21) Sandal.

(22) A kind of musical instrument.

(23) An ornament.

(24) Gold.

(25) The earth.

(26) The Chātaka bird.

(27) A flower.

(28) Night.

(29) Light.

सित – sita Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sita mfn. (for 2. see below; for 3. p. 1214, col.2) bound, tied, fettered

&c. &c.

mfn. joined with, accompanied by (instr.)

sita see 2. “pra-sita” p.697, col.3.

sita mf (“ā”) n. (prob. formed fr. “a-sita” as “sura” fr. “asura”; for 1. and

2. “sita” see p.1213, col.1; for 4. see 1. “so”) white, pale, bright, light

(said of a day in the light half of a month and of the waxing moon) &c.

mf (“ā”) n. candid, pure (see “-karman”)

sita m. white (the colour)

sita m. the light half of the month from new to full moon

sita m. the planet Venus or its regent (= “śukra”)

sita m. sugar

sita m. Bauhinia Candida

sita m. N. of one of Skanda’s attendants

sita mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. white sugar, refined sugar

sita m. moonlight

sita m. a handsome woman.

sita m. spirituous liquor

sita m. N. of various plants (a species of Aparājitā; white Kaṇṭakārī;

white Dūrvā grass; Arabian jasmine &c.)

sita m. bamboo juice

sita m. N. of the Ganges (in “sitāsitā”, under “sitā”)

sita m. one of the 8 Devis ()

sita n. silver

sita n. sandal

sita n. a radish

sita see s.v.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


sita a. [so-kta]

(1) White.

(2) Bound, tied, fastened, fettered.

(3) Surrounded.

(4) Ascertained, known.

(5) Finished, ended. –taḥ

(1) White colour.

(2) The bright half of a lunar month.

(3) The planet Venus.

(4) An arrow. –taṁ

(1) Silver.

(2) Sandal.

(3) Radish.

— Comp.

–aṁśu = sitakara q. v.

–agraḥ a thorn.

–aṁgaḥ the śvetarohita tree.

–ajājī white cumin.

–apāṁgaḥ a peacock.

–abhraḥ, –bhraṁ camphor.

–aṁbaraḥ an ascetic dressed in white garments.

–arjakaḥ white basil.

–aśvaḥ an epithet of Arjuna.

–asitaḥ an epithet of Balarāma. (

–tau) Venus and Saturn.

–ādiḥ molasses.

–ānanaḥ N. of Garuḍa.

–ābhaḥ camphor.

–ālikā a cockle.

–itara a. other than white; i. e. black. -gatiḥ fire.

–udaraḥ an epithet of Kubera.

–udbhavaṁ white sandal.

–upalaḥ a crystal.

–upalā candied sugar.

–upalaḥ chalk.

–karaḥ 1. the moon. –2. camphor.

–dhātuḥ a white mineral, chalk.

–raśimaḥ the moon.

–vājin m. N. of Arjuna.

–śarkarā candied sugar.

–śiṁbikaḥ wheat.

–śivaṁ rock-salt.

–śūkaḥ barley.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

sita (von 3. sā) partic. “beendigt” AK. 3, 2, 48. H. an. 2, 206. MED. t. 70.

sita partic. “gebunden” s. u. 1. si.

sita (aus 2. asita, wie sura aus asura) UṆĀDIS. 3, 89. 1) adj. (f. ā) a)

“weiss, hellfarbig, hell” NIR. 9, 26. AK. 1, 1, 4, 22. 3, 4, 14, 83. H. 1392.

an. 2, 206. MED. t. 70. HALĀY. 4, 47. varṇairnīlapītasitāruṇaiḥ R. 2, 94,

20. Ind. St. 2, 258. 278. 8, 273. SUŚR. 1, 296, 7. VARĀH. BṚH. S. 3, 19.

42. 12, 5. 24, 35. 53, 96. Rinder, Pferde M. 11, 130. MBH. 3, 11898. R. 5,

11, 7. 12, 34. KATHĀS. 22, 182. BHĀG. P. 3, 2, 29. Bart, Haupthaar MBH.

1, 3471. 5330. BHĀG. P. 2, 7, 26. Zähne 3, 13, 27. 32. Augen HALĀY. 2,

283. Blüthen VARĀH. BṚH. S. 15, 1. AK. 2, 4, 2, 51. 3, 28. Senf PAÑCAT.

158, 3 (ed. orn. 57, 12). Reis Spr. (II) 2635. PAÑCAR. 3, 9, 1. kisalaya (=

śuddha Comm.) BHĀG. P. 5, 3, 6. -taṭasānukandara MBH. 3, 1663.

sitoccaśailottamaśṛṅga R. GORR. 2, 12, 38. Gewand, Tuch Spr. (II) 2426.

4102. VIKR. 53. aṅgarāga KUMĀRAS. 7, 32. Gesicht bei Kindern Spr. (II)

7423. kopastimitasitādhara (“bleich”) RĀJA-TAR. 3, 293. 5, 324.

Sonnenschein RAGH. 3, 70. KATHĀS. 18, 4. 403. BHĀG. P. 1, 10, 17. 11,

28. 8, 10, 13. cāmaravyajana MBH. 2, 37. RAGH. 9, 66. gṛhaṁ sudhayā

sitam R. 4, 33, 21. ṚT. 1, 9. KATHĀS. 27, 136. bhūti- (giri) “weiss wie”

oder “durch Asche” 50, 173. 123, 211. gāṅgamambu Spr. (II) 2101. tila

SUŚR. 1, 198, 18. indorbhābhirbhānoḥ sitaṁ bhavatyardham “hell”

VARĀH. BṚH. S. 4, 1. 11, 17. 19. surānsitamukuṭaratnān 12, 1. jyotsnā-

(eine Nacht) KATHĀS. 123, 211. -cchāyā RAGH. ed. Calc. 4, 5. rātryaḥ

Spr. (II) 1700. ātapa RĀJA-TAR. 2, 167. -saptamī “der 7te Tag in der

lichten Hälfte des Monats” BHĀG. P. 7, 14, 22. RĀJA-TAR. 5, 327. pauṣa

6, 187. pakṣa 311. ahan 312. — b) “rein, lauter”: -karman adj. MBH. 1,

3641. — 2) m. a) “die lichte Hälfte eines Monats” VARĀH. BṚH. S. 21, 9.

māghasitottha 10. — b) “der Planet Venus” ŚABDAR. im ŚKDR. VARĀH.

BṚH. S. 4, 22. 9, 11. 27. 34. 38. 42. 45 (sitāhvayaḥ). 17, 24. fg. 27. 27,

42. Ind. St. 2, 279. 283. fgg. — c) “Zucker”: sitaśailamustāḥ VARĀH. BṚH.

S. 77, 11. — d) “Saccharum Sara Roxb.” (śara) NĀNĀRTHADHVANIM. im

ŚKDR. “Pfeil” WILSON. — e) “Bauhinia candida” RATNAM. 158. — f) N. pr.

eines Wesens im Gefolge Skanda’s MBH. 9, 2571. — 3) f. ā a) “Zucker”

AK. 2, 9, 43. TRIK. 3, 3, 192. H. 403. H. an. MED. SUŚR. 1, 377, 18. –

yuktena sarpiṣā 2, 327, 1. 341, 19. 410, 20. 449, 2. kṣīraṁ sasitam 149,

5. VARĀH. BṚH. S. 76, 6. Spr. (II) 7044 (Conj.). PAÑCAR. 3, 9, 1. Vgl.

tri-. — b) “Mondlicht” RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. — c) “Branntwein” RĀJAN. ebend.

— d) Bez. verschiedener Pflanzen, = parvatajātāparājitā RATNAM. im

ŚKDR. = śvetakaṇṭakārī RĀJAN. 4, 33. = vākucī 63. = vidārī, śvetadūrvā,

kuṭumbinī, piṅgā (?), trāyamāṇā, tejanī RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. – SUŚR. 1, 133,

19. 2, 276, 15. — e) Bez. einer der 8 Devī bei den Buddhisten

KĀLACAKRA 4, 18. — 4) n. a) “Silber” H. 1043, Schol. RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. —

b) “Sandel” RATNAM. 137. — c) “Rettig” RĀJAN. 7, 14. — d) “Kümmel”

RATNAM. 100.

sita “geschärft, scharf” fehlerhaft für śita (s. u. 2. śā) ARJ. 7, 7 (-sita

MBH. 3, 12109). MBH. 7, 1078 (śita ed. Bomb.). Spr. (II) 3162.

Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975

sita A warrior of Subrahmaṇya. (Mahābhārata, Śalya Parva, Chapter 45,

Verse 69).

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

sita sita,

I. (cf. si and so), adj. White, Vikr. d. 53; Pañc. 158, 3.

II. m.

1. White (the colour).

2. The light half of the month from new to full moon, Rājat. 5, 327.

3. The planet Venus.

4. An arrow.

III. f. tā.

1. Candied sugar.

2. Moonlight.

3. A handsome woman.

4. Spirituous liquor.

5. The name of several plants.

IV. n.

1. Silver.

2. Sandal.

— Comp. a-, adj., f. tā and asiknī,

I. adj. 1. black, Rām. 2, 96, 19. 2. the black half of the month from full to

new moon, Pañc. ed. orn. i. d. 139.

II. m. 1. black (the colour). 2. a proper name, MBh. 1, 106.

III. f. tā, a proper name, Hariv. 120. sita-a-,

I. adj. white and black.

II. m. a name of Baladeva.

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

sita [1] -> sā & si.

sita [2] a. white, bright, clear, pure.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

sita 1. si-ta, pp. (1. si) bound.

sita 2. sita, a. [fr. as-ita, black, misunderstood as a negative] white;

pale; bright, light (day or month during the moon’s increase); m. bright

half (of a lunar month): ā, f. sugar.

sita 3. sita, pp. incorr. for śita.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

sita na° so–kta . 1 raupye 2 mūlake rājani° . 3 candane ratnamā° 4 śare

5 śukragrahe 6 śuklavarṇe ca pu° amaraḥ . 7 tadvati 8 samāpte 9 baddhe

10 jñāta ca tri° viśvaḥ .

सितकृष्ण – sitakṛṣṇa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899sitakṛṣṇa “sita-kṛṣṇa” mfn. white and black

sitakṛṣṇa “sita-kṛṣṇa” m. white and black colour

सिति – siti Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899siti f. (for 2. see p.1214, col.3) binding, fastening (in 1. “pra-siti”, p.697,


siti mfn. (w.r. for “śiti”; for 1. see p.1213, col.1; for 3. see 1. “so”) white

mfn. black

siti see s.v.

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


siti a.

(1) White.

(2) Black. –tiḥ

(1) White or black colour.

(2) Binding, fastening.

— Comp.

–kaṁṭha, –vāsas see śitikaṁṭha; śitivāsas.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

siti adj. = śiti “weiss; schwarz” RAMĀN. zu AK. 3, 4, 14, 85 nach ŚKDR.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

siti pu° sī–ktic . 1 śuklavarṇe 2 kṛṣṇavarṇe ca . 2 tadvati tri° rāyamu0

सु – su Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899su cl.1.P. ā. “savati, -te”, to go, move ( “sru”).

su (= 1. “sū”) cl.1.2. P. ( xxii, 43 and xxiv, 32; “savati, sauti”, only in 3.

sg. pr. “sauti” and 2. sg. Impv. “suhi”) to urge, impel, incite ; to possess


su cl.5.P. ā. ( xxvii, 1) “sunoti, sunute” (in 3. pl. “sunvanti, sunvire”

[with pass. sense] and “suṣvati”; p. “sunvat” or “sunvāna” [the latter

with act. and pass. sense] ; pf. “suṣāva, suṣuma” &c. ; p. in Veda

“suṣuvas” and “suṣvāṇa” [the later generally with pass. sense; accord. to

on “suṣuvāṇa” with act. sense]; aor. accord. to Gr. “asāvīt” or “asauṣīt,

asoṣṭa” or “asaviṣṭa”; in also Impv. “sotu, sutam”, and p. [mostly pass.]

“suvāna” [but the spoken form is “svāna” and so written in , “suv-” in ;

and 3. pl. “asuṣavuḥ” ; fut. “sotā” ; “soṣyati” ; “saviṣyati” ; inf. “sotave,

sotos” ; “sotum” Gr.; ind. p. “-sutya” ; “-sūya” , to press out, extract

(esp. the juice from the Soma plant for libations) ; to distil, prepare

(wine, spirits &c.) on Pass. “sūyate” (in also ā. 3. sg. “sunve” and 3. pl.

“sunvire” with pass. sense; aor. “asāvi” Caus. “-sāvayati” or “-ṣāvayati”

(see “abhi-ṣu” and “pra-su”; aor. “asūṣavat” accord. to some “asīṣavat”)

Gr.: Desid. of Caus. “suṣāvayiṣati” Desid. “susūṣati, -te” Iutens.

“soṣūyate, soṣavīti, soṣoti”

su (= 2. “sū”), (only in 3. sg. “sauti” see “pra-sū”) to beget, bring forth.

su ind. (opp. to “dus” and corresponding in sense to Gk. [greek];

perhaps connected with 1. “vasu”, and, accord. to some, with pron. base

“sa”, as “ku” with “ka”; in Veda also “sū” and liable to become “ṣu” or

“ṣū” and to lengthen a preceding vowel, while a following “na” may

become “ṇa”; it may be used as an adj. or adv.), good, excellent, right,

virtuous, beautiful, easy, well, rightly, much, greatly, very, any, easily,

willingly, quickly (in older language often with other particles; esp. with

“u”, = “forthwith, immediately”; with “mo” i.e. “mā u”, = “never, by no

means”; “su kam” often emphatically with an Impv. e.g. “tiṣṭhā su kam

maghavan mā parā gāḥ”, “do tarry O Maghavan, go not past” ; “su”

always qualifies the meaning of a verb and is never used independently at

the beginning of a verse; in later language it is rarely a separate word,

but is mostly prefixed to substantives, adjectives, adverbs and participles,

exceptionally also to an ind. p. e.g. “su-baddhvā”, “having well bound” ;

or even to a finite verb e.g. “su-nirvavau”

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following).

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following)

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following, in which the initial “ṣ” stands

for an orig. “s”):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following):

su (to be similarly prefixed to the following)

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


su I. 1 U. (suvati-te) To go, move. –II. 1. 2. P. (savati, sauti) To possess

power or supremacy. –III. 5. U. (sunoti, sunute, suta; the s of su is

changed to ṣ after any preposition ending in i or u)

(1) To press out or extract juice.

(2) To distil.

(3) To pour out, sprinkle, make a libation.

(4) To perform a sacrifice, especially the Soma sacrifice.

(5) To bathe.

(6) To churn. –Desid. (suṣūsati-te) –WITH ud to excite, agitate. –pra

to produce, beget.

su ind. A particle often used with nouns to form Karmadhāraya and

Bahuvrīhi compounds, and with adjectives and adverbs. It has the

following senses:

(1) Well, good, excellent; as in suṁgadhi.

(2) Beautiful, handsome; as in sumadhyamā, sukeśī &c.

(3) Well, perfectly, thoroughly, properly; sujīrṇamannaṁ suvicakṣaṇaḥ

sutaḥ suśāsitā strī nṛpatiḥ susevitaḥ &c … sudīrghakāle’pi na yāti vikriyāṁ

H. 1. 22.

(4) Easily, readily, as in sukara or sulabha q. v.

(5) Much, very much, exceedingly; sudāruṇa, sudīrgha &c.

(6) Worthy of respect or reverence.

(7) It is also said to have the senses of assent, prosperity, and


— Comp.

–akṣa a. 1. having good eyes. –2. having keen organs, acute.

–aṁga a. well-shaped, handsome, lovely.

–accha a. see s. v.

–aṁta a. having a happy end, ending well.

–alpa, -alpaka a. see s. v.

–asti, –astika see s. v.

–ākāra, –ākṛti a. well-formed, handsome, beautiful.

–āgata see s. v.

–ādānaṁ taking justly or properly; Ms. 8. 172.

–ābhāsa a. very splendid or illustrious; Ki. 15. 22.

–iṣṭa a. properly sacrificed. -kṛt m. a form of fire.

–ukta a. well-spoken, well-said; athavā sūktaṁ khalu kenāpi Ve. 3.


–ktā) a kind of bird (sārikā. (–ktaṁ) 1. a good or wise saying;

netuṁ vāṁchati yaḥ khalān pathi satāṁ sūktaiḥ sudhāsyaṁdibhiḥ Bh. 2.

6, R. 15. 97. –2. a Vedic hymn, as in puruṣasūkta &c. -darśin m. a

hymnseer, Vedic sage. -vāc f. 1. a hymn. –2. praise, a word of praise.

–uktiḥ f. 1. a good or friendly speech. –2. a good or clever saying.

–3. a correct sentence.

–uttara a. 1. very superior. –2. well towards the north.

–utthāna a. making good efforts, vigorous, active. (

–naṁ) vigorous effort or exertion.

–unmada, –unmāda a. quite mad or frantic.

–upasadana a. easy to be approached.

–upaskara a. furnished with good instruments.

–kaṁṭakā the aloe plant.

–kaṁḍuḥ itch.

–kaṁdaḥ 1. an onion. –2. a yam. –3. a sort of grass.

–kaṁdakaḥ onion.

–kara a. (rā or rī f.) 1. easy to be done, practicable, feasible;

vaktuṁ sukaraṁ kartuṁ (adhyavasātuṁ) duṣkaraṁ Ve. 3 ‘sooner said

than done.’ –2 easy to be managed. (

–rā) a tractable cow. (

–raṁ) charity, benevolence.

–karman a. 1. one whose deeds are righteous, virtuous, good. –2.

active, diligent. (–m.) N. of Viśvakarman.

–kala a. one who has acquired a great reputation for liberality in

giving and using (money &c.).

–kāṁḍaḥ the Kāravella plant.

–kāṁḍikā the Kāṇḍīra creeper.

–kāṁḍin a. 1. having beautiful stems. –2. beautifully joined. (–m.)

a bee.

–kāṣṭhaṁ firewood.

–kuṁdakaḥ an onion.

–kumāra a. 1. very delicate or soft, smooth. –2. beautifully young

or youthful. (

–raḥ) 1. a beautiful youth. –2. a kind of sugar-cane. –3. a kind of

grain (śyāmāka). –4 a kind of mustard. –5. the wild Champaka. (

–rā) 1. the double jasmine. –2. the plantain. –3. the great-

flowered jasmine.

–kumārakaḥ 1. a beautiful youth. –2. rice (śāli). (–kaṁ) the


–kumārī the Navamallikā jasmine.

–kṛt a. 1. doing good, benevolent. –2. pious, virtuous, righteous.

–3. wise, learned. –4. fortunate, lucky. –5. making good sacrifices or

offerings (–m.) 1. a skilful worker. –2. N. of Tvaṣṭṛ.

–kṛta a. 1. done well or properly. –2. thoroughly done. –3. well-

made or constructed. –4. treated with kindness, assisted, befriended. —

5. virtuous, righteous, pious. –6. lucky, fortunate. (

–taṁ) 1. any good or virtuous act, kindness, favour, service;

nādatte kasyacitpāpaṁ kasyacitsukṛtaṁ vibhuḥ Bg. 5. 15, Me. 17. –2.

virtue, moral or religious merit; svargābhisaṁdhisukṛtaṁ vaṁcanāmiva

menire Ku. 6. 47; tacciṁtyamānaṁ sukṛtaṁ taveti R. 14. 16. –3. fortune,

auspiciousness. –4. recompense, reward.

–kṛtiḥ f. 1. well-doing, a good act. –2. kindness, virtue. –3.

practice of penance. –4. auspiciousness.

–kṛtin a. 1. acting well or kindly. –2. virtuous, pious, good,

righteous; saṁtaḥ saṁtu nirāpadaḥ sukṛtināṁ kīrtiściraṁ vardhatāṁ H. 4.

132; Bg. 7. 16. –3. wise, learned. –4. benevolent. –5. fortunate, lucky.

–kṛtyaṁ a good action; Pt. 2. 41.

–keśa(sa)raḥ the citron tree.

–kratuḥ 1. N. of Agni. –2. of Śiva. –3. of Indra. –4. of Mitra and

Varuṇa. –5. of the sun. –6. of Soma.

–gaṁ a. 1. going gracefully or well. –2. graceful, elegant. –3. easy

of access; Pt. 2. 144. –4. intelligible, easy to be understood (opp. durga).


–gaṁ) 1. ordure, feces. –2. happiness.

–gata a. 1. well-gone or passed. –2 well-bestowed. (

–taḥ) an epithet of Buddha.

–gaṁdhaḥ 1. fragrance, odour, perfume. –2. sulphur. –3. a trader.


–dhaṁ) 1. sandal. –2. small cumin seed. –3. a blue lotus. –4. a

kind of fragrant grass. (

–dhā) sacred basil.

–gaṁdhakaḥ 1. sulphur. –2. the red Tulasī1. –3. the orange. –4. a

kind of gourd.

–gaṁdhāraḥ an epithet of Śiva.

–gaṁdhi a. 1. sweet-smelling, fragrant, redolent with perfumes.

–2. virtuous, pious. (

–dhiḥ) 1. perfume, fragrance. –2. the Supreme Being. –3. a kind

of sweet-smelling mango. (

–dhi n.) 1. the root of long pepper. –2. a kind of fragrant grass. —

3. coriander seed. -triphalā 1. nutmeg. –2. areca nut. –3. cloves. -mūlaṁ

the root Uśīra. -mūṣikā the musk-rat.

–gaṁdhikaḥ 1. incense. –2. sulphur. –3. a kind of rice. (

–kaṁ) the white lotus.

–gama a. 1. easy of access, accessible. –2. easy. –3. plain,


–gahanā an enclosure round a place of sacrifice to exclude profane

access. -vṛttiḥ f. the same as above.

–gṛha a. (hī f.) having a beautiful house or abode, welllodged;

sugṛhī nirgṛṁhīkṛtā Pt. 1. 390.

–gṛhīta a. 1. held well or firmly, grasped. –2. used or applied

properly or auspiciously. -nāman a. 1. one whose name is auspiciously

invoked, one whose name it is auspicious to utter (as Bali, Yudhiṣṭhira), a

term used as a respectful mode of speaking; sugṛhītanāmnaḥ

bhaṭṭagopālasya pautraḥ Māl. 1.

–grāsaḥ a dainty morsel.

–grīva a. having a beautiful neck. (

–vaḥ) 1. a hero. –2. a swan. –3. a kind of weapon. –4. N. of one

of the four horses of Kṛṣṇa. –5. of Śiva. –6. of Indra. –7. N. of a

monkeychief and brother of Vāli. [By the advice of Kabandha Rāma went

to Sugrīva who told him how his brother had treated him and besought

his assistance in recovering his wife, promising at the same time that he

would assist Rāma in recovering his wife Sīta. Rāma, therefere, killed

Vāli, and installed Sugrīva on the throne. He then assisted Rāma with his

hosts of monkeys in conquering Rāvaṇa, and recovering Sīta.]. -īśaḥ N. of


–gla a. very weary or fatigued.

–cakṣus a. having good eyes, seeing well. (–m.) 1. a discerning or

wise man, learned man. –2. the glomerous fig-tree.

–carita, caritra a. well-conducted, well-behaved. (

–taṁ, -traṁ) 1. good conduct, virtuous deeds. –2. merit; tava

sucaritamaṁgulīya nūnaṁ pratanu S. 6. 10. (

–tā, –trā) a well-conducted, devoted, and virtuous wife.

–carman m. the Bhūrja tree.

–citrakaḥ 1. a king-fisher. –2. a kind of speckled snake.

–citrā a kind of gourd.

–ciṁtā, –ciṁtanaṁ deep thought, deep reflection or


–ciram ind. for a very long time, very long.

–cirāyus m. a god, deity.

–cūṭī a pair of nippers or tongs.

–celakaḥ a fine cloth.

–chatraḥ N. of Śiva. (

–trā) the river Sutlej.

–jana a. 1. good, virtuous, respectable. –2. kind, benevolent. (

–naḥ) 1. a good or virtuous man, benevolent man. –2. a

gentleman. –3. N. of Indra’s charioteer.

–janatā 1. goodness, kindness, benevolence, virtue; aiśvaryasya

vibhūṣaṇaṁ sujanatā Bh. 2. 82. –2. a number of good men. –3. bravery,

–janman a. 1. of noble or respectable birth; yā kaumudī

nayanayorbhavataḥ sujanmā Māl. 1. 34. –2. legitimate, lawfully born.

–jalaṁ a lotus.

–jalpaḥ 1. a good speech. –2. a kind of speech thus described by

Ujjvalamaṇi; yatrārjavāt sagāṁbhīryaṁ sadainyaṁ sahacāpalam .

sotkaṁṭhaṁ ca hariḥ spṛṣṭaḥ sa sujalpo nigadyate … –jāta a. 1.

wellgrown, tall. –2. well made or produced. –3. of high birth. –4.

beautiful, lovely; Māl. 1. 16, R. 3. 8.

–tanu a. 1. having a beautiful body. –2. extremely delicate or

slender, very thin. –3. emaciated. (

–nuḥ, –nūḥ f.) a lovely lady; etāḥ sutanu mukha te sakhyaḥ

paśyaṁti hemakūṭagatāḥ V. 1. 10.

–taṁtrī a. 1. well-stringed. –2. (hence) melodious.

–tapas a. 1. one who practises austere penance. –2. having great

heat. (–m.) 1. an ascetic, a devotee, hermit, an anchorite. –2. the sun.

(–n.) an austere penance.

–tamāṁ ind. most excellently, best.

–tarāṁ ind. 1. better, more excellently. –2. exceedingly, very, very

much, excessively; tayā duhitrā sutarāṁ savitrī sphuratprabhāmaṁḍalayā

cakāśe Ku. 1. 24; sutarāṁ dayāluḥ R. 2. 53, 7. 21, 14. 9, 18. 24. –3. more

so, much more so; mayyapyāsthā na te cettvayi mama sutarāmeṣa rājan

gatosmi Bh. 3. 30. –4. consequently.

–tardanaḥ the (Indian) cuckoo.

–talaṁ 1. ‘immense depth’, N. of one of the seven regions below

the earth; see pātāla. –2. the foundation of a large building.

–tiktakaḥ the coral tree.

–tīkṣṇa a. 1. very sharp. –2. very pungent. –3. acutely painful. (

–kṣṇaḥ) 1. the Śigru tree. –2. N. of a sage; nāmnā

sutīkṣṇaścaritena dāṁtaḥ R. 13. 41. -daśanaḥ an epithet of Śiva.

–tīrthaḥ 1. a good preceptor. –2. N. of Śiva.

–tuṁga a. very lofty or tall. (

–gaḥ) the cocoa-nut tree.

–tejas a. 1. very sharp. –2. very bright, or splendid. –3. very

mighty. (–m.) a worshipper of the sun.

–dakṣiṇa a. 1. very sincere or upright. –2. liberal or rich in

sacrificial gifts; Pt. 1. 310. (

–ṇā) N. of the wife of Dilīpa; tasya dākṣiṇyarūḍhena nāmnā

magadhavaṁśajā . patnī sudakṣiṇetyāsīt R. 1. 31, 3. 1

–daṁḍaḥ a cane, ratan.

–dat a. (tī f.) having handsome teeth.

–daṁtaḥ 1. a good tooth. –2. an actor, a dancer. (

–tī) the female elephant of the north-west quarter.

–darśana a. (nā or nī f.) 1. good-looking, beautiful, handsome. –2.

easily seen. (

–naḥ) the discus of Viṣṇu; as in kṛṣṇopyasudarśanaḥ K. –2. N. of

Śiva. –3. of mount Meru. –4. a vulture. (

–nī –naṁ) N. of Amarāvatī, Indra’s capital. (

–naṁ) N. of Jambudvīpa.

–darśanā 1. a handsome woman. –2. a woman. –3. an order, a

command. –4. a kind of drug.

–dā a. very bountiful.

–dāṁtaḥ a Buddhist.

–dāman a. one who gives liberally. (–m.) 1. a cloud. –2. a

mountain. –3. the sea. –4. N. of Indra’s elephant. –5. N. of a very poor

Brāhmaṇa who came to Dvāraka with only a small quantity of parched

rice as a present to his friend Kṛṣṇa, and was raised by him to wealth and


–dāyaḥ 1. a good or auspicious gift. –2. a special gift given on

particular solemn occasions. –3. one who offers such a gift.

–dinaṁ 1. a happy or auspicious day. –2. a fine day or weather

(opp. durdina); so sudināhaṁ in the same sense.

–dīrgha a. very long or extended. (

–rghā) a kind of cucumber.

–durlabha a. very scarce or rare.

–dvara a. very distant or remote. (sudūraṁ means 1. to a great

distance. –2. to a very high degree, very much. sudūrāt ‘from afar, from a


–ṭṭaḍha a. very firm or hard, compact.

–dṛś a. having beautiful eyes. (–f.) a pretty woman.

–dhanvan a. having an excellent bow. (–m.) 1. a good archer or

bowman. –2. Ananta, the great serpent. –3. N. of Viśvakarman.

–dharman a. attentive to duties. (–f.) the council or assembly of

gods. (–m.) 1. the hall or palace of Indra. –2. one diligent in properly

maintaining his family.

–dharmā –rmī the council or assembly of gods (devasabhā);

yayāvudīritālokaḥ sudharmānavamāṁ sabhāṁ R. 17. 27.

–dhita a. Ved. 1. perfect, secure. –2. kind, good. –3. happy,

prosperous. –4. well-aimed or directed (as a weapon).

–dhī a. having a good understanding, wise, clever, intelligent. (

–dhīḥ) a wise or intelligent man, learned man or pandit. (–f.) a

good understanding, good sense, intelligence. -upāsyaḥ 1. a particular

kind of royal palace. –2. N. of an attendant on Kṛṣṇa. (

–syaṁ) the club of Balarama. -upāsyā 1. a woman. –2. N. of Umā,

or of one of her female companions. –3. a sort of pigment.

–dhūmravarṇā one of the seven tongues of fire.

–naṁdā N. of a woman.

–nayaḥ 1. good conduct. –2. good policy.

–nayana a. having beautiful eyes. (

–naḥ) a deer. (

–nā) 1. a woman having beautiful eyes. –2. a woman in general.

–nābha a. 1. having a beautiful navel. –2. having a good nave or

centre. (

–bhaḥ) 1. a mountain. –2. the Maināka mountain q. v.

–nibhṛta a. very lonely or private. (

–taṁ) ind. very secretly or closely, very narrowly, privately.

–niścalaḥ an epithet of Śiva.

–nīta 1. well-conducted, well-behaved. –2. polite, civil. (

–taṁ) 1. good conduct or behaviour. –2. good policy or prudence.

–nītiḥ f. 1. good conduct, good manners, propriety. –2. good

policy. –3. N. of the mother of Dhruva, q. v.

–nītha a. well-disposed, well-conducted, righteous, virtuous, good.


–thaḥ) 1. a Brāhmaṇa. –2. N. of Śiśupāla q. v. –3. Ved. a good


–nīla a. very black or blue. (

–laḥ) the pomegranate tree. (

–lā) common flax. (–laṁ), –nīlakaḥ a blue gem.

–netra a. having good or beautiful eyes.

–nau n. water (?).

–pakva a. 1. well-cooked. –2. thoroughly matured or ripe. (

–kvaḥ) a sort of fragrant mango.

–patnī a woman having a good husband.

–pathaḥ 1. a good road. –2. a good course. –3. good conduct.

–pathin m. (nom. sing. supaṁthāḥ) a good road.

–padmā orris root.

–parṇa a. (rṇā or rṇī f.) 1. wellwinged. –2. having good or

beautiful leaves. (

–rṇaḥ) 1. a ray of the sun. –2. a class of bird-like beings of a

semi-divine character. –3. any supernatural bird. –4. an epithet of

Garuḍa. –5. a cock. -ketuḥ N. of Viṣṇu.

–parṇakaḥ = suparṇa. –parṇā, –parṇī f. 1. a number of lotuses.

–2. a pool abounding with lotuses. –3. N. of the mother of Garuḍa.

–paryāpta a. 1. very spacious. –2. well-fitted.

–parvan a. well-jointed, having many joints or knots. (–m.) 1. a

bamboo. –2. an arrow. –3. a god, deity. –4. a special lunar day (as the

day of full or new moon, and the 8th and 14th day of each fortnight). –5.

smoke. (–f.) white Dūrvā grass.

–palāyita a. 1. completely fled or run away. –2. skilfully retreated.

–pātraṁ 1. a good or suitable vessel, worthy receptacle. –2. a fit

or competent person, any one well-fitted for an office, an able person.

–pād (pād or padī f.) having good or handsome feet.

–pārśvaḥ 1. the wavedleaf fig-tree (plakṣa). –2. N. of the son of

Sampāti, elder brother of Jaṭāyu.

–pītaṁ a carrot. (

–taḥ) the fifth Muhūrta.

–puṁsī a woman having a good husband.

–puṣpa a. (ṣpā or ṣpī f.) having beautiful flowers. (

–ṣpaḥ) 1. the coral tree. –2. the Śirīṣa tree. (

–ṣpī) the plantain tree. (

–ṣpaṁ) 1. cloves. –2. the menstrual excretion.

–puṣpita a. 1. well blossomed, being in full flower. –2. having the

hair thrilling or bristling.

–pūra a. 1. easy to be filled; Pt. 1. 25. –2. well-filling. (

–raḥ) a kind of citron (bījapūra). –pūrakaḥ the Baka-pushpa tree.

–prakāśa a. 1. manifest, apparent. –2. public, notorious.

–pratarkaḥ a sound judgment

–pratibhā spirituous liquor.

–pratiṣṭha a. 1. standing well. –2. very celebrated, renowned,

glorious, famous. (

–ṣṭhā) 1. good position. –2. good re putation, fame, celebrity. –3.

establishment, erection. –4. installation, consecration.

–pratiṣṭhita a. 1. well-established. –2. consecrated –3.

celebrated. (

–taḥ) the Udumbara tree.

–pratiṣṇāta a. 1. thoroughly purified. –2. well-versed in. –3. well-

investigated, clearly ascertained or determined.

–pratīka a. 1. having a beautiful shape, lovely, handsome. –2.

having a beautiful trunk. (

–kaḥ) 1. an epithet of Kāmadeva. –2. of Śiva. –3. of the elephant

of the north-east quarter.

–prapāṇaṁ a good tank.

–prabha a. very brilliant, glorious. (

–bhā) one of the seven tongues of fire.

–prabhātaṁ 1. an auspicious dawn or day-break; diṣṭyā

suprabhātamadya yadayaṁ devo ṭṭaṣṭaḥ U. 6 –2. the earliest dawn.

–prayuktaśaraḥ a skilful archer.

–prayogaḥ 1. good management or application. –2. close contact.

–3. dexterity.

–prasannaḥ N. of Kubera.

–prasāda a. very gracious or propitious. (

–daḥ) N. of Śiva.

–priya a. very much liked, agreeable. (

–yaḥ) (in prosody) a foot of two short syllables. (

–yā) 1. a charming woman. –2. a beloved mistress.

–phala a. 1. very fruitful, very productive. –2. very fertile. (

–laḥ) 1. the pomegranate tree. –2. the jujube. –3. the Karṇikara

tree. –4. a kind of bean. (

–lā) 1. a pumpkin, gourd. –2. the plantain tree. –3. a variety of

brown grape. –4. colocynth.

–phenaḥ a cuttlefish bone.

–baṁdhaḥ sesamum.

–bala a. very powerful. (

–laḥ) 1. N. of Śiva. –2. N. of the father of Śakuni.

–bāṁdhavaḥ N. of Śiva.

–bāhu a. 1. handsome-armed. –2. strong-armed. (

–huḥ) N. of a demon, brother of Mārīcha, who had become a

demon by the curse of Agastya. He with Mārīcha began to disturb the

sacrifice of Viśvāmitra, but was defeated by Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa; see R.

11. 29.

–bodha a. 1. easily apprehended or understood. (

–dhaḥ) good information or advice.

–brahmaṇyaḥ 1. an epithet of Kārtikeya. –2. N. of one of the

sixteen priests employed at a sacrifice.

–bhaga a. 1. very fortunate or prosperous, happy, blessed. highly

favoured. –2. lovely, charming, beautiful, pretty; na tu grīṣmasyaivaṁ

subhagamaparāddhaṁ yuvatiṣu S. 3. 9; Ku. 4. 34, R. 11. 80; Māl. 9. –3.

pleasant, grateful, agreeable, sweet; śravaṇasubhaga M. 3. 4, S. 1. 3. –4.

beloved, liked, amiable, dear; sumukhi subhagaḥ paśyan sa tvāmupaitu

kṛtārthatāṁ Gīt. 5. 5. illustrious. (

–gaḥ) 1. borax. –2. the Aśoka tree. –3. the Champaka tree. –4.

red amaranth. (

–gaṁ) good fortune. -mānin, subhagaṁmanya a. –1. considering

oneself fortunate, amiable, pleasing; vācālaṁ māṁ na khalu

subhagaṁmanyabhāvaḥ karoti Me. 94. –2. vain, flattering oneself.

–bhagā a woman beloved by her husband, a favourite wife. –2. an

honoured mother –3. a kind of wild jasmine. –4 turmeric. –5. the

Priyangu creeper. –6 the holy basil. -sutaḥ the son of a favourite wife.

–bhaṁgā the cocoa-nut tree.

–bhadra a. very happy or fortunate. (

–draḥ) N. of Viṣṇu. (

–drā) N. of the sister of Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa, married to Arjuna q.

v. She bore to him a son named Abhimanyu.

–bhadrakaḥ 1. a car for carrying the image of a god. –2. the Bilva


–bhāṣita a. 1. spoken well or eloquent. (

–taṁ) 1. fine speech, eloquence, learning; jīrṇamaṁge

subhāṣitaṁ Bh. 3. 2. –2. a witty saying, an apophthegm, an apposite

saying; subhāṣitena gītena yuvatīnāṁ ca līlayā . mano na bhidyate yasya

sa vai mukto’thavā paśuḥ Subbish. –3. a good remark; bālādapi

subhāṣitaṁ (grāhyaṁ). –bhikṣaṁ 1. good alms, successful begging. –2.

abundance of food, an abundant supply of provisions, plenty of corn &c.

–bhīrakaḥ the Palāśa tree.

–bhūtikaḥ the Bilva tree.

–bhrū a. having beautiful eyebrows. (

–bhrūḥ f.) a lovely woman. (N. B. The vocative singular of this

word is strictly subhrūḥ; but subhru is used by writers like Bhaṭṭi,

Kālidāsa, and Bha vabhūti; hā pitaḥ kvāsi he subhru Bk. 6. 17; so V. 3. 22;

Ku. 5. 43; Māl. 3. 8.

–maṁgala a. 1. very auspicious. –2. abounding in sacrifices.

–mati a. very wise. (

–tiḥ f.) 1. a good mind or disposition, kindness, benevolence,

friendship. –2. a favour of the gods. –3. a gift, blessing. –4. a prayer,

hymn. –5. a wish or desire. –6. N. of the wife of Sagara and mother of

60,000 sons.

–madanaḥ the mango tree.

–madhuraṁ a very sweet or gentle speech, agreeable words.

–madhya, -madhyama a. slender-waisted.

–madhyā, -madhyamā a graceful woman.

–mana a. very charming, lovely, beautiful. (

–naḥ) 1. wheat. –2. the thorn-apple. (

–nā) the great-flowered jasmine.

–manas a. 1. good-minded, of a good disposition, benevolent. –2.

well-pleased, satisfied. (–m.) 1. a god, divinity. –2. a learned man. –3. a

student of the Vedas. –4. wheat. –5. the Nimba tree. (–f., n.; said to be

pl. only by some) a flower; ramaṇīya eṣa vaḥ sumanasāṁ saṁniveśaḥ

Māl. 1 (where the adjectival sense in 1 is also intended); kiṁ sevyate

sumanasāṁ manasāpi gaṁdhaḥ kastūrikājananaśaktibhṛtā mṛgeṇa R. G.;

Śi. 6. 66. (–f.) 1. the great-flowered jasmine. –2 the Mālatī creeper. –

phalaḥ the wood-apple. -phalaṁ nutmeg.

–maṁtu a. 1. advising well. –2. very faulty or blameable. (–m.) a

good adviser.

–maṁtraḥ N. of the charioteer of Daśaratha.

–mitrā 1. N. of one of the wives of Daśaratha and mother of

Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna

–mukha a. (khā or khī f.) 1. having a beautiful face, lovely. –2.

pleasing. –3. disposed to, eager for; Ki. 6. 42. (

–khaḥ) 1. a learned man. –2. an epithet of Garuḍa. –3. of Gaṇeśa.

–4. of Śiva. (

–khaṁ) the scratch of a finger-nail. (

–khā, –khī) 1. a handsome woman. –2. a mirror.

–mūlakaṁ a carrot.

–mekhalaḥ the Munja grass.

–medhas a. having a good understanding, wise, intelligent. (–m.)

a wise man. (–f.) heart-pea.

–meruḥ 1. the sacred mountain Meru, q. v. –2. N. of Śiva.

–yavasaṁ beautiful grass, good pasturage.

–yāmunaḥ N. of Viṣṇu.

–yuktaḥ N. of Śiva.

–yodhanaḥ an epithet of Duryodhana q. v.

–raktakaḥ 1. a kind of red chalk. –2 a kind of mango tree.

–raṁgaḥ 1. good colour. –2. the orange. –3. a hole cut in a house

(suraṁgā also in this sense). (

–gaṁ) 1. red sanders. –2. vermilion. -dhātuḥ red chalk. -yuj m. a


–raṁgikā the Mūrvā plant.

–rajaḥphalaḥ the jackfruit tree.

–raṁjanaḥ the betel-nuttree.

–rata a. 1. much sported. –2. playful. –2. much enjoyed. –4.

compassionate, tender. (

–taṁ) 1. great delight or enjoyment. –2. copulation, sexual union

or intercourse, coition; suratamṛditā bālavanitā Bh. 2. 44. -tālī 1. a

female-messenger, a go-between. –2. a chaplet, garland for the head. –

prasaṁgaḥ addiction to amorous pleasures; Ku. 1. 19.

–ratiḥ f. great enjoyment or satisfaction.

–rasa a. 1. well-flavoured, juicy, savoury. –2. sweet. –3. elegant

(as a composition). (

–saḥ, –sā) the plant siṁdhuvāra. (–sā) N. of Durgā. (

–sā, -saṁ) the sacred basil. (

–saṁ) 1. gummyrrh. –2. fragrant grass.

–rājan a. governed by a good king; surājñi deśe rājanvān Ak. (–

m.) 1. a good king. –2. a divinity.

–rāṣṭraṁ N. of a country on the western side of India (Surat). –

jaṁ a kind of poison. -brahmaḥ a Brāhmaṇa of Surāṣṭra.

–rūpa a. 1. well-formed, handsome, lovely; surūpā kanyā. –2.

wise, learned. (

–paḥ) an epithet of Śiva.

–rebha a. finevoiced; Ki. 15. 16. (

–bhaṁ) tin.

–lakṣaṇa a. 1. having auspicious or beautiful marks. –2. fortunate.


–ṇaṁ) 1. observing, examining carefully, determining,

ascertaining. –2. a good or auspicious mark.

–labha a. 1. easy to be obtained, easy of attainment, attainable,

feasible; na sulabhā sakaleṁdumukhī ca sā V. 2. 9;

idamasulabhavastuprārthanādurnivāraṁ 2. 6. –2. ready for, adapted to,

fit, suitable; niṣṭhyūtaścaraṇopabhogasulabho lākṣārasaḥ kenacit S. 4. 4.

–3. natural to, proper for; mānuṣatāsulabho laghimā K. -kopa a. easily

provoked, irascible.

–locana a. fineeyed. (

–naḥ) a deer. (

–nā) 1. a beautiful woman. –2. N. of the wife of Indrajit.

–lohakaṁ brass.

–lohita a. very red. (

–tā) one of the seven tongues of fire.

–vaktraṁ 1. a good face or mouth. –2 correct utterance. (

–ktraḥ) N. of Śiva.

–vacanaṁ, –vacas n. eloquence.

–varcakaḥ, –varcikaḥ –kā, –varcin m. natron, alkali.

–varcalaṁ linseed.

–varcasaḥ N. of Śiva.

–varṇa see s. v.

–vasaṁtaḥ 1. an agreeable vernal season. –2. the day of full

moon in the month of Chaitra, or a festival celebrated in honour of

Kāmadeva in that month (also suvasaṁtakaḥ in this sense).

–vaha a. 1. bearing well. patient. –2. patient, enduring. –3. easy

to be borne. (

–hā) a lute.

–vāsaḥ 1. N. of Śiva. –2. a pleasant dwelling. –3. an agreeable

perfume or odour.

–vāsinī 1. a woman married or single who resides in her father’s

house. –2. a married woman whose husband is alive.

–vikrāṁta a. very valiant or bold, chivalrous. (

–taḥ) a hero. (

–taṁ) heroism.

–vid m. a learned man, shrewd person. (–f.) a shrewd or clever


–vidaḥ 1. an attendant on the women’s apartments. –2. a king.

–vidat m. a king.

–viditraṁ 1. a household, family –2. wealth.

–vidallaḥ an attendant on the women’s apartments (wrongly for

sauvidalla q. v). (

–llaṁ) the women’s apartments, harem.

–vidallā a married woman.

–vidha a. of a good kind.

–vidham ind. easily.

–vinīta a. well-trained, modest. (

–tā) a tractable cow.

–vihita a. 1. well-placed, well-deposited. –2. well-furnished,

wellsupplied, well-provided, well-arranged; suvihitaprayogatayā āryasya

na kimapi parihāsyate S. 1; kalahaṁsamakaraṁdapraveśāvasare

tatsuvihitaṁ Māl. 1. –3. well done or performed.

–vī (bī) ja a. having good seed. (

–jaḥ) 1. N. of Śiva. –2. the poppy. (

–jaṁ) good seed.

–vīrāmlaṁ sour rice-gruel.

–vīrya a. 1. having great vigour. –2. of heroic strength, heroic,

chivalrous. (

–ryaṁ) 1. great heroism. –2. abundance of heroes. –3. the fruit of

the jujube. (

–ryā) wild cotton.

–bṛkti f. 1. a pure offering. –2. a hymn of praise.

–vṛtta a. 1. well-behaved, virtuous, good; mayi tasya suvṛtta

vartate laghusaṁdeśapadā sarasvatī R. 8. 77. –2. well-rounded,

beautifully globular or round; mṛdunātisuvṛttena sumṛṣṭenātihāriṇā .

modakenāpi kiṁ tena niṣpattiryasya sevayā; or sumukho’pi suvṛttopi

sanmārgapatito’pi ca . mahatāṁ pādalagno’pi vyathayatyeva kaṁṭakaḥ

(where all the adjectives are used in a double sense). (

–ttaṁ) a good or virtuous conduct; Pt. 1. 69.

–vela a. 1. tranquil, still. –2. humble, quiet. (

–laḥ) N. of the Trikūṭa mountain.

–vrata a. strict in the observance of religious vows, strictly

religious or virtuous. (

–taḥ) a religious student. (

–tā) 1. a virtuous wife. –2. a tractable cow, one easily milked.

–śaṁsa a. wellspoken of, famous, glorious, commendable.

–śaka a. capable of being easily done.

–śalyaḥ the Khadira tree.

–śākaṁ undried ginger.

–śāradaḥ N. of Śiva.

–śāsita a. kept under control, well-controlled.

–śikṣita a. well-taught trained, well-disciplined.

–śikhaḥ fire. (

–khā) 1. a peacock’s crest. –2. a cock’s comb.

–śītaṁ yellow sandal-wood.

–śīma a. cold, frigid. (

–maḥ) coldness.

–śīla a. good-tempered, amiable. (

–lā) 1. N. of the wife of Yama. –2. N. of one of the eight favourite

wives of Kṛṣṇa.

–śrīkā the gum olibanum tree.

–śruta a. 1. well heard. –2. versed in the Vedaś. (

–taḥ) N. of the author of a system of medicine, whose work,

together with that of Charaka, is regarded as the olddest medical

authority, and held in great esteem in India even to this day.

–śliṣṭa 1. well-arranged or united. –2. well-fitted; Māl. 1.

–śleṣaḥ close union or embrace.

–satyā N. of the wife of Janaka.

–saṭṭaś agreeable to look at.

–sannata a. welldirected (as an arrow).

–saraṇa. N. of Śiva.

–saha a. 1. easy to be borne. –2. bearing or enduring well. (

–haḥ) an epithet of Śiva.

–sāra a. having good sap or essence. (

–raḥ) 1. good sap, essence, or substance. –2. competence. –3.

the red-flowering Khadira tree.

–sāravat n. crystal.

–sikatā 1. good sand. –2. gravel. –3. sugar.

–stha a. 1. well-suited, being in a good sense. –2. in health,

healthy, faring well. –3. in good or or prosperous circumstances,

prosperous. –4. happy, fortunate. (

–sthaṁ) a happy state, well-being; susthe ko vā na paḍitaḥ H. 3.

121. (susthita in the same sense).

–sthatā –sthitiḥ f. 1. good condition, wellbeing, welfare,

happiness. –2. health, convalescence.

–smita a. pleasantly smiling. (

–tā) a woman with a pleased or smiling countenance.

–svapanaḥ an epithet of Śiva.

–svara a. 1. melodious, harmonious. –2. loud.

–hita a. 1. very fit or suitable, appropriate. –2. beneficial, salutary.

–3. friendly, affectionate. –4. satisfied. (

–tā) one of the seven tongues of fire.

–hṛda a. having a kind heart, cordial, friendly, loving, affectionate.

(–m.) 1. a friend; suhṛdaḥ paśya vasaṁta kiṁ sthitaṁ Ku. 4. 27;

maṁdāyaṁte na khalu suhṛdāmabhyupetārthakṛtyāḥ Me. 38. –2. an ally.

-bhedaḥ the separation of friends. -vākyaṁ the counsel of a friend.

–hṛdaḥ a friend.

–hṛdaya a. 1. good-hearted. –2. dear, affectionate, loving.

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

su 1 sunoti DHĀTUP. 27, 1 (abhiṣave, saṁdhākledapīḍāmanthe VOP.).

sunota ṚV. 7, 32, 8. sunotana 5, 34, 1. sunuta 10, 14, 13. sunavat und

sunvat 27, 22. sunvant partic.; med. sunve 3. sg. 7, 29, 1. 9, 88, 1.

sunvire, sunudhvam, sunavai 8, 80, 1. suvāna partic.; suṣāva, suṣuma,

suṣuviva (VOP. 12, Anf.), suṣuvaṁs, suṣuvuṣas 10, 94, 14. suṣvāṇa med.

4, 29, 2. 10, 148, 1. passivisch 9, 6, 8. sota, sotana, suṣvati 3. pl. (wohl

praes.) 2, 16, 5. asāvīt, asoṣṭa und asāvīt P. 7, 2, 72. VOP. 11, 1. 12, Anf.

soṣyati und saviṣyati 8, 46. 12, Anf. soṣyant KĀTY. ŚR. 16, 6, 10. (abhi)

saviṣyant ŚAT. BR. 9, 5, 1, 66. infin. sotave (s. auch sotu) ṚV. 1, 28, 1.

pass. sūyate, asāvi; partic. suta. “auspressen, keltern” (den Soma): sunu

somam ṚV. 1, 28, 6. 101. 9. 137, 1. yaṁ te suṣāva (adriḥ) 7, 22, 1.

andhaḥ 4, 16, 1. 5, 30, 6. 7, 21, 1. athā sunudhvaṁ savanaṁ madāya 4,

35, 4. havaṁ yajamānasya sunvataḥ 6, 60, 15. AV. 6, 6, 1. 54, 3. sotā hi

somamadribhiḥ 8, 1, 17. asāvyaṁśuḥ 9, 62, 4. soma u ṣuvāṇaḥ sotṛbhiḥ

107, 8. grāvabhiḥ ŚAT. BR. 12, 8, 2, 14. payasā 15. KĀTY. ŚR. 9, 6, 23.

soṣyatyasoṣṭa (zugleich zu 4. su) CHĀND. UP. 3, 17, 5.

śaśvatsūyamānātsūryaḥ MAITRJUP. 6, 7. suṣāva ca

vahūnsomānsomasaṁsthāstatāna ca MBH. 1, 4695. sarve sunvantaḥ P. 3,

2, 132, Schol. surāṁ sunoti so v. a. “braut” ebend. — asunvan AIT. BR. 4,

17 fehlerhaft für asanvan: s. u. 1. san. – suta partic.: suto aśnaiḥ ṚV. 8, 2.

2. 2, 11, 11. 4, 18, 3. aṁśu 25, 3. soma 41, 3. 6, 40, 1. sutāsa indavaḥ 8,

6, 21. sute adhvare 10, 94, 14. ŚAT. BR. 12, 8, 1, 5. pibasva somaṁ

sutamadya taṁ mayā MBH. 14, 277. sute somasahasre 1, 8042. sutam

Spr. (II) 2694 wohl fehlerhaft für hutam. masc. sg. und pl. “der Saft” d. h.

Soma NAIGH. 2, 7. suṣvāṇaḥ pavate sutaḥ ṚV. 9, 6, 8. parīto ṣiñcatā

sutam 107, 1. 2. 1, 135, 1. 2, 15, 1. 4, 32, 11. prātaḥ sutamapibaḥ 35, 7.

madhumantaḥ 7, 90, 1. 10, 27, 2. TS. 7, 3, 11, 3. ŚĀÑKH. ŚR. 7, 10, 13.

AV. 4, 29, 2. ŚAT. BR. 14, 5, 1, 3. -tejas 10, 6, 1, 8. = somayāga BHĀG.

P. 7, 15, 48. neutr. CHĀND. UP. 5, 12, 1. — Vgl. 1. sava, 1. savana, asuta,

adriṣuta, jambhasuta, suṣuta.

adhi dass.: adhi suvāno nahuṣyebhirinduḥ ṚV. 9, 91, 2. — Vgl.


abhi, -suṇoti, abhyaṣuṇot P. 8, 3, 63. 65. -soṣyati, abhyasoṣyat 117. 1)

“kelternd verarbeiten, pressen, mit Steinen ausschlagen u.s.w.” ŚAT. BR.

1, 1, 4, 7. 2, 2, 2, 1. 4, 4, 15. 3, 3, 2, 6. 4, 5, 10, 2. abhiṣuṇvanta āsate

AIT. BR. 4, 14. 3, 15. 7, 17. plākṣāṇi 30. rājānam 32. ṛjīṣam TS. 6, 1, 6, 4.

3, 2, 2, 1. havirdhāne carmannadhi grāvabhirabhiṣutya 6, 2, 11, 4. ghnanti

vā etatsomaṁ yadabhiṣuṇvanti 4, 4, 4. 5, 1. sa yadyabhiṣūyamāṇaḥ

kiṁcidāpadyate ŚAT. BR. 12, 6, 1, 21. KĀTY. ŚR. 9, 5, 1. 10, 3, 12.

abhiṣutya R. 1, 13, 5, v. l. abhiṣūya (so ed. Bomb.) somam MBH. 14,

2624. some vṛthābhiṣūyamāṇe 13, 372. “mit Flüssigkeit ansetzen und

ausdrücken”: yāni caivābhiṣūyante puṣpamūlaphalaiḥ śubhaiḥ M. 5, 10.

kṣīreṇābhiṣutya (v. l. abhiplutya) SUŚR. 1, 317, 12. kiṇvapiṣṭam 2, 73, 17.

partic. abhiṣuta ŚAT. BR. 2, 4, 4, 16. 4, 1, 1, 15. 6, 1, 9. 14, 3, 2, 30.

KĀTY. ŚR. 9, 1, 9. LĀṬY. 1, 9, 20. — 2) “bespritzen”: abhisoṣyantaṁ

raktai rakṣāṁsi BHAṬṬ. 9, 90. — caus. -ṣāvayati P. 8, 3, 65, Vārtt. 3,

Schol. — Vgl. abhiṣava fg., -ṣuta, -ṣotar, -susūs.

ā “keltern” u. s. w.: ā sotā pari ṣiñcata ṚV. 9, 108, 7. yo asmai

tīvrānsomāṁ āsunoti 10, 42, 5. ŚAT. BR. 12, 7, 3, 6. 12. tasmāttava

sutaṁ prasutamāsutaṁ kule dṛśyate CHĀND. UP. 5, 12, 1. — Vgl. 2.

āsava, āsāva. āsāvya (BHAṬṬ. 6, 64). 2. āsuti.

ud “aufregen”: utsunoṣīkṣamāṇānāṁ kandukakrīḍayā manaḥ BHĀG. P.

3, 20, 35. Der Bedeutung nach eher zu 2. su (wie auch utsava).

ni desid. vgl. nisusūs.

nis, niḥṣuṇoti P. 8, 3, 65, Vārtt. 1, Schol.

pari, -ṣuṇoti, paryaṣuṇot, -soṣyati, paryasoṣyat Schol. zu P. 8, 3, 63.

65. 117. in Stellen wie ṚV. 9, 10, 4. 87, 7 ist die Präposition zum Verbum

finitum zu ziehen.

pra “fortkeltern”; partic. “fortgesetzt gepresst, der” Soma “einer nicht

bloss einmaligen, sondern andauernden Kelterung”: pūrṇamāse vai

devānāṁ sutasteṣāmetamardhamāsaṁ prasutaḥ TS. 2, 5, 5, 4. aharahaḥ

sutaḥ prasuto bhavati ŚAT. BR. 14, 5, 1, 3. 4, 1, 2, 6. saṁvatsaram

PAÑCAV. BR. 25, 5, 1. 2. 18, 5. KĀTY.ŚR. 6, 6, 27. 8, 10. 7, 1, 26. LĀṬY.

3, 3, 29. 7, 8. tasmāttava sutaṁ prasutamāsutaṁ kule dṛśyate CHĀND.

UP. 5, 12, 1. medial: dvādaśāhaṁ prasuto bhūtvā AIT. BR. 4, 24. — Vgl.

1. prasava, prasut. — caus. “fortgesetzt keltern lassen”: prasāvayet

NIDĀNAS. 5, 11, 3 bei WEBER, Nax. 2, 284.

vi, vyaṣāvīt; visoṣyati und visaviṣyati VOP. 8, 45. 12, Anf. “zerkeltern”:

suṣvāṇāso vyadribhiḥ ṚV. 9, 101, 11.

sam “gleichzeitig” (Soma) “keltern”: yau dvau saṁsunutaḥ TBR. 1, 4,

6, 1. saṁsuta TS. 7, 5, 5, 1. KĀṬH. 34, 4. PAÑCAV. BR. 9, 4, 1. — Vgl.

saṁsava, saṁsutasoma.

abhisam “gleichzeitig keltern für” (acc.): ekaṁ vā etāvindramabhi

saṁsunutaḥ TBR. 1, 4, 6, 1.

su (sū), savati (prasavaiśvaryayoḥ) DHĀTUP. 22, 43. suvati 28, 115

(preraṇe, VOP. kṣepe). suvatāt; med. (in den BRĀHMAṆA): suvate 3. pl.

ŚAT. BR. 5, 3, 3, 13. suvāntai 14. suvante TS. 5, 6, 3, 1. suvai, suvāvahai

P. 7, 3, 88, Schol.; später (auch ŚAT. BR.; s. u. pra) sauti DHĀTUP. 24,

32 (prasavaiśvaryayoḥ). sāviṣat (ved. P. 3, 1, 34, Vārtt., Schol.), asāvīt P.

7, 3, 96, Schol. VOP. 13, 1. sāvīs; suṣuve AV. pass.: sūyate, sūyai; partic.

suta ŚAT. BR. 9, 3, 4, 5. 4, 3, 14. sūta (= īrita, prerita H. an. 2, 208.

MED. t. 72. fg.) in nṛṣūta; s. auch unter pari und pra. (“in Bewegung

setzen), veranlassen, zum Vorschein bringen; bescheeren, schicken” (von

Savitar’s Wirkung); “aufstellen, bestimmen, weihen für Etwas;

Ermächtigung geben zu Etwas”; med. “sich weihen” u. s. w. “lassen”:

savitā suvāti ṚV. 7, 40, 1. śreṣṭhaṁ savaṁ savitā sāviṣannaḥ 1, 164, 26.

AV. 6, 1, 3. devebhyo hi prathamamamṛtatvaṁ suvasi bhāgam ṚV. 4, 54,

2. fgg. 5, 42, 3. 82, 4. vāmamasmabhyaṁ sāvīḥ 6, 71, 6. yadadya sūra

udite suvati savitā bhagaḥ 7, 66, 4. AV. 7, 14, 3. 14, 1, 33. 19, 8, 4. yathā

sindhurnadīnāṁ sāmrājyaṁ suṣuve 14, 1, 43. suṣuvāṇa “in der Weihe

begriffen, geweiht” TS. 2, 1, 9, 1 (P. 3, 2, 106, Schol., wo suṣuvāṇam zu

lesen ist). 5, 6, 3, 4. 7, 5, 15, 2. TBR. 1, 8, 1, 1. ŚAT. BR. 5, 4, 3, 23. 4, 8.

5, 2, 1. PAÑCAV. BR. 18, 9, 1. 10, 1. pass.: yo vai somena sūyate (=

niṣpadyate Comm.) TBR. 2, 7, 5, 1. sūyate ha vā asya kṣatram AIT. BR.

8, 5. ŚAT. BR. 5, 3, 1, 3. 3, 11. 15. 9, 3, 4, 6. agnisavena suto bhavati 9.

sarvaṁ vastatsutam “zu all diesem seid ihr ermächtigt” 13, 4, 2, 17.

sūyate vā eṣa yo ‘gniṁ cinute TS. 5, 6, 3, 1. yasmādeveme

candraṛkṣagrahasaṁvatsarādayaḥ sūyante (= abhiṣūyante āpyāyante

Comm.) so v. a. “in Thätigkeit gesetzt werden” MAITRJUP. 6, 16. mā na

sāvīrmahāstrāṇi so v. a. “schleudere” BHAṬṬ. 9, 50. — prajāpateḥ sutaṁ

rayiṣṭham N. eines Sāman Ind. St.3,225,a. — Vgl. 2. sava, 2. savana, 1.

savitar, savīman.

anu “nach Andern antreiben” u. s. w.: paśūn ŚAT. BR. 5, 5, 4, 19. anu

ṣva (vgl. unter nis) TAITT. ĀR. 2, 6, 4 falsch; vgl. AV. 6, 121, 4. 117, 3.

apa “wegschicken, vertreiben” ṚV. 10, 37, 4. apāmīvāṁ savitā sāviṣat

100, 8. yattatraino apa tatsuvāmi AV. 6, 119, 3. VS. 35, 11.

abhi, -ṣuvati, abhyaṣuvat P. 8, 3, 63. 65. “weihen für” (acc.): oṣadhīḥ

ŚAT. BR. 5, 2, 3, 9. “begaben mit”: pāpmanaivainamabhiṣuvati KĀṬH. 13,

2. — desid. -susūṣati P. 8, 3, 64, Vārtt. 1, Schol.

ā “zutheilen, zusenden, schicken”: von Savitar ṚV. 1, 110, 3. a

smabhyamā suva sarvatātim 3, 54, 11. 56, 6. saubhagam 4, 54, 6. 5, 82,

5. dāśuṣe vāmam 6, 71, 4. vasūni 7, 45, 3. 10, 35, 7. vayaḥ 100, 3. AV. 2,

29, 2. 7, 14, 3. 4, 24, 5. ŚAT. BR. 13, 4, 2, 9. med. ṚV. 7, 38, 2. PAÑCAV.

BR. 21, 10, 15. ā suvorjam (agne) ṚV. 9, 66, 19. (indraḥ) ā

sāviṣadarśasānāya śarum “sende” so v. a. “werfe auf” 10, 99, 7.

“herbeischaffen, hercitiren”: ā te prāṇaṁ suvāmasi AV. 7, 53, 6. — Vgl. 1.

āsava, āsavitar und 1. āsuti.

ud “aufwärts gehen heissen”: ūrdhvāmeva varuṇamenimutsuvati

KĀṬH. 19, 5.

ni, partic. -ṣuta “hineingegeben, eingeworfen”: camase ‘ṣṭātayāni

niṣutāni bhavanti AIT. BR. 8, 5.

nis “fortscheuchen, fortgehen heissen”: duḥṣvapnyaṁ duritaṁ niḥ

ṣvāsmat (suva) AV. 6, 121, 1. 7, 83, 4. 19, 57, 2. 1, 81, 1. 2.

niritastatsuvantu ṚV. 7, 50, 3.

parā “wegscheuchen” u. s. w.: parā ṛṇā sāvīḥ ṚV. 2, 28, 9. duritāni

parā suva 5, 82, 5. 10, 137, 4. AV. 6, 127, 3. 7, 53, 6. 19, 39, 10. VS. 16.

5. TS. 1, 3, 14, 4.

pari, -ṣuvati, paryaṣuvat P. 8, 3, 63. 65. partic. “geheissen, (heraus)

getrieben” (vom Grase): devānāṁ pariṣūtamasi varṣavṛddhamasi TS. 1,

1, 2, 1. TBR. 3, 2, 2, 4. iti (“bei Gelegenheit dieses Spruches”)

darbhānpariṣauti ĀPAST. in TS. Comm. 1, 53, 3 v. u. so v. a.

“zusammenraffen.” — Vgl. pariṣūti.

pra “in Bewegung bringen, erregen, zur Thätigkeit rufen” (namentlich

von Savitar gesagt); “heissen, veranlassen; Jmd Etwas verstatten,

überlassen”: niveśayaṁ ca prasuvaṁ ca bhūma ṚV. 7, 45, 1. 77, 1. 4, 53,

3. 5, 82, 9. prāsāvīddevaḥ savitā jagatpṛthak 1, 157, 1. arthamityai 124,

1. bhadraṁ dvipade 5, 81, 2. matim 9, 21, 7. pra vo grāvāṇaḥ savitā

suvatu 10, 175, 1. AV. 1, 10, 2. saubhāgyāya 18, 2. yajñam TBR. 3, 1, 1,

9. dānam VS. 18, 33. jīvātave 67. ŚAT. BR. 1, 7, 4, 8. adhvaryum 5, 2, 1.

8, 3, 20. 2, 5, 2, 30. omiti brahmā prasauti TAITT. UP. 1, 8. auṣṇyaṁ

prāsuvat MAITRJUP. 2, 6. sanim TS. 2, 1, 6, 3. annam ŚAT. BR. 9, 3, 4, 1.

vahvannaṁ prasuvīran “zur Verfügung stellen” ĀŚV. ŚR. 2, 18, 8. puruṣān

ŚAT. BR. 13, 6, 2, 9. yamu dviṣmastamu te pra suvāmasi “hingeben” AV.

12, 2, 3. śvānaṁ prasauti “überlassen” (zum Todtschlagen) TBR. 3, 8, 4,

1. prasuhi (v. l. -sūhi, in paralleler Stelle -suva) KĀTY. ŚR. 9, 14, 19. so v.

a. “schleudere” Comm. zu BHAṬṬ. 9, 50. — partic. prasūta “angetrieben,

gesandt, geheissen; verstattet, dem es verstattet ist” ṚV. 1, 113. 1.

arṣantvāpastvayeha prasūtāḥ 3, 30, 9. dūta 54, 19. janāḥ sūryeṇa

prasūtāḥ 7, 63, 4. pṛṣṭhe ninaddho jayati prasūtaḥ “entsandt” (Pfeil) 6,

75, 5. 11. prasūto bhakṣamakaram 10, 167, 4. AV. 6, 63, 1. 19, 51, 2.

savitṛ- AIT. BR. 1, 7. 2, 38. 7, 22. ŚAT. BR. 1, 1, 2, 17. 5, 1, 1, 4. TS. 2, 5,

2, 6. 5, 3, 4, 4. – ĀŚV. GṚHY. 1, 15, 1. varuṇa- KAUŚ. 3. a- “keine

Erlaubniss habend” ŚĀÑKH. ŚR. 14, 7, 2. “nicht gestattet, nicht erlaubt”

ŚAT. BR. 4, 1, 4, 3. – AV. 3, 1, 4 ist (vgl. ṚV. 3, 30, 6) zu verstehen pra sū

te. — Vgl. 2. prasava, 1. prasavitar, 1. prasūti, indraprasūta, bṛhaspati-,

brahma-, vāja-, haryaśva-.

adhipra “wegschicken von” (abl.): prajāpatirindraṁ vajrādadhi

prasuvati KĀṬH. 14, 7.

abhipra “hintreiben zu”: yadenāmabhiprasuvanti nadyaḥ NIR. 9, 26. –

sūta “veranlasst, geheissen” 11, 12.

pratipra, partic. -sūta “wieder verstattet” Schol. zu KĀTY. ŚR. 6, 6, 23.

vi, -ṣuvati, vyaṣāvīt VOP. 8, 45. 13, 1.

su adj. in dāvasu vielleicht auf 2. su zurückzuführen.

su (sū), sūte DHĀTUP. 24, 21 (prāṇigarbhavimocane). P. 6, 1, 186. VOP.

9, 39. suve 1. sg. ṚV. 10, 125, 7. suvai VOP. 9, 40. suvāte, suvate 3 pl.,

suvāna; asūta, sūta; später auch sūyate DHĀTUP. 26, 23 (prāṇiprasave).

savati und sauti s. u. pra. suṣuve, susāva, sasūva (P. 7, 4, 74) ṚV. 4, 18,

10. 10, 86, 23. AV. 10, 1, 23. asaviṣṭa und asoṣṭa (CHĀND. UP. 3, 17, 5)

VOP. 8, 40. 46.11, 5. savitā und sotā P. 7, 2, 44. soṣyate und soṣyati

(CHĀND. UP. 3, 17, 5); sūṣyantī und soṣyantī ŚAT. BR. 14, 9, 4, 22.

sūtave ṚV. 10, 184, 3. AV. 1, 11, 2. savitave 6, 17, 1. sūtvā KĀŚ. zu P. 7,

2, 44. TS. 2, 1, 5, 4. partic. sūta, suta (s. besonders; nur wegen suta und

suṣuti ist die Annahme von su mit kurzem u gerechtfertigt) und sūna (P.

8, 2, 45. VOP. 26, 88. fg.). “zeugen, gebären” ṚV. 1, 135, 8. 164, 17. 168,

9. nārī naryaṁ susāva 7, 20, 5. sūṣyantī 5, 78, 5. asūta pūrvo vṛṣabhaḥ

“wurde geboren” 3, 38, 5. yadīṁ suvāte uṣasā 5, 1, 1. 2, 2. starīryatsūta

10, 31, 10. suvānā putrān AV. 2, 36, 3. “brüten” (von Vögeln) ṚV. 1, 164,

22. pass. wohl hierher: asāvanyo asura sūyata dyauḥ 10, 132, 4. — In der

späteren Sprache meist in der Bed. “gebären”: āyuṣmantaṁ sutaṁ sūte

M. 3, 263. 9, 9. 10, 39. Spr. (II) 1748. VARĀH. BṚH. S. 51, 41. suvāte R.

1, 23, 14. asūta RAGH. 3, 13. 15, 13. KUMĀRAS. 1, 20. KATHĀS. 23, 64.

28, 66. 42, 70. PRAB. 11, 10. BHĀG. P. 3, 1, 30. 17, 18. 26, 19. 4, 1, 34.

38. 13, 15. 24, 8. 9, 20, 17. 24, 47. sūyate CŪLIKOP. in Ind. St. 9, 12.

asūyata MBH. 1, 2599. BHĀG. P. 4, 1, 39. 51. suṣuve MBH. 1, 2539. 5908.

3, 8844. 16638. R. 2, 90, 11. 92, 21. R. GORR. 2, 99, 14. 5, 36, 57. RAGH.

5, 36. 7, 54. MĀRK. P. 104, 8. RĀJA-TAR. 1, 74. BHĀG. P. 3, 23, 48. 4, 13,

18. 6, 18, 11. 9, 11, 11. PAÑCAT. 238, 6 (suṣūve gedr.). suṣuvire

KATHĀS. 39, 18. suṣāva MBH. 1, 4765. R. GORR. 1, 39, 16. MĀRK. P.

104, 6. suṣuvus 49, 9. soṣyate KATHĀS. 21, 35. 34, 43. sūtvā BHĀG. P. 5,

2, 19. sūya MBH. 3, 10004. pass.: kausalyayāsāvi sukhena rāmaḥ prāk

BHAṬṬ. 1, 14. “erzeugen”: sūte M. 10, 32. 34. suṣuve (subj. Mann und

Weib) ŚĀK. 186. pass.: akrūraḥ suṣuve tasmāt HARIV. 1916. “erzeugen”

uneig.: prakṛtiḥ sūyate sacarācaram BHAG. 9, 10. phalaṁ sūte pādapaḥ

KATHĀS. 27, 99. asūta sadyaḥ kusumānyaśokaḥ KUMĀRAS. 3, 26.

khanibhiḥ suṣuve ratnaṁ kṣetraiḥ sasyaṁ vanairgajān (bhūḥ) RAGH. 17,

66. payaḥ sūte ‘dya medinī, ratnaṁ vaiḍūryabhūḥ RĀJA-TAR. 4, 300.

sūṣyant BHĀG. P. 3, 8, 13. dhūmāt – payaḥ sūte ghanasyodgamaḥ Spr.

(II) 3162. dharmaṁ sūyanti prajāḥ MBH. 3, 11298. — partic. sūta mit act.

Bed. = prasūta H. an. 2, 208. MED. t. 72. fg. sūtā “gekalbt habend” M. 8,

242. vanye sattve sūte “wenn ein wildes Thier Junge geworfen hat”

VARĀH. BṚH. S. 91, 3. — Vgl. savitrī.

nis vgl. niḥṣūti.

pra 1) “gebären”: prasūte sma sutam KATHĀS. 39, 19. 56, 287.

MĀRK. P. 51, 114. prāsūta R. 7, 35, 21. KATHĀS. 17, 65. kanyā prasūyate

MBH. 3, 13057. 4, 71. ṢAḌV. BR. 5, 11. SUŚR. 1, 367, 18. Spr. (II) 1403.

VARĀH. BṚH. 5, 8. 11. 16. PAÑCAR. 1, 8, 34. gauryā prativarṣaṁ

prasūyate Schol. zu P. 5, 2, 12. prasūyante mithunānyeva tāḥ MĀRK. P.

49, 10. prasavanti MBH. 1, 6077. prasavantī M. 4, 44. prasuṣuve BHĀG. P.

3, 17, 2. prāsoṣṭa RĀJA-TAR. 3, 106. 4, 39. BHAṬṬ. 1, 14. prasaviṣyasi R.

7, 9, 24. MĀRK. P. 51, 113. 77, 6. BHĀG. P. 3, 21, 29. prasoṣyantī 11, 1,

15. prasūya ŚĀK. 94. 95, v. l. KATHĀS. 14, 38. PRAB. 11, 10. prasotum

BHAṬṬ. 1, 13. “erzeugen”: prasūyate M. 10, 27. 30. fg. anena

prasaviṣyadhvam “Nachkommenschaft haben” BHAG. 3, 10. “erzeugen” in

uneig. Bed.: (buddhiḥ) prasūte hi phalaṁ śrīmadaraṇīva hutāśanam KĀM.

NĪTIS. 13, 2. Spr. (II) 7062. dhūmaṁ prasauti (agniḥ) RĀJA-TAR. 5, 125.

aṣṭamāsadhṛtaṁ garbham – dyauḥ prasūyate R. 4, 27, 3. prasūyate

saṁgatiḥ śriyam PRAB. 86, 18. (drumāḥ) śayanāni prasūyante

citrāstaraṇavanti R. 4, 44, 99. MĀRK. P. 49, 30. 59, 19. dīpaḥ kajjalaṁ

prasūyate Spr. (II) 2816. taravaḥ prāsūyanta “trugen Früchte” BHĀG. P.

4, 19, 8. yathā prasūyamānastu phalī dadyātphalaṁ bahu MBH. 14, 498.

(śāstraviṭapī) phalaṁ prasūya Spr. (II) 5426. — 2) “geboren werden,

entspringen, entstehen”: kārāvaro niṣādāttu carmakāraḥ prasūyate M. 10,

36. tiryagyonau prasūyate MBH. 3, 12500. asyāmeva prasūyadhvam 1,

2502. 2504. etasmācca jagatsarvaṁ prasūyeta janārdanāt HARIV. 11053.

prasūyatas 2. du. MBH. 13, 2565. prasūyāmas HARIV. 173 = VP. 1, 15,

128. sarveṇa khalu martavyaṁ martyaloke prasūyatā Spr. (II) 6949.

sindhoḥ prasūya kamalā RĀJA-TAR. 6, 317. pra keśāḥ suvate TBR. 2, 7,

17, 1. śabdaḥ u. s. w. vedādeva prasūyante M. 12, 98, v. l. — 3) partic.

prasūta a) mit act. Bed. f. ā “geboren habend, niedergekommen” (die

Ergänzung im acc.; hier und da statt des verbi finiti) AK. 2, 6, 1, 16. MED.

t. 124. HALĀY. 118. 285. 345. AV. 12, 1, 62. YĀJÑ. 2, 145. SUŚR. 2, 180,

8. devasadṛśānputrān HARIV. 4625. R. 7, 66, 3. UTTARAR. 38, 7 (52, 1).

WEBER, KṚṢṆAJ. 249. 282. fg. 289. KATHĀS. 21, 117. 29, 137

(śatapadī). MĀRK. P. 51, 101. Schol. zu P. 2, 1, 65. PAÑCAT. 218, 21.

HIT. 72, 14. a- Spr. (II) 2055. pratyagra- Schol. zu KĀTY. ŚR. 24, 6, 8.

jananī prasūtatanayā “deren Tochter niedergekommen ist” Spr. (II) 6033.

prasūtamātrā “eben niedergekommen” KATHĀS. 28, 67. — b) “geboren,

erzeugt, entsprungen, entstanden” H. an. 3, 273. MED. mit gen. oder loc.

(auch abl.) P. 2, 3, 39. VOP. 5, 29. ŚVETĀŚV. UP. 5, 2. KAUṢ. UP. 1, 2.

tasyām M. 3, 19. tataḥ MBH. 1, 35. mama kāyāt R. 2, 74, 21. tadanvaye

RAGH. 1, 12. nīcakule Spr. (II) 6475. yasya tasya 5369. MĀRK. P. 104, 8.

R. 1, 16, 26. ŚĀK. 178, v. l. Spr. (II) 1431. VARĀH. BṚH. S. 48, 11. BṚH.

23, 14. MĀRK. P. 76, 17. WEBER, KṚṢṆAJ. 266. 284. etaddeśa- M. 2, 20.

kālanemi- ŚĀK. CH. 144, 4. KATHĀS. 50, 139. BHĀG. P. 6, 6, 24. 9, 6, 3.

kula- R. 2, 82, 31 (Pferde) Spr. (II) 5970. BHĀG. P. 9, 3, 21. nandakula-

PAÑCAT. 45, 2. veda- PRAB. 86, 19. vindhyapāda- (nadī) MĀRK. P. 57,

25. BHĀG. P. 9, 9, 14. PAÑCAR. 1, 7, 40. kalpavṛkṣa- (madhu) MEGH. 67.

matprasūtaṁ bhayam MBH. 3, 2844. matprasūtena tejasā 11970.

bhīṣma- (duḥkha) 5, 7029. dharmaviśeṣa- KAṆ. 1, 1, 4. saraladrumāṇāṁ

srutakṣīratayā prasūto gandhaḥ KUMĀRAS. 1, 9. prasūtaṁ tarhi

saukhyaṁ naḥ Z. f. d. K. d. M. 2, 426. — c) n. als Synonym von avyakta

TATTVAS. 5. — 4) partic. prasūna a) = prasūta H. an. 3, 388. = jāta

MED. n. 87. — b) n. “Blüthe, Frucht”; s. u. prasūna. In der Bed. “Blüthe”

auch Spr. (II) 7411, v. l. UTTARAR. 98, 6 (129, 12). MĀLATĪM. 57, 13.

BHĀG. P. 3, 18, 8 (“engendre” BURNOUF). PAÑCAR. 1, 7, 50. — Vgl. 3.

prasava, prasavana, 2. prasavitar, 2. prasavin, prasūta, 2. prasūti,

prasūna, devaprasūta (hierher oder zu 2. su).

anupra, partic. -sūta “darauf entstanden”:

sṛṣṭistathaiveyamanuprasūtā MBH. 13, 7361.

abhipra, partic. -sūta “erzeugt, geboren”: mātuḥ pituḥ

karmaṇābhiprasūtaḥ saṁvardhate vidhivadbhojanena MBH. 5, 964.

saṁpra 1) “erzeugen”: -sūte MBH. 13, 2582. -sūyate M. 10, 33. — –

sūyate MBH. 13, 5850 fehlerhaft für -ṇūyate, wie die ed. Bomb. liest. — 2)

“geboren werden”: tadāhaṁ saṁprasūyāmi gṛheṣu śubhakarmaṇām MBH.

3, 12978. — 3) partic. -sūta “erzeugt, geboren”: bahvīḥ prajāḥ puruṣāt

MUṆḌ. UP. 2, 1, 5. śarmiṣṭhayā MBH. 5, 5044. brahmāsyatas, bāhubhyām

12, 11814. 13, 4426. guṇavipuleṣu kuleṣu R. 4, 41, 79. māyā

guṇasaṁprasūtā BHĀG. P. 11, 10, 13. — Vgl. saṁprasūti.

vi “gebären”: sumatyapi garbhaṁ tumbaṁ vyasūyata R. GORR. 1, 40,


sam dass.: śāradvatasya (so die neuere Ausg.) dāyādamahalyā

samasūyata HARIV. 1784. “erzeugen” in uneig. Bed.: dattaṁ śreyāṁsi

saṁsūte (Conj.) Spr.(II) 4252.

su 5 savati v. l. für sru (gatau) DHĀTUP. 22, 42. VOP. 8, 95. asāvīt,

suṣavitha, suṣuviva, savitā und sotā 96.

su adv. gaṇa cādi zu P. 1, 4, 57. VOP. 1, 8. über die euphonischen

Veränderungen des Wortes (ṣu, ṣū), über die Dehnung eines

vorangehenden Vocals und über den Wandel eines nachfolgenden na in ṇa

handeln VS. PRĀT. 4, 183. TS. PRĀT. 3, 7. 14. P. 6, 3, 134. 8, 3, 107. 4,

27. “wohl, gut”; überhaupt verstärkend oder versichernd: “gewiss,

leichtlich, völlig” u. s. w. wie “wohl” in älteren deutschen Liedern. Die

indischen Lexicographen geben dem Worte folgende Bedeutungen: pūjana

(pūjā) AK. 3, 5, 5. MED. avj. 79. nirbhara AK. 3, 5, 2. H. 1535, Schol.

MED. bhṛśa, anumati, kṛcchra, samṛddhi MED. anāyāsa BHAR. zu AK.

nach ŚKDR. 1) selbständig; nie am Versanfang; im AV. selten und meist

in Verbindung mit u. u ṣu ṚV. 1, 26, 5. 4, 6, 2. 20, 4. vidmo ṣvasya

mātaram AV. 1, 2, 1. 6, 84, 3. mo ṣu ṚV. 2, 18, 3. 3, 55, 2. AV. 5, 11, 7.

mā su VS. 11, 68. uta su ṚV. 8, 2, 42. itsu 4, 22, 10. ā su 8, 34, 12. pra su

1, 136, 1. 8, 6, 32. vi ṣū 2, 28, 7. 8, 32, 19. ni ṣu 5, 13. adhi ṣū 8, 24, 7.

paryū ṣū 9, 110, 1. asmāntsu 1, 9, 6. 17, 7. asmabhyaṁ su 3, 30, 21.

asmākaṁ su 31, 14. asmābhiḥ su 8, 70, 8. tvaṁ su VS. 4, 14. asme su 4,

32, 14. sa su 12, 1. imaṁ su 2, 35, 2. idaṁ su AV. 14, 2, 8. yaṁ svaśnaṁ

jaghāna ṚV. 2, 14, 5. sakṛtsu 16, 8. 8, 1, 14. namaḥ su te VS. 12, 63.

vasvī ṣu te ṚV. 7, 20, 10. jīvātave su 10, 59, 5. ni māmṛje pura indraḥ su

sarvāḥ ṚV. 7, 26, 3. su kam am Ende 1, 191, 6. 3, 53, 2.

nāsmāllokātsvetavyamiva “nicht wohl” TS. 6, 1, 1, 1. bodhā su ṚV. 7, 22,

3. juṣasva sū 3, 24, 2. mandasvā su 8, 6, 39. pibā su 17, 4. AV. 6, 32, 1.

jarāṁ su gaccha 19, 24, 5. na vai su viduriva manuṣyā nakṣatram KĀṬH.

8, 3 bei WEBER, Nax. 2, 296. su veda KENOP. 9. sūrmī jvalantīṁ

svāśliṣyet M. 11, 103. su virājate sma MBH. 4, 2089. svanuyāsyanti 8,

1321. su śakyante R. 2, 33, 4. su samīkṣyatām Spr. (II) 1402. su

saṁdadhīta 1961, v. l. su śobhante 4157. svanuṣṭhīyatām 6275.

svaśikṣayat RĀJA-TAR. 4, 51. – MBH. 3, 14392 und 7, 8603 hat die ed.

Bomb. tu und hi st. su. Vor einem absol. MBH. 7, 5783 (so ‘bhidrutya st.

svabhidrutya ed. Bomb.). vicintya MṚCCH. 103, 16. baddhvā 176, 1.

cintya und vicārya Spr. (II) 7100. snātvā WEBER, KṚṢṆAJ. 291. — 2) am

Anfange eines comp. vor Adjectiven und Substantiven (über solche

compp. handelt P. 1, 4, 94. 2, 1, 6. 5, 4, 69. 6, 2, 117. fgg, 145. 172. fgg.

195. 7, 1, 68. 8, 1, 67. fg. Vārtt. 4 zu 1, 4, 60. Vārtt. 1 der SAUNĀGA zu 2,

2, 18. VOP. 6, 88). svalaṁkṛta “schön geschmückt” MBH. 3, 2114.

surakṣita “wohl gehütet” 2144. suprīta “hocherfreut” R. 1, 1, 76.

sūcchritadhvaja 2, 43, 10. susaṁrabdhatara 6, 31, 44. susādhya “gut zu

handhaben” PAÑCAR. 1, 8, 33. sumanohara “überaus reizend” MBH. 1,

5976. sudāruṇa R. 1, 8, 12. susūkṣma VARĀH. BṚH. S. 11, 44. sunikhilam

“ganz vollständig” HARIV. 7034. suprākṛta “ganz gemein” R. GORR. 2,

11, 24. susita “schön weiss” PAÑCAR. 3, 11, 8. susugandha “sehr

wohlriechend” VARĀH. BṚH. S. 48, 32. suduṣkara “sehr schwer zu

vollbringen” MBH. 1, 6118. sunistriṁśa “ein schönes Schwert” MBH. 6,

5639. subhakṣya “eine prächtige Speise” Spr. (II) 7113. susahāya “einen

guten Gefährten habend” M. 7, 31. sulalāṭa “eine schöne Stirn habend” R.

1, 1, 12. sukara (s. d.) “leicht auszuführen”, sulabha (s. d.) “leicht zu

erlangen”, susaṁtoṣa (s. d.) “leicht zu befriedigen.” — su verhält sich

wohl zum demonstrativen sa wie ku zum interrogativen ka. Vgl. sutarām.

Benfey, Theodor: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1866

su 1. su, i. 1, and ii. 2, Par., and sū sū, ii. 4, suya (properly pass. refl. of

su), and ii. 2, Ātm.

1. To beget, Man. 10, 32.

2. To bear, to bring forth, Man. 10, 39; Pañc. pr. d. 5. ii. 5, sunu, Par.

Ātm. (the act of expressing the Soma juice being compared to the act of

generating, cf. Rigv. i. 28), To express the Soma juice, Chr. 294, 3 =

Rigv. i, 92, 3. Ptcple. of the pf. pass.

I. suta,

1. m. A son, Pañc. i. d. 185.

2. f. tā, A daughter, Chr. 3, 9.

3. m. pl. Cildren, Man. 2, 28. Comp. giri-, f. tā, Pārvatī, Pañc. i. d. 175.

jahnu-, f. tā, the Gaṅgā, MBh. 1, 3913. jīva-, adj. one who has living

children, Bhāg. P. 6, 19, 25. dāra-, m. wife and son, Yājñ. 2, 175. dāsī-,

m. a base man, Rājat. 5, 179. dharma-, m. (the son of the god Dharma),

epithet of Yudhiṣṭhira, Bhāg. P. 1, 7, 49. bhū- and mahī-, m. the planet

Mars. bhṛgu-, m. 1. Śukra or Venus. 2. Paraśurāma. rādhā-, m. Karṇa.

śaila-, f. tā, Pārvatī, Vikr. d. 128.

II. sūla,

1. Engendered.

2. Born. f. tā,

1. A daughter, Pañc. 181, 5.

2. A woman lying in; see s.v. Comp. sūra-, m. Aruṇa, the dawn.

III. sūna,

1. Born, produced.

2. Blown, budded (as a flower). m. A son, Pañc. 198, 2. f. nā, A

daughter. n.

1. Bringing forth, parturition.

2. A flower.

— With the prep. abhi abhi, ṣu,

1. To express the Soma juice, Rām. 1, 13, 5 (cf. Sclegel’s translation).

2. To extract juice, Man. 5, 10.

3. To sprinkle, Bhaṭṭ. 9, 90.

— With ud ud, ii. 5, To agitate, Bhāg. P. 3, 20, 35 (cf. 2. sū).

— With pra pra,

1. To beget, Man. 10, 30.

2. To bring forth, Man. 4, 44.

3. Pass. To be brought forth, Man, 10, 36; with the termination of the

Par. (i. 4, Par.), MBh. 12, 5687. prasūta,

1. Engendered, Hit. pr. d. 23, M.M.

2. Born, Pañc. 45, 2.

3. Produced, Chr. 294, 8 = Rigv. i. 92, 8.

4. Engendering, Man. 3, 19.

5. Having brought forth, delivered, Hit. 72, 14; Utt. Rāmac. 52, 1 (she

has brought forth). Comp. a-, adj. one who has not brought forth, Böhtl.

Ind. Spr. 809. kula-, adj. descended from a respectable family, Pañc. pr.

d. 6. prasūna, Born, produced. n.

1. A bud, a blossom, Utt. Rāmac. 129, 12; flower, Mālat. 57, 13.

2. Fruit. Comp. visa-, n. a lotus.

— With saṁpra sam-pra,

1. To beget, Man. 10, 33.

2. Pass. To be brought forth, MBh. 3, 12978 (with the termination of

the Par.).

— Cf. [greek] Goth. sunus; A.S. sunu (cf. sūnu).

su 2. su, i. 1, and ii. 2, Par. † To possess power or supremacy (cf. the


su 3. su, i. 1, Par. Ātm. † To go.

su 4. su (for original vasu, cf. [greek] = Zend. vaṅhvām = Sskr.


I. adv. ved. Beautifully, Chr. 296, 1 = Rigv. i. 112, 1.

II. Very seldom combined and compounded with a verbum finitum; e. g.

Pañc. i. d. 205, but cf. Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 647; but very often with nouns,

1. Good, well, Rām. 3, 53, 6; Ṛt. 6, 2; Lass. 15, 5.

2. Beautiful, beautifully, Rām. 3, 52, 35.

3. Much, very, Chr. 4, 12.

4. Easily, Daśak. in Chr. 185, 2. Comparat. sutarām,

1. Better.

2. With na, Very badly, Pañc. 199, 24; with mā, In no way, Megh. 108.

3. More, Śiś. 9, 67; Pañc. 163, 3.

4. Exceedingly, Śiś. 9, 55.

5. Consequently, of course.

— Cf. [greek]

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

su sunoti sunute v pp. suta1 (q.v.) press out, extract, esp. the Soma. —

adhi = S.

abhi press out, prepare or win by extracting.

ā & vi = S.

sam & abhisam press out together. — Cf. prasuta.

su [2] (sū) adv. well, indeed (strengthening and assevering); often °– in

adj., adv., & subst. = Gr. ‘eu (opp. dus).

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

su 1. SU, V.P. suno, sunu, (sts. Ā.) press out, extract (Soma; V., rare in

E.): pr. pt. sunvāna, suvāna; pp. suta, pressed, extracted.

abhi (-ṣuṇoti), press out; ps. -ṣūyate, be extracted: pp.

abhiṣuta (V.). ā, press out, extract (V.); boil, prepare (ghee).

pra, pp. prāsuta (V.), pressed continuously; having continuously


su 2. SU (= 1. sū), in sauti, suhi, and pp. suta, urged, instigated (ŚB.).

su 3. SU (= 2. sū), in pra-savati (rare), pra-sauti (rare), pp. suta, son,

and suṣuti.

su su (in V. also sū), ad. [perh. for vasu = Gk.[greek]: cp. uṣu, ū shu, and

u loka] good, well, indeed, right, very, thoroughly (never used

independently at the beginning of a verse; rarely as an independent ad. in

C.; very common °- with a. or N., in C. also with gd.).

Rādhākāntadeva: Śabdakalpadruma (5 Vol). Third edition, reprint of the

1886 edition. Varanasi : 1967

su gatau . aiśvarye . prasave . iti kavikalpadrumaḥ .. (bhvā°-para°-saka

°-aniṭ .) savati . iti durgādāsaḥ ..

su ña gatau . iti kavikalpadrumaḥ .. (bhvā°-ubha°saka°-aniṭ .) ña, susāva

suṣuve . iti durgādāsaḥ ..

su vya, nirbharam . ityamaraḥ . 3 . 4 . 2 .. (yathā, mahābhārate . 1 . 158 .

16 .

viditvā vyavasiṣyāmi yadyapi syāt suduṣkaram ..) pūjā . ityamaraḥ . 3 .

4 . 5 .. (śobhanam . yathā, manuḥ . 7 . 31 .

praṇetuṁ śakyate daṇḍaḥ susahāyena dhīmatā ..) anumatiḥ .

kṛcchram . samṛddhiḥ . iti medinī .. anāyāsaḥ . iti

bharataikārthasaṁgrahaḥ .. upasargaviśeṣaḥ . yathā .

supūjānāyāsātiśayeṣu . iti mugdhabodhaṭīkāyāṁ durgādāsaḥ .. saptamyā

vahuvacanavibhaktiḥ . iti vyākaraṇam ..

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

su avya° su–ḍu . 1 pūjāyām 2 atiśaye amaraḥ . 3 kṛcche 4 anumatau 5

mamṛddhau medi° 6 anāyāse ca anekārthako° . pūjāyāmasya

nopasargatvam tena sustutamityādau na ṣatvam . atiśayādau tu suṣṭuta

ityādi . gaṇaratne’rthaviśeṣānuktakrameṇodāhṛtam yathā su

praśaṁsānumatipūjābhṛśakṛcchraśubheṣu . surūpaḥ sukṛtaṁ susādhuḥ

sutaptaḥ suduḥ karaṁ sugandhaḥ .

सुवर्ण – suvarṇa Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899suvarṇa “su-varṇa” &c. see s.v.

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” mf (“ā”) n. of a good or beautiful colour, brilliant in

hue, bright, golden, yellow &c. &c.

mf (“ā”) n. gold, made of gold

mf (“ā”) n. of a good tribe or caste

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. a good colour

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. a good tribe or class

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. a kind of bdellium

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. the thorn-apple

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. a kind of metre

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. N. of a Deva-gandharva

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. of an ascetic

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. of a minister of Daśa-ratha

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. of a son of Antarīkṣa, Vp.

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. of a king of Kāśmīra

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. of a poet

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. (rarely n.) a partic. weight of gold (= 1 Karsha, =

16 Māṣas, = 80 Raktikās, = about 175 grains troy) &c.

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. a gold coin

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. a kind of bulbous plant (= “suvarṇālu”)

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. a kind of aloe

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. a kind of sacrifice

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” mf (“ā”) n. (“ā”) f. turmeric

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. Sida Rhomboidea or Cordifolia

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. another plant (= “svarṇakṣīrī”)

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. a bitter gourd, colocynth

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. N. of one of the seven tongues of fire

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” m. of a daughter of Ikṣvāku (the wife of Su-hotra)

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” mf (“ā”) n. (“ī”) f. the plant Salvinia Cucullata

(perhaps w.r. for “sukarṇī”).

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” n. gold (of which 57 synonyms are given) &c. &c.

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” n. money, wealth, property, riches

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” n. a sort of yellow sandal-wood

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” n. the flower of Mesua Roxburghii

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” n. a kind of vegetable (= “gaura-suvarṇa”)

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” n. red ochre (= “suvarṇagairika”)

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” n. the right pronunciation of sounds

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” n. N. of a Tīrtha

suvarṇa “su-varṇa” n. of a partic. world

Apte, Vaman Shivaram: The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona :


suvarṇa a. [śobhano varṇo’sya]

(1) Of good or beautiful colour, brilliant in hue, bright, yellow, golden.

(2) Of a good tribe or caste.

(3) Of good fame, glorious, celebrated. –rṇaḥ

(1) A good colour.

(2) A good tribe or caste.

(3) A sort of sacrifice.

(4) An epithet of Śiva.

(5) The thorn-apple. –rṇā

(1) One of the seven tongues of fire.

(2) Black aloe-wood.

(3) Turmeric.

(4) Colocynth. –rṇaṁ

(1) Gold.

(2) A golden coin (–m. also); nanvahaṁ daśasuvarṇān prayacchāmi

Mk. 2.

(3) A weight of gold equal to 16 Māṣas or about 175 grains Troy (m.


(4) Money, wealth, riches.

(5) A sort of yellow sandal-wood.

(6) A kind of red chalk.

(7) N. of a tree (nāgakeśara).

— Comp.

–akṣaḥ N. of Śiva.

–ākhyaḥ 1. N. of a tree (nāgakeśara). –2. the thorn-apple.

–abhiṣekaḥ sprinkling the bride and bridegroom with water into

which a piece of gold has been dropped.

–kadalī a variety of plantain.

–kartṛ, –kāra, –kṛt m. a goldsmith.

–gaṇinaṁ a particular method of calculation in arithmetic.

–gairikaṁ a kind of red-halk.

–jīṁvikaḥ N. of a tribe; (gāṁcikaḥ śāṁkhikaścaiva kāṁsyako

maṇikārakaḥ . suvarṇajīvikaścaiva paṁcaitevaṇijaḥ smṛtāḥ .. –puṣpaḥ the


–puṣpita a. a bounding in gold; e. g. suvarṇapuṣpitāṁ pṛthvīṁ

vicinvaṁti trayo janāḥ . śūraśca kṛtavidyaśca yaśca jānāti sevituṁ Pt. 1.


–pṛṣṭha a. coated with gold, gilded.

–biṁduḥ 1. N. of Viṣṇu. –2. a form of Śiva.

–mākṣikaṁ a kind of mineral substance.

–yūyī yellow jasmine.

–rūṣyaka a. abounding in gold and silver.

–retas m. an epithet of Śiva.

–vaṇij m. N. of a mixed caste

–varṇaḥ N. of Viṣṇu.

–varṇā turmeric.

–siddhaḥ an adept who has acquired gold by magical means.

–steyaṁ stealing of gold (one of the five Mahāpātakas q. v.).

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

suvarṇa 1) adj. (f. ā) a) “schönfarbig, schön aussehend”, insbes. “von

schimmernder Farbe, goldig” (Gegens. durvarṇa) ṚV. 10, 68, 3. Wasser

AV. 1, 33, 1. stokāḥ 12, 3, 28. 13, 1, 22. 3, 16. TBR. 3, 7, 6, 1. darbha

KĀṬH. 31, 14. ṢAḌV. BR. 4, 7. ṚV. PRĀT. 17, 9. Ind. St. 8, 273. dāsī MBH.

3, 14695. 13, 3427. ŚRUT. 22. mārjāra MBH. 5, 5437. Besonders von der

Farbe des Goldes: suvarṇaṁ hiraṇyam TBR. 1, 4, 7, 4. 8, 9, 1. 2, 2, 4, 5.

3, 3, 4, 5. 8, 2, 4. ŚAT. BR. 12, 7, 1, 7. 13, 1, 1, 3. 2, 3, 2. MBH. 3, 2262.

R. 1, 74, 5. hiraṇyaṁ ca suvarṇaṁ ca 2, 76, 15. nach dem Comm. zu R.

soll suvarṇa “Gold” und hiraṇya “Silber” bedeuten. — b) “golden”:

suvarṇarajatābhyāṁ kuśībhyām TBR. 1, 5, 10, 1. 7. ŚAT. BR. 10, 4, 5, 2.

12, 8, 3, 11. CHĀND. UP. 1, 6, 6. 3, 19, 1. bhūṣaṇāni R. GORR. 2, 99, 34.

— c) “zu einer guten Kaste gehörig” MBH. 13, 2607. — 2) n. “Gold” AK. 2,

9, 94. H. 1043. an. 3, 231. MED. ṇ. 84. fg. HALĀY. 2, 18. RATNAM. 87.

RĀJAN. 13, 8. AV. 15, 1, 2. sarvaṁ suvarṇaṁ (?) haritam TBR. 3, 12, 6,

6. ŚAT. BR. 11, 4, 1, 8. PĀR. GṚHY. 1, 16. KĀTY. ŚR. 20, 7, 2. M. 8, 131.

321. 11, 250. -caura 49. -steya 98. fg. 101. MBH. 13, 3936. fgg. -rajataiḥ

R. 2, 32, 14. SUŚR. 1, 142, 17. 227, 19. -cūrṇa 369, 4.

durjanahutāśataptaṁ kāvyasuvarṇaṁ viśuddhimāyāti Spr. (II) 2858.

4074. VARĀH. BṚH. S. 41, 7. 42, 6. WEBER, RĀMAT. UP. 356. BHĀG. P.

5, 16, 21. PAÑCAT. 191, 25. -maṇikulyā RĀJA-TAR. 1, 97. -muṣṭi LALIT.

ed. Calc. 202, 4. -bhasmana Verz. d. B. H. No. 994. -dāna Verz. d. Oxf. H.

87,a,36. fg. suvarṇāṅkuśa “aus Gold” R. 1, 53, 17. 2, 81, 2. RAGH. 3, 64.

HIT. 10, 9. 11, 5 -rūpakaśata RĀJA-TAR. 6, 45. zu den werthvollen Gaben

gehören: -dhenu Verz. d. Oxf. H. 35,a,33. -medinī 45,a,24. -vṛṣabha 26.

fg. — 3) m. (seltener n.) “als Gewicht ein” Karsha “Gold” AK.2,9,87.

TR.3,3,141. H. 884. H. an. MED. M.8,134. fg. YĀJÑ.1,362. COLEBR. Alg.

2. SUŚR.2,175,13. ŚĀRÑG. SAṁH.1,1,17. WEBER, JYOT. 83. Verz. d. Oxf.

H. 307,b,4. PRĀYAŚCITTEND.7,a,8. M.8,213. 220. 361. śataṁ

śatasahasrāṇi suvarṇasya MBH. 3, 483. RĀJA-TAR. 6, 102. sāṣṭe śate

suvarṇānām AK.3,4,1,13. MṚCCH. 34,13. 18. Verz. d. Oxf. H. 151,a,10.

PAÑCAT. 134,3. fgg. HIT. 98,11, v. l. dvisuvarṇadhanam P. 6, 2, 55, Schol.

adhyardha-, dvi- adj. 5, 1, 29, Vārtt., Schol. VET. in LA. (III) 23, 18. 28, 4.

ṭaṅkasahasrasuvarṇa 24, 4 schwerlich richtig (suvarṇa wohl zu

streichen). BURNOUF, Intr. 238. HIOUEN-THSANG 2, 29. — 4) n. “Geld,

Reichthum” H. an. — 5) Bez. verschiedener Pflanzen: = suvarṇālu

(suvarṇānu MED.) und kṛṣṇāguru, n. H. an. m. MED. n. = haricandana

MED. = nāgakesara RĀJAN. 6, 179. = gaurasuvarṇa 7, 152. m. =

kaṇaguggulu (vgl. suvarṇakaṇa) RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. “Stechapfel” ŚKDR.

nach AK. (vgl. 2, 4, 2, 58). — 6) n. “eine Art Röthel” (svarṇagairika)

RATNAM. im ŚKDR. — 7) n. “richtige Aussprache der Laute” ŚAT. BR. 14,

4, 1, 28. -vid 11, 4, 1, 8. — 8) “eine Art Opfer”, n. H. an. m. MED. — 9) m.

“ein best.” Daṇḍaka-“Metrum” Ind. St. 8, 408. — 10) f. ā Bez.

verschiedener Pflanzen: = haridrā RĀJAN. 6, 198. = vāṭyālaka ŚABDAC.

im ŚKDR. = svarṇakṣīrī RĀJAN. 5, 53. — 11) f. ī “eine best. Pflanze”, =

ākhukarṇī RĀJAN. im ŚKDR. richtig sukarṇī unsere Hdschrr. — 12) N. pr.

a) m. a) eines Devagandharva MBH. 1, 4814. — b) pl. einer Klasse von

Göttern unter dem 12ten Manu MĀRK. P. 94, 23. — g) eines Büssers MBH.

13, 4678. fgg. — d) eines Rathgebers des Fürsten Daśaratha R. GORR. 2,

82, 11. — e) eines Sohnes des Antarīkṣa VP. 463. — z) eines Fürsten der

Kāśmīra RĀJA-TAR. 1, 97. — b) f. ā einer Tochter Ikṣvāku’s und Gattin

Suhotra’s MBH. 1, 3787. — c) n. a) eines Tīrtha MBH. 3, 7096. — b) einer

Erde: savurṇākhyaṁ jagat MBH. 5, 3551. — Nach gaṇa ardharcādi zu

P.2,4,31. TRIK.3,5,10 und SIDDH. K. 249,a,5 ist suvarṇa m. n. Vgl.

sauvarṇa u. s. w. und svarṇa.

Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. Delhi 1975

suvarṇa 1 I A Devagandharva. A famous celibate, he attended the

birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 122, Verse


suvarṇa 2 II A Brahmin sage with his body golden in colour. He once held

a talk with Manu about meritorious acts and sins. (Anuśāsana Parva,

Chapter 98).

suvarṇa (m) (M) A unit of measurement in ancient India

Cappeller, Carl: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, based upon the St.

Petersburg Lexicons. Strassburg : 1891

suvarṇa a. of a beautiful colour or appearance, glittering golden;

belonging to a good caste. n. gold, riches; m. (n.) a cert. weight of gold.

Macdonell, Arthur Anthony: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1893

suvarṇa su-varṇa, a. V. E.: having a beautiful colour, brilliant, glittering,

golden; made of gold (rare); belonging to a good caste (E., rare); n. (V.,

C.) gold; wealth; m. (rarely n.) a weight = one Karṣa of gold; m. N.: –

kaṅkaṇa, n. glod bracelet;

-kartṛ, m. goldsmith;

-kāra, m. id.;

-cūla, m. a bird;

-dāna, n. gift of gold;

-dvīpa, m. n. gold island, perhaps Sumatra;

-pārśva, N. of a locality;

-puṣpa, a. having gold as flowers (earth);

-bindu, N. of a temple;

-maya, a. (ī) consisting of gold;

-roman, m. (golden-fleeced), ram;

-lekhā, f. streak of gold (on a touchstone);

-vat, 1. ad. like gold; 2. a. containing or possessing gold, opulent: -ī, f.

N. of a town in Dakṣiṇā-patha;

-vas-tra+ādhi, n. money, clothes, etc.;

-sānūra, N. of a locality;

-siddha, m. adept in the magical obtainment of gold.

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

suvarṇa na° suṣṭhu varṇo’sya . 1 svanāmakhyate dhātubhede amaraḥ 2

haricandane medi° . 3 svarṇagairike ratnamā° 4 dhane hemaca° . 5

nāgakesare rājani° . karṣaṁ suvarṇasya suvarṇasaṁjñam ityukte

karṣamite 6 kāñcane pu° līlā° . 7 yajñabhede 8 dhustūre 9 kaṇaguggulau

ca pu° rājani° . suṣṭhu varṇo rūpasakṣaraṁ vāsya . 10 surūpe 11

sundarākṣarayukte ca tri° . na suvarṇamayī tanuḥ paraṁ nanu vāgapi

tāvakī tathā naiṣa° . 12 karṣaparimāṇe vaidyaka° . agniretasśabde 59 pṛ°

kanakaśabde ca 1644 pṛ° suvarṇadhātūvapattiguṇādikaṁ dṛśyaṁm .

tavya śodhanasāraṇaprakārādikaṁ bhāvapra° uktaṁ yathā tatra

pāraṇāya yogya suvarṇamāha dāhe raktaṁ sitaṁchede niṣake

kuṅkumaprabham . tāraśulvotthitaṁ snigdhaṁ komalaṁ guru hema sat

(sat uttamam) chede tu kaṭhinaṁ rūkṣaṁ vivarṇaṁ samalaṁ dalam .

dāhe chede’sitaṁ śvetaṁ kaṣe tyājyaṁ sphuṭaṁ laghu . dalaṁ (doyata)

iti loke sphuṭaṁ yad ghanāhataṁ sphuṭati . śodhanavidhiḥ

pattalīkṛtapatrāṇi hemno vahnau pratāpayet . niṣiñcet taptataptāni taile

takre ca kāñjike . gomūtre ca kulatthānāṁ kaṣāye tu tridhā tridhā . evaṁ

hemnaḥ pareṣaḥñca dhātanāṁ śodhanaṁ bhavet . athāśuddhasya

dodhaḥ valaṁ savīryaṁ harate narāṇāṁ rogavraja poṣayatīha kāye .

asaukhyakāryeva sadā suvarṇamaśuddhametanmaraṇañca kuryāt .

svarṇasya māraṇavidhiḥ svarṇamya dviguṇaṁ sūtamamlena saha

mardayet . tadgolakasamaṁ gandhaṁ nidadhyādadharottaram .

svarṇasya atitanūkṛtapatrasya . gandham gandhakacūrṇam . golakañca

tato ruddhvā śarāvadṛḍhasapuṭe . triṁśadvanopalairdadyāt puṭānyeva

caturdaṁśa . nirutthaṁ jāyate bhasma gandho deyaḥ punaḥ punaḥ .

ruddhvā savastrakuṭṭitacikvaṇamṛttikayā vanopalaḥ (goghaṭhāḥ iti loke)

nirutthaṁ yat punarna jīvati . athānyaprakāraḥ kāñcane galite gandhaṁ

ṣoḍaśāṁśena niḥkṣipet . cūrṇayitvā tathāmleta ghṛṣṭvākṛtvā tu golakam .

golakena samaṁ gandhaṁ dattvā caivādharottaram . śarāvasaṁpuṭe

dhṛtvā puṭettriṁśad vanopalaiḥ . evaṁ saptapuṭairhema nirutthaṁ

bhasma jāyate . atrāpi pūrvavadgandhaḥ . anyacca kāñcanārarasairghṛṣṭā

samasūtakagandhayoḥ . kajjalīṁ hemapatrāṇi lepayet samayā tayā .

samayā hemapatra samayā kāñcanāratvacaḥ kalkairmūṣāyugnaṁ

prakalpayet . dhṛtvā tatsampuṭe golaṁ mṛnmūṣāsampuṭe ca tat . nidhāya

sandhirodhañca kṛtvā saṁśovya golakam . vahniṁ kharataraṁ

kuryādevaṁ dattvā puṭatrayam . nirutthaṁ jāyate bhasmasarvakarmasu

yojayet . kāñcanāraprakāreṇa lāṅgalī hanti kāñcanam . lāṅgalī (karihārī)

jvālāmukhī tathā hanyāt tathā hanti manaḥśilā . śilāsindūrayoścūrṇaṁ

samayorarkadugdhakaiḥ . saptaghā bhāvanān dadyācchoṣayecca punaḥ

punaḥ . tatastu galite hemni kalko’yaṁ dīyate samaḥ .

punardhamedatitarāṁ yathā kalko vilīyate . evaṁ velātrayaṁ dadyāt

kalakaṁ hemamṛtirbhavet . evaṁ māritasya suvarṇasya guṇāḥ suvarṇaṁ

śītalaṁ vṛṣyaṁ valyaṁ guru rasāyanam . svādu tiktaṁ ca tuvaraṁ pāke

ca svādu picchilam . pavitraṁ vṛṁhaṇaṁ netryaṁ

medhāsmṛtimatipradam . hṛdyamāyuṣkara kāntivāgviśuddhisthiratvakṛt .

viṣadvayakṣayonmādatridoṣajvaraśoṣajit . vṛṣyaṁ vṛṣāya kāmukāya hitam

. asamyaṅmāritaṁ svarṇaṁ valaṁ vīryañca nāśavet . karoti

rogānmṛtyuñca taddhanyād yatnatastataḥ tadbhedādikaṁ rājani° uktaṁ

yathā dāhe’tiraktamatha yacca sitaṁ chidāyāṁ kāśmīrakānti ca vibhāti

nikāṣapaṭṭe . snigdhañca gauravamupaiti ca yattulāyāṁ jānīta

devakanakaṁ mṛdu raktapītam . tatraikaṁ rasavedhajaṁ tadaparaṁ

jātaṁ svayaṁbhūmijaṁ kiñcānyadbahulohasaṅkarabhavaṁ ceti tridhā

kāñcanam . tatrādyaṁ kila pītaraktamapara raktaṁ tato’nyat yathā

gaurābhaṁ taditi krameṇa gaditaṁ syāt pūrvapūrvottamam . tatra

rasavedhajasya karaṇaprakāraḥ ānīya pāradaṁ devi! sthāpayet

prastaropari . tasyopari japenmantraṁ sarvabandhamayātmakam .

sāṣṭasahasraṁ deveśi! prajapet sādhakāgraṇīḥ .

svayambhūpuṣpasaṁyukte vastre cāruṇasannibhe . saṁsthāpya pāradaṁ

devi! mṛtpātra yugale śive! . puṣpayuktena sūtreṇa badhnīyāt

bahuyatnataḥ . mṛttikayā rajenaiva dhānyasya parameśvari! .

lepayedbahuyatnena raudre śuṣkāṇi kārayet . punaśca lepayeddhīmān

tato vahnau viniḥkṣipet . aṣṭamīnavamīrātrau kṣipennaiva sureśvari! .

atha vā parameśāni! mṛtpātre sthāpayedrasam . vallīrasena taddravyaṁ

śodhayed bahuyatnataḥ . ghṛtanārīrasenaiva tathaiva śodhanaṁ caret .

evaṁ kṛte tu guṭikā yadi syāt dṛḍhabandhanā . dhustūrañca samānīya

madhye śūnyañca kārayet . kṛṣṇākhyatulasīyoge tathā ghṛtakumārikā .

evaṁ kṛte vahniyoge bhasmasāt jāyate dhruvam . bhasmayāge bhavet

svarṇaṁ dhanadāyāḥ prasādataḥ . vivarṇaṁ jāyate dravyaṁ yadi pūjāṁ

na cācaret mātṛkā bhedatattre 5 pa° . bahulohasaṅkarabhavasya

karacavidhiḥ gāruḍe 188 a° . suvarṇakaraṇaṁ śṛṇu ityupakrame pītaṁ

dhustūrapuṣpañca sīsakañca palonmitam . pāṭhālāṅgalaśākhā ca

mūlamāvartanāṅbhavet . suvarṇaṁ cāmbau dahyamānaṁ na kṣoyate

yathoktaṁ yājña° agnau suvarṇamakṣīṇam .

karṣamitabrāhmaṇasvāmikakāñcanarūpasuvarṇaharaṇaṁ mahāpāta t .

mahāpātalanirūpaṇe pāyaścittavivekaḥ .

हपुषा – hapuṣā Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1899hapuṣā or #habuṣā f. N. of a partic. substance forming an article of

trade (commonly called Habush, and said to be of a long form and black

colour, and smelling like raw meat or fish; it is of two kinds)

Böhtlingk und Roth: Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch

hapuṣā (auch havuṣā) f. “eine best. Pflanze”, in zwei Arten: vulgo śeraṇī

(“Adelia nereifolia” nach MOLESW.), hauhavera (BHĀVAPR. 5) oder

huṁsi (AUSH. 102). Sie riecht nach Fisch, die Frucht der einen gleicht der

des Aśvattha. RĀJAN. 4, 115. MAD. 2, 45. CARAKA 8, 12 (v. l. havuṣā).

SUŚR. 2, 44, 12. 506, 7 (haṣuṣā). 530, 10. ŚĀRÑG. SAṁH. 2, 6, 33. 36.

Vgl. unter kaphaghnī, dhvāṅghanāśinī, vigandhikā, visrā und visragandhā.

hapuṣā f. “eine best. Pflanze” (in zwei Arten).

Rādhākāntadeva: Śabdakalpadruma (5 Vol). Third edition, reprint of the

1886 edition. Varanasi : 1967

hapuṣā strī, vaṇigdravyaviśeṣaḥ . tattu

marīcavṛntavaddīrghakṛṣṇavarṇavastu . habuṣ iti khyātam . iti vaidyāḥ ..

hauhavera iti hindībhāṣā . tat dvividham . tanmadhye prathamaṁ phalaṁ

matsyasadṛśaṁ visragandham . dvitīyamaśvatthaphalasadṛśaṁ

matsyagandham . tayornāmāni guṇāśca .

hapuṣā vapuṣā visrā parāśvatthaphalā smṛtā .

matsyagandhā plīhahantrī viṣaghnī dhvāṅkṣanāśinī ..

hapuṣā dīpanī tiktā mṛdūṣṇā tuvarā guruḥ .

pittodarapramehārśograhaṇīgulmaśūlahṛt ..

parāpyetadguṇā proktā rūpabhedo dvayorapi .. iti

bhāvamiśrakṛtabhāvaprakāśaḥ .. * .. api ca .

hapuṣā havuṣā visrā visragandhā vigandhikā .

anyā cāsau svalpaphalā kacchughnī dhvāṅkṣanāśinī ..

plīhaśatrurviṣaghnī ca kaphaghnī cāparājitā .

pūrbā tu pañcanāmnī syādaparā saptadhābhidhā ..

hapuṣā kaṭutiktoṣṇā guruśleṣmavalāsajit .

pradarodaraviṣṭambhaśūlagulmārśasāṁ harā .. iti

śrīnaraharipaṇḍitaviracitarājanirghaṇṭhe śatāhlādivargaścaturthaḥ ..

Bhaṭṭācārya: Vācaspatyam (6 Vol). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series 94,

reprint of the 1873-1884 edition. Varanasi : 1962

hapuṣā strī heti puṣyati puṣa–ka .

marīcavṛntavaddīrghakṛṣṇavarṇavastuni baṇigdravyaviśeṣe . pṛṣo° ṣasya

saḥ tatrārthe . hapuṣā hapusā viśrā parā’śvatthaphalā smṛtā .

matsyagandhā plīhahantrī viṣathnī dhāṅkṣanāśinī . hapaṣā dī panī tiktā

mṛdūṣṇā tuvarā guruḥ . pittīdarapramehārśo grahaṇīgulmaśūlahṛt .

parāpyetadguṇā proktā rūpabhedo dvayorapi bhāvapra° .

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